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John Benjamin Stone
SIR JOHN BENJAMIN STONE (9 February 1838 – 2 July 1914), known as Benjamin, was a British Conservative politician and photographer. CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 References * 3 Further reading * 4 External links LIFE AND CAREERStone was born in Duddeston, Birmingham
Birmingham
the son of a manager at a local glass works. The business passed into the hands of Stone, his father and a partner in 1860. It was later sold. By this time Stone had become a successful paper manufacturer. Stone was a local Conservative politician, founder of the Birmingham Conservative Association and MP for Birmingham
Birmingham
East from 1895 to 1909. He was a member of the Sutton Coldfield Corporation for many years and was the first Mayor of the town in 1886 when the new Municipal Corporation was created; a post he held for four years. He was knighted in 1892 and was appointed High Steward of the Royal Town of Sutton Coldfield in 1902. He was also a prolific amateur documentary photographer who travelled widely in pursuit of his hobby. He made 26,000 photographs and wrote books as he travelled to Spain
Spain
, Norway
Norway
, Japan
Japan
and Brazil
Brazil
. Amongst his published works were 'A Tour with Cook through Spain' (1873), Children of Norway
Norway
(1882), and a fairy tale called The Traveller's Joy
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Livery Collar
A LIVERY COLLAR or CHAIN OF OFFICE is a collar or heavy chain , usually of gold , worn as insignia of office or a mark of fealty or other association in Europe from the Middle Ages onwards. One of the oldest and best-known livery collars is the Collar of Esses , which has been in continuous use in England since the 14th century. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origins * 2 Collar of Esses * 3 Private livery collars * 4 Renaissance chains * 4.1 Mayoral collars * 4.2 Collars of orders of knighthood * 4.3 Collars of Freemasonry * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links HISTORYORIGINSVarious forms of livery were used in the Middle Ages to denote attachment to a great person by friends, servants, and political supporters. The collar, usually of precious metal, was the grandest form of these, usually given by the person the livery denoted to his closest or most important associates, but should not, in the early period, be seen as separate from the wider phenomenon of livery badges, clothes and other forms. From the collar hung a badge or device indicating the person the livery related to; the most important part of the ensemble for contemporaries. Equally gold collars that had no livery connotations were worn. Livery collars seem to be first recorded in the 14th century
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Leslie Ward
SIR LESLIE MATTHEW WARD (21 November 1851 – 15 May 1922 London) was a British portrait artist and caricaturist who over four decades painted 1,325 portraits which were regularly published by Vanity Fair , under the pseudonyms "SPY" and "DRAWL". The portraits were produced as watercolours and turned into chromolithographs for publication in the magazine. These were then usually reproduced on better paper and sold as prints. Such was his influence in the genre that all Vanity Fair caricatures are sometimes referred to as "Spy Cartoons" regardless of who the artist actually was. Early portraits, almost always full-length (judges at the bench being the main exception), had a stronger element of caricature and usually distorted the proportions of the body, with a very large head and upper body supported on much smaller lower parts. Later, as he became socially accepted in the society in which he moved to gain access to his subjects, and not wishing to cause offence, his style developed into what he called 'characteristic portraits', being less of a caricature and more of an actual portrait of the subject, using realistic body proportions
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Conservative Party (uk)
The CONSERVATIVE PARTY, officially the CONSERVATIVE AND UNIONIST PARTY, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It is currently the governing party, having won the most seats in the House of Commons at the 2017 general election . However, it is reliant on the support of the Northern Irish party, the Democratic Unionist Party , in order to command the majority of the House of Commons. The party's leader, Theresa May
Theresa May
, is currently serving as Prime Minister . It is the largest party in local government with 9,237 councillors . The Conservative Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United Kingdom, the other being its modern rival, the Labour Party . The Conservative Party's platform involves support for free market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, a strong national defence, deregulation, and restrictions on trade unions. The Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party –giving rise to the Conservatives' colloquial name of Tories –and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party . During the 1890s, it formed a coalition government with the Liberal Unionist Party , a break-away faction of the Liberal Party. In 1912, the two parties merged to form the current Conservative and Unionist Party
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Politician
A POLITICIAN (from "politics" + "-ian", from the Greek title of Aristotle\'s book Πολιτικά "Politika", meaning "Civic Affairs") is a person active in party politics , or a person holding or seeking office in government. In democratic countries, politicians seek elective positions within a government through elections or, at times, temporary appointment to replace politicians who have died, resigned or have been otherwise removed from office. In non-democratic countries, they employ other means of reaching power through appointment, bribery, revolutions and intrigues. Some politicians are experienced in the art or science of government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution. CONTENTS * 1 Identity * 2 Media and rhetoric * 3 Bureaucracy and spoils * 4 Careers * 5 Characteristics * 6 Criticism * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links IDENTITYPoliticians are people who are politically active, especially in party politics. Positions range from local offices to executive, legislative, and judicial offices of regional and national governments. Some elected law enforcement officers, such as sheriffs , are considered politicians
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Birmingham
BIRMINGHAM (/ˈbɜːrmɪŋəm/ ( listen ), locally /ˈbɜːmɪŋ(g)əm/ ) is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands , England standing on the small River Rea . It is the largest and most populous British city outside London , with a population of 1,101,360 in 2014. A medium-sized market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew to international prominence in the 18th century at the heart of the Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution , which saw the town at the forefront of worldwide advances in science, technology, and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society . By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world". Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and highly skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided a diverse and resilient economic base for industrial prosperity that was to last into the final quarter of the 20th century. Perhaps the most important invention in British history, the industrial steam engine, was invented in Birmingham
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Member Of Parliament
A MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament . In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title. Members of parliament tend to form parliamentary groups (also called _parliamentary parties_) with members of the same political party
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Birmingham East (UK Parliament Constituency)
BIRMINGHAM EAST was a parliamentary constituency in the city of Birmingham
Birmingham
, England
England
. It returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom , elected by the first-past-the-post voting system. The constituency was created upon the abolition of the Birmingham constituency in 1885, and was itself abolished for the 1918 general election . CONTENTS * 1 Boundaries * 2 Members of Parliament * 3 Elections * 3.1 Elections in the 1880s * 3.2 Elections in the 1890s * 3.3 Elections in the 1900s * 3.4 Elections in the 1910s * 4 In popular culture * 5 See also * 6 References BOUNDARIESBefore 1885 Birmingham
Birmingham
, in the county of Warwickshire , had been a three-member constituency (see Birmingham
Birmingham
(UK Parliament constituency) for further details). Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 the parliamentary borough of Birmingham
Birmingham
was split into seven single-member divisions, one of which was BIRMINGHAM EAST. It consisted of the wards of Duddeston and Nechells, the local government district of Saltley, and the hamlet of Little Bromwich
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Sutton Coldfield
The ROYAL TOWN OF SUTTON COLDFIELD ( pronunciation (help ·info )), more colloquially known as SUTTON COLDFIELD or simply SUTTON, is a town and civil parish in Birmingham
Birmingham
, West Midlands , England
England
. The town lies about 7 miles (10 km) northeast of Birmingham
Birmingham
City Centre and borders Little Aston , North Warwickshire
North Warwickshire
, Lichfield
Lichfield
, Erdington and South Staffordshire
Staffordshire
. Its 2011 Census population was 95,107 – an increase of 6.7 % since the 2001 Census. Historically in Warwickshire
Warwickshire
, it became part of Birmingham
Birmingham
and the West Midlands metropolitan county in 1974 . In 2015, the town elected a Parish/ Town
Town
Council for the first time in its recent history. An affluent town ranked as the fourth least deprived area in the country encompassing the Four Oaks Park Estate and bordering the Little Aston private estate where the region's multi-millionaire and billionaires reside. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Prehistory * 1.3 Roman period * 1.4 Anglo-Saxon establishment, c. 600–1135 * 1.5 Early development, c. 1135–1499 * 1.5.1 Possession of the manor * 1.5.2 Growth and military influence * 1.6 Tudor Sutton Coldfield, c
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Municipal Corporation
A MUNICIPAL CORPORATION is the legal term for a local governing body , including (but not necessarily limited to) cities , counties , towns , townships , charter townships , villages , and boroughs . The term can also be used to describe municipally-owned enterprises. CONTENTS* 1 Municipal corporation as local self-government * 1.1 Canada * 1.2 India * 1.3 Ireland * 1.4 United States * 2 Municipal corporation as enterprises * 3 See also * 4 References MUNICIPAL CORPORATION AS LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENTMunicipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. Often, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter . A CITY CHARTER or TOWN CHARTER (generically, MUNICIPAL CHARTER) is a legal document establishing a municipality such as a city or town . The concept developed in Europe during the Middle Ages and is considered to be a municipal version of a constitution . With the notable exceptions of the City of London Corporation and the Laugharne Corporation , the term has fallen out of favour in the United Kingdom, but the concept remains central to local government in the United Kingdom , as well as former British colonies such as Canada and India
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High Steward Of The Royal Town Of Sutton Coldfield
The HIGH STEWARD OF SUTTON COLDFIELD was an office relating to the government of the town of Sutton Coldfield , Warwickshire , England
England
. HISTORYPrior to the Royal Charter of 1528 Walter Devereux, Lord Ferrers of Chartley held the office of High Steward under the Crown . He also held office as Bailiff of the Manor, Keeper of the Rolls and Keeper of Coldfield Walk. The salaries for these posts, under a grant of 1525, were to be paid at the rate of £16 a year to him and his son Henry for life. On the granting of the Charter the town was to be held by a Warden and Society (roughly equivalent to Mayor and Corporation) and the inhabitants of the town. The Charter granted the right to appoint a High Steward , although this right was not exercised until 1547. The High Stewards were appointed for life and were to be entitled to a Deputy to assist in the duty of holding courts. At least in the 16th century, the High Steward was expected to have a knowledge of English law; but the role soon became symbolic and the duties largely ceremonial, and latterly the work was done entirely by Deputies. The High Stewards were all persons of standing and mostly members of aristocratic Warwickshire and Staffordshire families. In 1974 the Corporation of Sutton Coldfield merged with that of Birmingham
Birmingham
and the office of High Steward became extinct
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Documentary Photography
DOCUMENTARY PHOTOGRAPHY usually refers to a popular form of photography used to chronicle events or environments both significant and relevant to history and historical events as well as everyday life. It is typically covered in professional photojournalism , or real life reportage, but it may also be an amateur , artistic, or academic pursuit. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Documentary photography
Documentary photography
vs. photojournalism * 3 Acceptance by the art world * 4 Notable documentary photographers * 4.1 United States * 4.2 Europe * 4.3 Other * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources HISTORY _ This article appears to CONTAIN A LARGE NUMBER OF BUZZWORDS . There might be a discussion about this on the talk page . Please help improve this article if you can. (July 2016)_ _ John Beasly Greene
John Beasly Greene
's photo of the Abu Simbel temples, 1854 Bandit's Roost_ (1914) by Jacob Riis The term _document_ applied to photography antedates the mode or genre itself. Photographs meant to accurately describe otherwise unknown, hidden, forbidden, or difficult-to-access places or circumstances
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Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain _Reino de España_ (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real
Marcha Real
" (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain (dark green) – in Europe
Europe
(green "> (green) Capital and largest city
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Norway
NORWAY (/ˈnɔːrweɪ/ (_ listen ) NAWR-way_ ; Norwegian : _ Norge_ ( Bokmål ) or _ Noreg_ ( Nynorsk ); Northern Sami : _Norga_), officially the KINGDOM OF NORWAY, is a sovereign state and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
and the archipelago of Svalbard
Svalbard
. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway
Norway
also lays claim to a section of Antarctica
Antarctica
known as Queen Maud Land . Until 1814, the kingdom included the Faroe Islands , Greenland
Greenland
, and Iceland