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Johann Friedrich Gmelin
JOHANN FRIEDRICH GMELIN (8 August 1748 – 1 November 1804) was a German naturalist , botanist , entomologist , herpetologist and malacologist . CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Career * 3 Legacy * 4 Publications * 5 References * 6 External links EDUCATION Johann Friedrich Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin
was born as the eldest son of Philipp Friedrich Gmelin in 1748 in Tübingen
Tübingen

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Amphibians
AMPHIBIANS are ectothermic , tetrapod vertebrates of the class AMPHIBIA. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia
Lissamphibia
. They inhabit a wide variety of habitats , with most species living within terrestrial , fossorial , arboreal or freshwater aquatic ecosystems . Thus amphibians typically start out as larvae living in water, but some species have developed behavioural adaptations to bypass this. The young generally undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to an adult air-breathing form with lungs . Amphibians use their skin as a secondary respiratory surface and some small terrestrial salamanders and frogs lack lungs and rely entirely on their skin. They are superficially similar to lizards but, along with mammals and birds, reptiles are amniotes and do not require water bodies in which to breed
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Reptiles
See text for extinct groups. Global reptile distributionREPTILES are tetrapod (four-limbed vertebrate) animals in the class REPTILIA, comprising today's turtles , crocodilians , snakes , amphisbaenians , lizards , tuatara , and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders , historically combined with that of modern amphibians , is called herpetology . Because some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other reptiles (e.g., crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to lizards), the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping (or clade ). For this reason, many modern scientists prefer to consider the birds part of Reptilia as well, thereby making Reptilia a monophyletic class
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Malacology
MALACOLOGY is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods . Mollusks include snails and slugs , clams , octopus and squid , and numerous other kinds, many (but by no means all) of which have shells . One division of malacology, conchology , is devoted to the study of mollusk shells. Malacology derives from Greek μαλακός, malakos, "soft"; and -λογία, -logia . Fields within malacological research include taxonomy , ecology and evolution . Applied malacology studies medical, veterinary, and agricultural applications, for example mollusks as vectors of disease, as in schistosomiasis . Archaeology employs malacology to understand the evolution of the climate , the biota of the area, and the usage of the site
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Gastropod
See text . DIVERSITY 65,000 to 80,000 species The GASTROPODA or GASTROPODS, more commonly known as SNAILS AND SLUGS , are a large taxonomic class within the phylum Mollusca . The class Gastropoda includes snails and slugs of all kinds and all sizes from microscopic to large. There are many thousands of species of sea snails and sea slugs , as well as freshwater snails , freshwater limpets , land snails and land slugs . The class Gastropoda contains a vast total of named species, second only to the insects in overall number. The fossil history of this class goes back to the Late Cambrian . There are 611 families of gastropods known, of which 202 are extinct and appear only in the fossil record
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Herpetology
HERPETOLOGY (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs , toads , salamanders , newts , and caecilians (gymnophiona )) and reptiles (including snakes , lizards , amphisbaenids , turtles , terrapins , tortoises , crocodilians , and the tuataras ). Batrachology is a further subdiscipline of herpetology concerned with the study of amphibians alone. Herpetology
Herpetology
is concerned with poikilothermic , ectothermic tetrapods . Under this definition "herps" (or sometimes "herptiles" or "herpetofauna") exclude fish, but it is not uncommon for herpetological and ichthyological scientific societies to "team up", publishing joint journals and holding conferences in order to foster the exchange of ideas between the fields. One of the most prestigious organizations, the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists , is an example of this
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Author Citation (zoology)
In zoological nomenclature , AUTHOR CITATION refers to listing the person (or team) who first makes a scientific name of a taxon available. This is done in a scientific publication while fulfilling the formal requirements under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , hereinafter termed "the Code". According to the Code, "the name of the author does not form part of the name of a taxon and its citation is optional, although customary and often advisable" (Article 51.1), however Recommendation 51A suggests: "The original author and date of a name should be cited at least once in each work dealing with the taxon denoted by that name. This is especially important in distinguishing between homonyms and in identifying species-group names which are not in their original combinations". For the purpose of information retrieval, the author citation and year appended to the scientific name, e.g
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Tübingen
TüBINGEN (German: , listen (help ·info )) is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
, Germany
Germany
. It is situated 30 km (19 mi) south of the state capital, Stuttgart
Stuttgart
, on a ridge between the Neckar
Neckar
and Ammer rivers. As of 2014 about one in three people living in Tübingen
Tübingen
is a student. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Regional structure * 3 History * 4 Overview * 5 Main sights * 6 Culture * 6.1 Events * 7 Notable residents * 8 Districts * 9 Population * 9.1 Population development * 9.2 Historical population * 10 International relations * 11 Infrastructure * 12 Higher education * 13 Schools * 14 Gallery * 15 References * 16 External links GEOGRAPHYImmediately north of the city lies the Schönbuch , a densely wooded nature park
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Mineralogy
MINERALOGY is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry , crystal structure , and physical (including optical ) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts . Specific studies within mineralogy include the processes of mineral origin and formation, classification of minerals, their geographical distribution, as well as their utilization
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands
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Scientific Name
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo and within this genus to the species Homo sapiens . The formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753
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List Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation
This is an incomplete list of botanists by their author abbreviation , which is designed for citation with the botanical names or works that they have published. This list follows that established by Brummitt "> Order Of EntriesThe list here is maintained strictly in order of the alphabetic characters in the abbreviation; thus "A.B.Jacks." appears under "A" not "J", and is located as if the characters were "ABJACKS". Capitalization is ignored as are all non-alphabetic characters such as "." and a space. Diacritical marks are also ignored, so that, e.g., "ü" is treated as if it were "u". NavigationBecause of its length, the list is split across separate pages. All alphabetic sections can be accessed from the short table of contents; the vertical bars show the page divisions. Searching will only find an entry within a page
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Botanical Name
A BOTANICAL NAME is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen , the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi , or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae ( Cyanobacteria ), chytrids , oomycetes , slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups (but excluding Microsporidia )." The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name that is accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group
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Internet Archive
Coordinates : 37°46′56″N 122°28′18″W / 37.7823°N 122.4716°W / 37.7823; -122.4716 Internet Archive
Internet Archive
TYPE OF BUSINESS 501(c)(3) nonprofit TYPE OF SITE Digital library AVAILABLE IN English FOUNDED May 12, 1996; 21 years ago (1996-05-12) HEADQUARTERS Richmond District San Francisco
San Francisco
, California
California
, U.S
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Göttingen State And University Library
The GöTTINGEN STATE AND UNIVERSITY LIBRARY (German : Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen or SUB GöTTINGEN) is the library for Göttingen University
Göttingen University
as well as for the Göttingen Academy of Sciences and is the state library for the German State of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
. One of the largest German academic libraries, it has numerous national as well as international projects in librarianship and in the provision of research infrastructure services. In the year 2002, the SUB Göttingen won the German Library of the Year (Bibliothek des Jahres) award. Its current director is Wolfram Horstmann. The library works under a dispersed system, with six branch libraries located in various academic departments, supplementing the central collection housed in the Central Library (construction completed in 1992) on the main campus and the Historical Library Building in downtown
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