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John By
Lieutenant-Colonel JOHN BY (7 August 1779 – 1 February 1836) was an English military engineer, best remembered for supervising the construction of the Rideau Canal
Rideau Canal
and founding Bytown in the process, which would become the Canadian capital of Ottawa
Ottawa
. CONTENTS* 1 Life and career * 1.1 Family * 2 Legacy * 3 Sundial * 3.1 Plaques * 4 References * 5 External links LIFE AND CAREERBy was born in Lambeth
Lambeth
, Surrey, the second of three sons of George By, of the London Customs House, and Mary Bryan. By studied at the Royal Military Academy . He entered Officer Training in the army when he was 18 years old. He was commissioned in the Royal Artillery
Royal Artillery
on 1 August 1799 but transferred to the Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
on 20 December the same year. In 1802 he was posted to Canada for the first time, where he worked on the fortification of Quebec City
Quebec City
and on improving the navigability of the Saint Lawrence River . During the Napoleonic wars he returned to Europe, where he served in Spain under the Duke of Wellington from 1811 until 1815. With the end of the war By retired from the military but in 1826, in view of his engineering experience in Canada, he was recalled and returned to Canada to supervise the construction of the Rideau Canal
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Lambeth
LAMBETH (/ˈlæmbəθ/ ) is a district in Central London , England, located in the London Borough of Lambeth . It is situated 1 mile (1.6 km) south of Charing Cross . The population of Lambeth was 23,937 in 2011. The area experienced some slight growth in the medieval period as part of the manor of Lambeth Palace . By the Victorian era the area had seen significant development as London expanded, with dense industrial, commercial and residential buildings located adjacent to one another. The changes brought by World War II altered much of the fabric of Lambeth. Subsequent development in the late 20th century and early 21st century has seen an increase in the number of high-rise buildings. The area is home to the International Maritime Organization . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Local governance * 3 Buildings and Churches * 4 Literary Lambeth * 5 Leisure and Recreation * 6 Transport * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe origins of the name of Lambeth come from its first record in 1062 as _Lambehitha_, meaning 'landing place for lambs', and in 1255 as _Lambeth_. In the Domesday Book , Lambeth is called "Lanchei", likely in error. The name refers to a harbour where lambs were either shipped from or to. It is formed from the Old English 'lamb' and 'hythe'
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Frant
FRANT is a village and civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex , England, on the Kentish border about three miles (5 km) south of Tunbridge Wells . When the iron industry was at its height, much of the village was owned by ironmasters. Smuggling occurred here in the 17th and 18th centuries; and one of the turnpike roads (now the A267) came through here at that time. Frant
Frant
church is dedicated to St Alban ; and there is a church school. St Alban's Frant
Frant
was a major surveying point for the Anglo-French Survey (1784–1790) calculating the precise distance and relationship between the Paris Observatory and the Royal Greenwich Observatory , undertaken by General William Roy . There are three public houses in the parish: The Abergavenny Arms on the A267 in Frant, The George Inn in the High Street and The Brecknock Arms at Bells Yew Green. Col. John By , Royal Engineer heading the Rideau Canal project, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 1826–1832, is buried here. He was also the builder of Bytown , which became Ottawa
Ottawa
, the capital of Canada
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Royal Military Academy, Woolwich
The ROYAL MILITARY ACADEMY (RMA) at Woolwich
Woolwich
, in south-east London
London
, was a British Army
British Army
military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery
Royal Artillery
and Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
. It later also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals
Royal Corps of Signals
and other technical corps . RMA Woolwich
Woolwich
was commonly known as "The Shop" because its first building was a converted workshop of the Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origins in the Royal Arsenal
Royal Arsenal
* 1.2 Relocation to Woolwich
Woolwich
Common * 1.2.1 Gallery * 1.3 Closure and aftermath * 1.3.1 Sale and redevelopment * 2 Legacy * 2.1 Education and training * 2.2 Architecture * 2.3 Slang * 3 Commandants * 4 Notable teachers * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources HISTORYORIGINS IN THE ROYAL ARSENAL The Old Royal Military Academy, in use 1741–1806. The cadets were taught in the left-hand half of the building, the right providing a Board Room for the Ordnance Board
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Rideau Canal
The RIDEAU CANAL, also known unofficially as the RIDEAU WATERWAY, connects the capital city of Ottawa , Ontario , Canada to Lake Ontario and the Saint Lawrence River . It is 202 kilometres in length. The name _Rideau_, French for "curtain," is derived from the curtain-like appearance of the Rideau River 's twin waterfalls where they join the Ottawa River. The canal system uses sections of two rivers, the Rideau and the Cataraqui , as well as several lakes. The Rideau Canal is operated by Parks Canada . The canal was opened in 1832 as a precaution in case of war with the United States. It remains in use today primarily for pleasure boating, with most of its original structures intact, operated by Parks Canada. The locks on the system open for navigation in mid-May and close in mid-October. It is the oldest continuously operated canal system in North America, and in 2007 it was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Construction deaths * 1.2 Recognition * 2 Waterway * 2.1 Locks * 2.2 Blockhouses * 3 Skateway * 3.1 Preparation and maintenance * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORY _ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Quebec City
QUEBEC CITY (pronounced /kwᵻˈbɛk/ (_ listen ) or /kəˈbɛk/ ; French : Québec_ (_ listen )); French : Ville de Québec_), officially QUéBEC, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec . The city had a population estimate of 531,902 on July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 on July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it Canada's seventh-largest metropolitan area and Quebec's second-largest city after Montreal . The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis , on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, _Kébec_, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain , Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (_Vieux-Québec_) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico , and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac , a hotel which dominates the skyline, and La Citadelle , an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city
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Bytown
BYTOWN is the former name of Ottawa, Ontario , Canada 's capital city. It was founded on September 26, 1826, incorporated as a town on January 1, 1850, and superseded by the incorporation of the City of Ottawa on January 1, 1855. The founding was marked by a sod turning, and a letter from Governor General Dalhousie which authorized Lieutenant Colonel John By to divide up the town into lots. Bytown came about as a result of the construction of the Rideau Canal and grew largely due to the Ottawa River timber trade . Bytown's first mayor was John Scott , elected in 1847. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Richmond Landing * 3 Corktown * 4 Legacy * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links OVERVIEW See also: Rideau Canal and Growth of Bytown Bytown was located where the Rideau Canal meets the Ottawa River and consisted of two parts centered around the canal, Upper Town and Lower Town. Upper Town, situated to the west of the canal, was situated in the area of the current downtown and Parliament Hill . Lower Town was on the east side of the canal where today's Byward Market and general area of Lower Town still exists. The two areas of town were connected over the Rideau Canal by the Sappers Bridge , constructed in 1827
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Ottawa
OTTAWA (/ˈɒtəwə/ ( listen ) or /-wɑː/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ) is the capital city of Canada . It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario . Ottawa borders Gatineau , Quebec ; the two form the core of the Ottawa– Gatineau census metropolitan area (CMA) and the National Capital Region (NCR). As of 2016 Ottawa has a city population of 934,243 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown , and incorporated as "Ottawa" in 1855, the city has evolved into the political and technological centre of Canada. Its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were ultimately replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which significantly increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of which is derived from the Algonquin _Odawa_, meaning "to trade". Ottawa is the most educated city in Canada and is home to a number of post-secondary, research, and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre , the National Gallery , and numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in the nation and low unemployment
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Royal Artillery
The ROYAL REGIMENT OF ARTILLERY, commonly referred to as the ROYAL ARTILLERY (RA) and colloquially known as _'the Gunners',_ is the artillery arm of the British Army . The Royal Regiment of Artillery comprises thirteen Regular Army Regiments, King\'s Troop Royal Horse Artillery and five Army Reserve Regiments. General George Campbell of Inverneill CB, commander of the Royal Artillery from 1874. Red and Blue Tactical Recognition Flash of the Royal Artillery CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 The Royal Artillery today * 2.1 Regular Army * 2.2 Army Reserve * 3 Equipment * 3.1 Air defence * 3.2 Close support artillery * 3.3 Intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance (ISTAR) * 3.4 Ceremonial * 4 Order of precedence * 5 Museum * 6 Affiliations * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORY BL 8-inch Howitzer Mk 1 – 5 8 in (200 mm) howitzers of the 39th Siege Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery , in action near Fricourt in World War I . Officers and senior enlisted men of the Bermuda Contingent, Royal Garrison Artillery (Bermuda Militia Artillery ). The introduction of artillery into the English army came as early as the Battle of Crécy in 1346
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Royal Engineers
The CORPS OF ROYAL ENGINEERS, usually just called the ROYAL ENGINEERS (RE), and commonly known as the _Sappers _, is one of the corps of the British Army . It is highly regarded throughout the military , and especially the Army. It provides military engineering and other technical support to the British Armed Forces and is headed by the Chief Royal Engineer . The Regimental Headquarters and the Royal School of Military Engineering are in Chatham in Kent, England. The corps is divided into several regiments, barracked at various places in the United Kingdom and around the world. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Significant constructions * 2.1 British Columbia * 2.2 Royal Albert Hall * 2.3 Indian infrastructure * 2.4 Rideau Canal * 2.5 Dover\'s Western Heights * 2.6 Pentonville Prison * 2.7 Boundary Commissions * 2.8 Abney Level * 2.9 H.M. Dockyards * 2.9.1 Chatham Dockyard * 3 Trades * 4 Units * 4.1 Brigades "> Royal Engineers recruitment poster Corps of Royal Engineers Cypher The Royal Engineers trace their origins back to the military engineers brought to England by William the Conqueror , specifically Bishop Gundulf of Rochester Cathedral , and claim over 900 years of unbroken service to the crown
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Saint Lawrence River
The SAINT LAWRENCE RIVER (French : _Fleuve Saint-Laurent_; Tuscarora : _Kahnawáʼkye_; Mohawk : _Kaniatarowanenneh_, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America
North America
. The Saint Lawrence River
River
flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
with the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Basin . It traverses the Canadian provinces of Quebec
Quebec
and Ontario
Ontario
, and is part of the international boundary between Ontario, Canada, and the U.S. state of New York . This river also provides the basis of the commercial Saint Lawrence Seaway . CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Resident whales * 4 Sources * 5 Works * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links GEOGRAPHYThe Saint Lawrence River
River
begins at the outflow of Lake Ontario
Ontario
and flows through Gananoque , Brockville , Morristown , Ogdensburg , Massena , Cornwall , Montreal
Montreal
, Trois-Rivières , and Quebec
Quebec
City before draining into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence , the largest estuary in the world
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Napoleonic Wars
Overall Coalition victory Congress of Vienna * Fall of the First French Empire * Exile of Napoleon I to St
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Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke Of Wellington
Field Marshal
Field Marshal
ARTHUR WELLESLEY, 1ST DUKE OF WELLINGTON, KG , GCB , GCH , PC , FRS (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain . His defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon
at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
in 1815 put him in the first rank of Britain's military heroes. Wellesley was born in Dublin
Dublin
, into the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland
Ireland
. He was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army
British Army
in 1787, serving in Ireland
Ireland
as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland
Ireland
. He was also elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons . He was a colonel by 1796, and saw action in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War at the Battle of Seringapatam
Seringapatam
. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam
Seringapatam
and Mysore
Mysore
in 1799 and, as a newly appointed major-general (since 1802), won a decisive victory over the Maratha Confederacy at the Battle of Assaye
Battle of Assaye
in 1803
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Ottawa River
The OTTAWA RIVER (French : _Rivière des Outaouais_, Algonquin : _Kitchissippi_), is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario
Ontario
and Quebec
Quebec
. For most of its length, it defines the border between these two provinces. It is a major tributary of the St. Lawrence River
St. Lawrence River
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Geology * 3 History * 4 Power generation * 4.1 Hydroelectric installations * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links GEOGRAPHYThe river rises at Lake Capimitchigama, in the Laurentian Mountains of central Quebec, and flows west to Lake Timiskaming . From there its route has been used to define the interprovincial border with Ontario. From Lake Timiskaming, the river flows southeast to Ottawa
Ottawa
and Gatineau
Gatineau
, where it tumbles over the Chaudière Falls and further takes in the Rideau and Gatineau
Gatineau
rivers. The Ottawa
Ottawa
River
River
drains into the Lake of Two Mountains and the St. Lawrence River
River
at Montreal
Montreal

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Major's Hill Park
MAJOR\'S HILL PARK is a park in downtown Ottawa , Ontario. The park stands above the Rideau Canal at the point where it enters the Ottawa River . Across the canal to the west are the parliament buildings , to the north of the park is the National Gallery of Canada , and to the east are the United States embassy and the Byward Market . To the south is the Chateau Laurier hotel, built on land that was once part of the park. Anishinaabe Scout by Hamilton MacCarthy The neighbourhood surrounding the park was once home to those who constructed the canal. In particular, the area that is now the park was the official residence of the Superintending Engineer of the Rideau Canal, Lieutenant-Colonel John By until he returned to England in 1832. The hill was known at the time as "Colonel's Hill". By was replaced in 1832 by Captain Daniel Bolton who took up residence in By's house. In 1838 Bolton was promoted to Major. By the time he left the Bytown in 1843, the hill had become known as Major's Hill. Commemorative plaques and a statue of Lieutenant-Colonel By, Major Bolton and their successors were erected in Major's Hill Park. The residence was destroyed by fire on October 5, 1848, though ruins survive to today. The use of the area as a residence means that the park has remained a green space since the early days of Ottawa. It is now managed by the National Capital Commission , which has placed historical information in the northwest corner of the park
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Joseph-Émile Brunet
JOSEPH-ÉMILE BRUNET (1893–1977) was a Canadian sculptor based in Quebec . His output includes more than 200 monuments in bronze . Many of his sculptures depict national figures and events in Canada. He was born in Huntingdon, Quebec in 1899. He was educated at archbishop school, the Art Institute of Chicago , and the national superior École des Beaux-Arts of Paris . WORKSJoseph-Émile Brunet sculpted the bas reliefs and ornamental façade of the Gérard-Morisset building, Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec in Quebec City which depict historical scenes and events in Canadian History: “Fishing”, “Fur Trading”, “Maple Sugar Making”, “Farming”, “Logging”, “Missionaries”, “Landing Immigrates”, “Buffalo Hunt”,” Jacques Cartier ”,” Death of Wolfe”,” Death of Montcalm”,”William Dollard ”, “Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye ” and “The First Settlers”
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