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Johann Friedrich Gmelin
JOHANN FRIEDRICH GMELIN (8 August 1748 – 1 November 1804) was a German naturalist , botanist , entomologist , herpetologist and malacologist . CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Career * 3 Legacy * 4 Publications * 5 References * 6 External links EDUCATION Johann Friedrich Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin
was born as the eldest son of Philipp Friedrich Gmelin in 1748 in Tübingen . He studied medicine under his father at University of Tübingen and graduated with an MD in 1768, with a thesis entitled: Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploratam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam., defended under the presidency of Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger , whom he thanks with the words Patrono et praeceptore in aeternum pie devenerando, pro summis in medicina obtinendis honoribus. CAREERIn 1769, Gmelin became an adjunct professor of medicine at University of Tübingen
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Tübingen
TüBINGEN (German: , listen (help ·info )) is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
, Germany
Germany
. It is situated 30 km (19 mi) south of the state capital, Stuttgart
Stuttgart
, on a ridge between the Neckar and Ammer rivers. As of 2014 about one in three people living in Tübingen
Tübingen
is a student. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Regional structure * 3 History * 4 Overview * 5 Main sights * 6 Culture * 6.1 Events * 7 Notable residents * 8 Districts * 9 Population * 9.1 Population development * 9.2 Historical population * 10 International relations * 11 Infrastructure * 12 Higher education * 13 Schools * 14 Gallery * 15 References * 16 External links GEOGRAPHYImmediately north of the city lies the Schönbuch
Schönbuch
, a densely wooded nature park
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin : _Sacrum Imperium Romanum_; German : _Heiliges Römisches Reich_) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany , though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia , the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe , more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire . The title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar , in 924
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Göttingen
GöTTINGEN (German pronunciation: listen (help ·info ); Low German : Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony , Germany
Germany
. It is the capital of the district of Göttingen
Göttingen
. The River Leine
River Leine
runs through the town. At the start of 2017, the population was 134,212
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Electorate Of Brunswick-Lüneburg
The ELECTORATE OF BRUNSWICK-LüNEBURG (German : Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), colloquially ELECTORATE OF HANOVER (Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply Kurhannover), was established in 1692 as the ninth Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and formally approved in 1708. It was ruled by the House of Hanover
Hanover
, a cadet branch of the House of Welf , which then ruled and earlier had ruled a number of principalities, which had several times been partitioned among several heirs from the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
. After 1705, only two of these territories existed. One was the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel , which remained independent as the Duchy of Brunswick (new title adopted in 1815) until 1918. The other, the new Electorate, was based on the dynastic line of the Principality of Calenberg
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Germany
Coordinates : 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9 Federal Republic of Germany _Bundesrepublik Deutschland_ (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " "Unity and Justice and Freedom" (de facto) ANTHEM: _ Deutschlandlied _ (English: "Song of Germany") (third verse only) Location of Germany (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Ca
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Natural History
NATURAL HISTORY is the research and study of organisms including animals , fungi and plants in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. It encompasses scientific research but is not limited to it, with articles nowadays more often published in science magazines than in academic journals . Grouped among the natural sciences , natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms. That is a very broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines. So while natural history dates historically from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world , through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's field is more of a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences
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Botanist
BOTANY, also called PLANT SCIENCE(S), PLANT BIOLOGY or PHYTOLOGY, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology . A BOTANIST or PLANT SCIENTIST is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture ", "grass", or "fodder "; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress . Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants ), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes
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Entomologist
ENTOMOLOGY (from Greek ἔντομον, _entomon_ "insect"; and -λογία, _-logia_) is the scientific study of insects , a branch of zoology . In the past the term "insect" was more vague, and historically the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla , such as arachnids , myriapods , earthworms , land snails , and slugs . This wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use. Like several of the other fields that are categorized within zoology , entomology is a taxon -based category; any form of scientific study in which there is a focus on insect-related inquiries is, by definition, entomology. Entomology therefore overlaps with a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics , behavior , biomechanics , biochemistry , systematics , physiology , developmental biology , ecology , morphology , and paleontology
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University Of Göttingen
The UNIVERSITY OF GöTTINGEN (German : Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as GEORGIA AUGUSTA) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen
Göttingen
, Germany. Founded in 1734 by George II , King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover , and starting classes in 1737, the university is the oldest in the state of Lower Saxony and the largest in student enrollment, which stands at around 26,000. Home to many noted figures , it represents one of Germany's historic and traditional institutions. Göttingen
Göttingen
has been called "the city of science". As for reputation, the University of Göttingen
Göttingen
was previously supported by the German Universities Excellence Initiative , holds membership to the Coimbra Group , and boasts an association with around 40 Nobel Prize winners
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University Of Tübingen
The UNIVERSITY OF TüBINGEN, officially the EBERHARD KARLS UNIVERSITY OF TüBINGEN (German : Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen; Latin : Universitas Eberhardina Carolina), is a public research university located in the city of Tübingen , Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
. It is one of Germany's most famous and oldest universities, noted in medicine, natural sciences, and the humanities. In the area of German Studies it has been ranked first among all German universities for many years, and is known as a centre for the study of theology and religion. The university is associated with some Nobel laureates , especially in the fields of medicine and chemistry
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Alma Mater
ALMA MATER ( Latin : _alma_ "nourishing/kind", _mater_ "mother"; pl. _almae matres_) is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college . In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, or a song or hymn associated with a school . The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its modern usage, _Alma mater_ was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses , especially Ceres or Cybele , and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
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Doctoral Advisor
A DOCTORAL ADVISOR (also DISSERTATION DIRECTOR or DISSERTATION ADVISOR) is a member of a university faculty whose role is to guide graduate students who are candidates for a doctorate , helping them select coursework, as well as shaping, refining and directing the students' choice of sub-discipline in which they will be examined or on which they will write a dissertation . Students generally choose advisors based on their areas of interest within their discipline, their desire to work closely with particular graduate faculty, and the willingness and availability of those faculty to work with them. In some countries, the student's advisor serves as the chair of the doctoral examination or dissertation committees. In some cases, though, the person who serves those roles may be different from the faculty member who has most closely advised the student
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Philipp Friedrich Gmelin
PHILIPP FRIEDRICH GMELIN (19 August 1721 – 9 May 1768) was a professor of botany and chemistry. He studied the chemistry of antimony and wrote texts on the pancreatic ducts , on mineral waters, and on botany. He was a brother of the famous traveler Johann Georg Gmelin . He obtained his MD in 1742 at the University of Tübingen under Burchard Mauchart . He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1758. He was the father of the naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin . NOTES * ^ "Library and Archive". Royal Society. Retrieved 2012-08-06. REFERENCES * J. Chem. Ed., 1954, 32, pp. 534–541. * Chem. Ber., 1939, 72, pp
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Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger
FERDINAND CHRISTOPH OETINGER (18 February 1719 – 15 April 1772) was a German physician. He studied philosophy at the University of Tübingen and medicine at the Universities of Leipzig and Halle , obtaining his doctorate at the latter institution in 1739. He later practiced medicine in Stuttgart and Urach
Urach
, and in 1760 was named an associate professor of medicine at the University of Tübingen. In 1762 he became a full professor of medicine at Tübingen
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Georg Friedrich Hildebrandt
GEORG FRIEDRICH HILDEBRANDT (5 June 1764 – 23 March 1816) was a pharmacist , chemist , and anatomist . He was an early supporter of Lavoisier
Lavoisier
's theories in Germany. He investigated mercury compounds, and the chemical nature of quicklime , ammonium nitrate , and ammonia . He studied light emitted by electric discharges through air and investigated the use of nitric oxide to determine the oxygen content of air . He developed a method to separate silver from copper . He wrote textbooks on pharmacology and human anatomy , and treatises on smallpox , sleep , and the digestive system . He obtained his MD in 1783 from the University of Göttingen under Johann Friedrich Gmelin . WORKS * Anfangsgründe der Chemie . Vol. 3 . Erlangen
Erlangen
: Walther, 1794 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf REFERENCES * K
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