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Johann Friedrich Gmelin
JOHANN FRIEDRICH GMELIN (8 August 1748 – 1 November 1804) was a German naturalist , botanist , entomologist , herpetologist and malacologist . CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Career * 3 Legacy * 4 Publications * 5 References * 6 External links EDUCATION Johann Friedrich Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin
was born as the eldest son of Philipp Friedrich Gmelin in 1748 in Tübingen . He studied medicine under his father at University of Tübingen and graduated with an MD in 1768, with a thesis entitled: Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploratam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam., defended under the presidency of Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger , whom he thanks with the words Patrono et praeceptore in aeternum pie devenerando, pro summis in medicina obtinendis honoribus. CAREERIn 1769, Gmelin became an adjunct professor of medicine at University of Tübingen . In 1773 he became professor of philosophy and adjunct professor of medicine at University of Göttingen . He was promoted to full professor of medicine and professor of chemistry , botany , and mineralogy in 1778. He died in 1804 in Göttingen . Johann Friedrich Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin
published several textbooks in the fields of chemistry, pharmaceutical science, mineralogy, and botany
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Tübingen
TüBINGEN (German: , listen (help ·info )) is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
, Germany
Germany
. It is situated 30 km (19 mi) south of the state capital, Stuttgart
Stuttgart
, on a ridge between the Neckar
Neckar
and Ammer rivers. As of 2014 about one in three people living in Tübingen
Tübingen
is a student. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Regional structure * 3 History * 4 Overview * 5 Main sights * 6 Culture * 6.1 Events * 7 Notable residents * 8 Districts * 9 Population * 9.1 Population development * 9.2 Historical population * 10 International relations * 11 Infrastructure * 12 Higher education * 13 Schools * 14 Gallery * 15 References * 16 External links GEOGRAPHYImmediately north of the city lies the Schönbuch , a densely wooded nature park . The Swabian Alb mountains rise about 13 kilometres (8 miles) (beeline Tübingen
Tübingen
City to Roßberg (869m)) to the southeast of Tübingen. The Ammer and Steinlach rivers discharge into the Neckar
Neckar
river, which flows right through the town, just south of the medieval old town in an easterly direction
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin : _Sacrum Imperium Romanum_; German : _Heiliges Römisches Reich_) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany , though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia , the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe , more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire . The title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar , in 924. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries. Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning
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Göttingen
GöTTINGEN (German pronunciation: _ listen (help ·info ); Low German : Chöttingen_) is a university city in Lower Saxony , Germany . It is the capital of the district of Göttingen
Göttingen
. The River Leine runs through the town. At the start of 2017, the population was 134,212. CONTENTS * 1 General information * 2 History * 2.1 Early history * 2.2 Imperial palace of Grona * 2.3 Foundation of the town * 2.4 Expansion * 2.5 Growth and independence * 2.6 Loss of independence to the present day * 2.6.1 University
University
* 2.6.2 Railway * 2.6.3 Third Reich era * 2.6.4 Contemporary history * 3 Cultural relevance * 4 Incorporations * 5 Demographics * 6 Transport * 7 Religion * 8 Politics * 9 Coat of arms
Coat of arms
* 10 International relations * 10.1 Twin towns – sister cities * 11 Notable people born in Göttingen
Göttingen
* 12 Notable people who died in Göttingen
Göttingen
* 13 Sport * 14 Universities and colleges * 15 Cultural establishments * 15.1 Theatre * 15.2 Museums, collections, exhibitions * 15.3 Gardens * 15.4 Local media * 16 See also * 17 References * 18 External links GENERAL INFORMATIONThe origins of Göttingen
Göttingen
lay in a village called _Gutingi,_ first mentioned in a document in 953 AD
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Electorate Of Brunswick-Lüneburg
The ELECTORATE OF BRUNSWICK-LüNEBURG (German : Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), colloquially ELECTORATE OF HANOVER (Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply Kurhannover), was established in 1692 as the ninth Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and formally approved in 1708. It was ruled by the House of Hanover
Hanover
, a cadet branch of the House of Welf , which then ruled and earlier had ruled a number of principalities, which had several times been partitioned among several heirs from the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
. After 1705, only two of these territories existed. One was the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel , which remained independent as the Duchy of Brunswick (new title adopted in 1815) until 1918. The other, the new Electorate, was based on the dynastic line of the Principality of Calenberg . With the ascension of its prince-elector as King of Great Britain in 1714, it became ruled in personal union with Great Britain. As a consequence, a reluctant Great Britain was forced time and again to become involved with the fate of the German possessions of its King. However, internally, it remained a separately ruled territory with its own government and bodies
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Germany
Coordinates : 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9 Federal Republic of Germany _Bundesrepublik Deutschland_ (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " "Unity and Justice and Freedom" (de facto) ANTHEM: _ Deutschlandlied _ (English: "Song of Germany") (third verse only) Location of Germany (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Berlin 52°31′N 13°23′E / 52.517°N 13.383°E / 52.517; 13.383 Official language and national language German ETHNIC GROUPS (2015 ) * 7001790000000000000♠79.0% Germans
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Natural History
NATURAL HISTORY is the research and study of organisms including animals , fungi and plants in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. It encompasses scientific research but is not limited to it, with articles nowadays more often published in science magazines than in academic journals . Grouped among the natural sciences , natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms. That is a very broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines. So while natural history dates historically from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world , through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's field is more of a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences. For example, geobiology has a strong multi-disciplinary nature combining scientists and scientific knowledge of many specialty sciences. A person who studies natural history is known as a NATURALIST or NATURAL HISTORIAN
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Botanist
BOTANY, also called PLANT SCIENCE(S), PLANT BIOLOGY or PHYTOLOGY, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology . A BOTANIST or PLANT SCIENTIST is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture ", "grass", or "fodder "; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress . Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants ), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes . Botany
Botany
originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and later cultivate – edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens , often attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance. They were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards. One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden . These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants
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Entomologist
ENTOMOLOGY (from Greek ἔντομον, _entomon_ "insect"; and -λογία, _-logia_) is the scientific study of insects , a branch of zoology . In the past the term "insect" was more vague, and historically the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla , such as arachnids , myriapods , earthworms , land snails , and slugs . This wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use. Like several of the other fields that are categorized within zoology , entomology is a taxon -based category; any form of scientific study in which there is a focus on insect-related inquiries is, by definition, entomology. Entomology therefore overlaps with a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics , behavior , biomechanics , biochemistry , systematics , physiology , developmental biology , ecology , morphology , and paleontology . At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms, date back some 400 million years, and have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth
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University Of Göttingen
The UNIVERSITY OF GöTTINGEN (German : _Georg-August-Universität Göttingen_, GAU, known informally as GEORGIA AUGUSTA) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen , Germany. Founded in 1734 by George II , King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover , and starting classes in 1737, the university is the oldest in the state of Lower Saxony and the largest in student enrollment, which stands at around 26,000. Home to many noted figures , it represents one of Germany's historic and traditional institutions. Göttingen has been called "the city of science". As for reputation, the University of Göttingen was previously supported by the German Universities Excellence Initiative, holds membership to the Coimbra Group , and boasts an association with around 40 Nobel Prize winners . Furthermore, the university maintains strong connections with major research institutes based in Göttingen, such as those of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science and the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community . With approximately 8 million media units, the Göttingen State and University Library ranks among the largest libraries in Germany
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University Of Tübingen
The University of Tübingen, officially the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (German: Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen; Latin: Universitas Eberhardina Carolina), is a public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg. It is one of Germany's most famous and oldest universities, noted in medicine, natural sciences, and the humanities
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Alma Mater
ALMA MATER ( Latin : _alma_ "nourishing/kind", _mater_ "mother"; pl. _almae matres_) is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college . In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, or a song or hymn associated with a school . The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its modern usage, _Alma mater_ was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses , especially Ceres or Cybele , and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary . It entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto "_Alma Mater Studiorum_" ("nurturing mother of studies"), which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world . It is related to _alumnus _, a term used for a university graduate that literally means a "nursling" or "one who is nourished"
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Doctoral Advisor
A DOCTORAL ADVISOR (also DISSERTATION DIRECTOR or DISSERTATION ADVISOR) is a member of a university faculty whose role is to guide graduate students who are candidates for a doctorate , helping them select coursework, as well as shaping, refining and directing the students' choice of sub-discipline in which they will be examined or on which they will write a dissertation . Students generally choose advisors based on their areas of interest within their discipline, their desire to work closely with particular graduate faculty, and the willingness and availability of those faculty to work with them. In some countries, the student's advisor serves as the chair of the doctoral examination or dissertation committees. In some cases, though, the person who serves those roles may be different from the faculty member who has most closely advised the student. For instance, in the Dutch academic system , only full professors (_hoogleraren_) may chair doctoral examinations, so students who have been advised by lower-ranked faculty members will have a full professor as their official advisor (or _promotor_) and their actual advisor as _co-promotor_. In other countries, such as Spain, the doctoral advisor has the role of a mentor, but is not allowed to form part of the examination committee. This is a body of 5 experts independently selected by the rectorate among 10 candidates proposed by the university's department
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Philipp Friedrich Gmelin
PHILIPP FRIEDRICH GMELIN (19 August 1721 – 9 May 1768) was a professor of botany and chemistry. He studied the chemistry of antimony and wrote texts on the pancreatic ducts , on mineral waters, and on botany. He was a brother of the famous traveler Johann Georg Gmelin
Johann Georg Gmelin
. He obtained his MD in 1742 at the University of Tübingen under Burchard Mauchart . He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1758. He was the father of the naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin
. NOTES * ^ "Library and Archive". Royal Society. Retrieved 2012-08-06. REFERENCES * J. Chem. Ed., 1954, 32, pp. 534–541. * Chem. Ber., 1939, 72, pp. 5A-33A. * Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Ärzte, Urban border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"> * WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 20438019 * LCCN : no2011076307 * ISNI : 0000 0001 1932 7773 * GND : 116685123 * SUDOC : 088780430 * Botanist : P.F.Gmel. * IATH : w6r0273n This article about a German botanist is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This article about a German chemist is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philipp_Friedrich_Gmelin additional terms may apply
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Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger
FERDINAND CHRISTOPH OETINGER (18 February 1719 – 15 April 1772) was a German physician. He studied philosophy at the University of Tübingen and medicine at the Universities of Leipzig and Halle , obtaining his doctorate at the latter institution in 1739. He later practiced medicine in Stuttgart and Urach , and in 1760 was named an associate professor of medicine at the University of Tübingen. In 1762 he became a full professor of medicine at Tübingen
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Georg Friedrich Hildebrandt
GEORG FRIEDRICH HILDEBRANDT (5 June 1764 – 23 March 1816) was a pharmacist , chemist , and anatomist . He was an early supporter of Lavoisier
Lavoisier
's theories in Germany. He investigated mercury compounds, and the chemical nature of quicklime , ammonium nitrate , and ammonia . He studied light emitted by electric discharges through air and investigated the use of nitric oxide to determine the oxygen content of air . He developed a method to separate silver from copper . He wrote textbooks on pharmacology and human anatomy , and treatises on smallpox , sleep , and the digestive system . He obtained his MD in 1783 from the University of Göttingen under Johann Friedrich Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin
. WORKS * Anfangsgründe der Chemie . Vol. 3 . Erlangen
Erlangen
: Walther, 1794 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf
University and State Library Düsseldorf
REFERENCES * K. Hufbauer, The Formation of the German Chemical Community (1720-1795), University of California Press, 1982, p. 214. * Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970-1990, VOL. 6, p. 395. * J. fur Chemie und Physik, 1819, 25, pp. 1–16. * J. R. Partington , A History of Chemistry, Macmillan, 1962, vol. 3, pp
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