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Jiroft Culture
A "JIROFT CULTURE" has been postulated as an early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(late 3rd millennium BC) archaeological culture , located in the territory of present-day Sistan and Kermān Provinces of Iran
Iran
. The hypothesis is based on a collection of artifacts that were confiscated in Iran and accepted by many to have derived from the Jiroft area in south central Iran, reported by online Iranian news services, beginning in 2001. The proposed type site is Konar Sandal , near Jiroft in the Halil River area. Other significant sites associated with the culture include; Shahr-e Sukhteh (Burnt City), Tepe Bampur
Bampur
, Espiedej , Shahdad , Tal-i-Iblis and Tepe Yahya
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Scythians
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo
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Abbasid Caliphate
The ABBASID CALIPHATE (/əˈbæsᵻd/ or /ˈæbəsᵻd/ Arabic : ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎‎ _al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah_) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad . The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs , for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq , after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centered its government in Kufa , but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, north of the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Rashidun Caliphate
The RASHIDUN CALIPHATE (Arabic : اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎‎ _al-Khilāfaṫur-Rāshidah_) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad . It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad after his death in 632 CE (11 AH in the Islamic calendar ). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam as the _ Rashidun _ or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (Arabic : اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ‎‎ _al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn_). This term is not used in Shia Islam as Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs as legitimate
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Urartu
URARTU (Armenian : Ուրարտու), also known as KINGDOM OF VAN (Urartian : _Biai, Biainili_; Armenian : Վանի թագավորություն, _Vani t′agavorut′yun_; Assyrian : _māt Urarṭu_; Babylonian : _Urashtu_), was an Iron Age kingdom centred on Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands . It corresponds to the biblical _Kingdom of Ararat_. Strictly speaking, _Urartu_ is the Assyrian term for a geographical region , while "kingdom of Urartu" or "Biainili lands" are terms used in modern historiography for the Urartian-speaking Iron Age state that arose in that region. The language appears in cuneiform inscriptions. It is argued on linguistic evidence that proto-Armenian came in contact with Urartian at an early date (3rd-2nd millennium BC), before the formation of the Urartian kingdom. That a distinction should be made between the geographical and the political entity was already pointed out by König (1955)
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Neo-Babylonian Empire
The NEO-BABYLONIAN EMPIRE, also known as the CHALDEAN EMPIRE, was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC. During the preceding three centuries, Babylonia had been ruled by their fellow Akkadian speakers and northern neighbours, Assyria . A year after the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler, Assurbanipal , in 627 BC, the Assyrian empire spiralled into a series of brutal civil wars. Babylonia rebelled under Nabopolassar , a member of the Chaldean tribe which had migrated from the Levant to south eastern Babylonia in the early 9th century BC. In alliance with the Medes , Persians , Scythians and Cimmerians , they sacked the city of Nineveh in 612 BC, and the seat of empire was transferred to Babylonia for the first time since the death of Hammurabi in the mid 18th century BC
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Kingdom Of Armenia (antiquity)
Coordinates : 40°N 45°E / 40°N 45°E / 40; 45 Republic
Republic
of Armenia Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun (Armenian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Մեր Հայրենիք Mer Hayrenik "Our Fatherland" Capital and largest city Yerevan
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Masmughans Of Damavand
The MASMUGHANS OF DAMAVAND ( Middle Persian
Middle Persian
: Masmughan-i Dumbawand, New Persian : مس مغان دماوند, meaning Great Magians of Damavand) were a local dynasty, which ruled Damavand and its surrounding areas from ca. 651 to 760. The founder of the dynasty was a Karenid named Mardanshah of Damavand . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORYThe Masmughans of Damavand
Masmughans of Damavand
are first mentioned by Al-Tabari
Al-Tabari
, where the Masmughan Mardanshah of Damavand reportedly aided the Mihranid Siyavakhsh at Ray against the Arabs. The forces of Siyavakhsh and Mardanshah, were, however, defeated. Mardanshah then made peace with the Arabs in return for an annual tribute
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Paduspanids
The PADUSPANIDS or BADUSPANIDS (Persian : پادوسبانیان) were a local dynasty of Tabaristan which ruled over Royan , Nur and Rostamdar. The dynasty was established in 665, and ended in 1598 when the Safavids
Safavids
invaded their domains. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Known Paduspanid rulers * 2.1 Nur branch * 2.2 Kojur branch * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORYThe founder of the Paduspanid dynasty was Paduspan I, (also known by the Arabicized form Baduspan), who was the son of Gil Gavbara , the founder of the Dabuyid dynasty
Dabuyid dynasty
. Thus making the Paduspanids
Paduspanids
of Sasanian
Sasanian
descent like the Dabuyids
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Kingdom Of Cappadocia
The KINGDOM OF CAPPADOCIA was a Hellenistic -era Iranian kingdom centered in the historical region of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey). It developed from the former Achaemenid satrapy of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
, and it was founded by its last satrap , Ariarathes (later Ariarathes I). Throughout its history, it was ruled by three families in succession; the House of Ariarathes (331-96 BC), the House of Ariobarzanes (96 BC-36 BC), and lastly that of Archelaus (36 BC-17 AD). In 17 AD, following the death of Archelaus, during the reign of Roman emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
(14-37), the kingdom was incorporated as a Roman province
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Justanids
The JUSTANIDS or JOSTANIDS (Persian : جستانیان‎‎) were the rulers of a part of Daylam
Daylam
(the mountainous district of Gilan
Gilan
) from 791 to the late 11th-century. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Justanid rulers * 3 Family tree * 4 References * 5 Sources HISTORYThe Justanids
Justanids
appear as "Kings of Daylam
Daylam
" at the end of the 8th century. Their centre was in the Rudbar
Rudbar
of Alamut
Alamut
, running into the valley of the Shahrood. Two centuries later, this had become the main centre of the historical Nizari Ismailis or Assassins (Hashshashin) as they are known in the west. They appear in Islamic history as part of what Vladimir Minorsky has called "the Iranian intermezzo". This is where indigenous Daylamite and Kurdish principalities take power in north west Persia after two to three hundred years of Arab rule
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Neo-Assyrian Empire
The NEO-ASSYRIAN EMPIRE was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 612 BC. The Assyrians perfected early techniques of imperial rule, many of which became standard in later empires
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Zarmihrids
The ZARMIHRID DYNASTY was a local dynasty of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
which ruled over parts of the mountainous areas of the region since the reign of Sasanian
Sasanian
king Khosrau I
Khosrau I
to 785. The family claimed its origin from a powerful Karen lord named Sukhra , a descendant of Kaveh the blacksmith
Kaveh the blacksmith
, the national hero of Iran, and who was one of the leading nobles of the empire during the reign of Balash
Balash
and Kavadh I
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Before Christ
The terms ANNO DOMINI (AD) and BEFORE CHRIST (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars . The term _anno Domini_ is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often translated as "in the year of our Lord". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth , with _AD_ counting years from the start of this epoch , and _BC_ denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor , but was not widely used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today
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Kayanian Dynasty
The KAYANIANS, also KAYS, KAYANIDS or KAIANIDS, or KIANI, are a semi-mythological dynasty of Persian tradition and folklore which supposedly ruled after the Pishdadids , and before the historical Achaemenids . Considered collectively, the Kayanian kings are the heroes of the Avesta , the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism , and of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
, Iran
Iran
's national epic. As an epithet of kings and the reason the dynasty is so called, Middle and New Persian kay(an) originates from Avestan kavi (or kauui) "king" and also "poet-sacrificer" or "poet-priest". The word is also etymologically related to the Avestan notion of kavaēm kharēno , the "divine royal glory" that the Kayanian kings were said to hold. The Kiani Crown is a physical manifestation of that belief
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Shabankara
SHABANKARA or SHABANKAREH (Persian : ملوک شبانکاره‎‎, Kurdish : Şivankaran or Şiwankaran, other spellings: Shabankara, Shwankara, Marco Polo: Soncara, Ibn Athir: Shwankara) was the name of an tribal federation of Iranian nomads who resided some parts of the Zagros mountains. They claimed descent the mythical Iranian king Manuchehr , and are thought to be descendants of Daylamites who had followed the Buyid dynasty from northern Iran, or "Kurds" (back then a non-ethnic term used to describe Iranian nomads) who had been deported to eastern Fars from Isfahan by the Buyid shahanshah \'Adud al-Dawla (r. 949–983). In the early twelfth century there were five subdivisions of them: Ramani, Shakani, Karzuwi, Masudi and Ismaili
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