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Jiroft Culture
A " Jiroft
Jiroft
culture"[1] has been postulated as an early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(late 3rd millennium BC) archaeological culture, located in the territory of present-day Balochistan
Balochistan
and Kermān Provinces of Iran. The hypothesis is based on a collection of artifacts that were confiscated in Iran and accepted by many to have derived from the Jiroft
Jiroft
area in south central Iran, reported by online Iranian news services, beginning in 2001. The proposed type site is Konar Sandal, near Jiroft
Jiroft
in the Halil River area
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Persian Mythology
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze
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Alid Dynasties Of Northern Iran
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Rashidun Caliphate
The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎ al-Khilāfa-al-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad
Muhammad
after his death in 632 CE (AH 11). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn)
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Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Dabuyid Dynasty
The Dabuyid or Gaubarid Dynasty was a Zoroastrian[1] Iranian dynasty that started in the early seventh century as an independent group of rulers, reigning over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and parts of western Khorasan.[2] Dabuyid rule over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and Khorasan lasted from ca. AD 642 to the Abbasid
Abbasid
conquest in 760.Contents1 History 2 Dabuyid rulers 3 References 4 SourcesHistory[edit] The family's early history is semi-mythical, and recorded by the later historian Ibn Isfandiyar. According to this story, the Dabuyids were descended from a brother of the Sassanid
Sassanid
shah Kavadh I. His grandson Firuz conquered Gilan, and Firuz's grandson Gil, surnamed Gavbara, then extended the family's rule over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
as well
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Kingdom Of Armenia (antiquity)
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia,[3] or simply Greater Armenia
Armenia
(Armenian: Մեծ Հայք Mets Hayk;[4] Latin: Armenia
Armenia
Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD. Its history is divided into successive reigns by three royal dynasties: Orontid (321 BC–200 BC),[5][6] Artaxiad (189 BC–12 AD) and Arsacid (52–428). The root of the kingdom lies in one of the satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire
Empire
of Persia
Persia
called Armenia
Armenia
( Satrapy
Satrapy
of Armenia), which was formed from the territory of the Kingdom of Ararat (860 BC–590 BC) after it was conquered by the Median Empire
Empire
in 590 BC
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Neo-Babylonian Empire
The Neo-Babylonian Empire
Empire
was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.[1] During the preceding three centuries, Babylonia
Babylonia
had been ruled by their fellow Akkadian
Akkadian
speakers and northern neighbours, Assyria. A year after the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler, Assurbanipal, in 627 BC, the Assyrian empire spiralled into a series of brutal civil wars. Babylonia
Babylonia
rebelled under Nabopolassar. In alliance with the Medes, Persians, Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians, they sacked the city of Nineveh
Nineveh
in 612 BC, and the seat of empire was transferred to Babylonia
Babylonia
for the first time since the death of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the mid 18th century BC
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Scythians
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe
Steppe
culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern Euro
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Zarmihrids
The Zarmihrid dynasty was a local dynasty of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
which ruled over parts of the mountainous areas of the region since the reign of Sasanian
Sasanian
king Khosrau I
Khosrau I
to 785. The family claimed its origin from a powerful Karen lord named Sukhra, a descendant of Kaveh the blacksmith, the national hero of Iran, and who was one of the leading nobles of the empire during the reign of Balash
Balash
and Kavadh I. According to a traditional story, Sukhra
Sukhra
left two children, Karin and Zarmihr, who helped Khosrau I
Khosrau I
protect the eastern borders of his empire when it was invaded by Turkic nomads. Karin was rewarded with land in the south of Amol, and was given title of Ispahbadh, thus starting the Karen dynasty of Tabaristan
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Urartu
Urartu
Urartu
(/ʊˈrɑːrtuː/; Armenian: Ուրարտու), also known as Kingdom of Van (Urartian: Biai, Biainili;[3] Assyrian: māt Urarṭu;[4] Babylonian: Urashtu; Armenian: Վանի թագավորություն, translit. Vani t′agavorut′yun)[5] was an Iron Age
Iron Age
kingdom centred on Lake Van
Lake Van
in the Armenian Highlands. It corresponds to the biblical Kingdom of Ararat. Strictly speaking, Urartu
Urartu
is the Assyrian term for a geographical region, while "Kingdom of Urartu" or "Biainili lands" are terms used in modern historiography for the Urartian-speaking Iron Age
Iron Age
state that arose in that region
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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Kura–Araxes Culture
The Kura–Araxes culture
Kura–Araxes culture
or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC,[1] which has traditionally been regarded as the date of its end; in some locations it may have disappeared as early as 2600 or 2700 BC.[2] The earliest evidence for this culture is found on the Ararat plain; it spread northward in Caucasus
Caucasus
by 3000 BC (but never reaching Colchis[3]). Altogether, the early trans-Caucasian culture enveloped a vast area approximately 1,000 km by 500 km,[4] and mostly encompassed, on modern-day territories, the Southern Caucasus
Caucasus
(except western Georgia), northwestern Iran, the northeastern Caucasus, eastern Turkey, and as far as Syria.[5][6] The name of the culture is derived from the Kura and Araxes river valleys
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Prehistory Of Iran
The prehistory of Iran could be divided to Paleolithic, Epipaleolithic, Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
periods as follow:Contents1 Paleolithic 2 Epipaleolithic 3 Neolithic 4 Chalcolithic 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingPaleolithic[edit] One of the potential routes for early human migrations toward southern and eastern Asia is Iran, a country characterized by a wide range of geographic variation and resources, which could support early groups of hominins who wandered into the region
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Before Christ
The terms anno Domini[a][1][2] (AD) and before Christ[b][3][4][5] (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord",[6] but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord",[7][8] taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC
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Kayanian Dynasty
The Kayanians, also Kays, Kayanids or Kaianids, or Kiani, are a semi-mythological dynasty of Persian tradition and folklore which supposedly ruled after the Pishdadids, and before the historical Achaemenids. Considered collectively, the Kayanian kings are the heroes of the Avesta, the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, and of the Shahnameh, Iran's national epic. As an epithet of kings and the reason the dynasty is so called, Middle and New Persian kay(an) originates from Avestan kavi (or kauui) "king" and also "poet-sacrificer" or "poet-priest". The word is also etymologically related to the Avestan notion of kavaēm kharēno, the "divine royal glory" that the Kayanian kings were said to hold
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