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Jiang (surname)
Jiang[1] can be a pinyin transliteration of one of several Chinese surnames:Look up 江, 蔣, 蒋, 姜, or 强 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.江, commonly spelled as Jiāng, Chiang, Gong, Kong, Kang 蔣, commonly spelled as Jiǎng, Chiang, Cheung, Jang, Chioh 姜, commonly spelled as Jiāng, Kang, Gang, Geung, Gung, Chiang, Keung, Keong, Kiang 強, commonly spelled as Jiàng, Gang, Geong, Geung, Khiang, Qiang, ChiangContents1 江1.1 Origins 1.2 Notable people2 蔣2.1 Notable people of 蔣3 姜3.1 Notable people of 姜4 彊 5 References江[edit]JiangJiang surname in regular scriptPronunciation Jiāng (Pinyin) Kang (Pe̍h-ōe-jī)Language(s) ChineseOriginLanguage(s) ChineseWord/Name name of an autonomous Chinese kingdomDerivation Jiangguo (江国)Meaning great riverOther namesVariant(s) Jiang, Chiang (Mandarin) Kong,
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Jiang Qing
Jiang Qing[a] (Chinese: 江青; pinyin: Jiāng Qīng; Wade–Giles: Chiang Ch'ing, March 19, 1914 – May 14, 1991), also known as Madame Mao, was a Chinese Communist
Communist
Revolutionary, Chinese actress, and major political figure during the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
(1966–76). She was the fourth wife of Mao Zedong, the Chairman of the Communist Party and Paramount leader
Paramount leader
of China. She used the stage name Lan Ping (蓝苹) during her acting career, and was known by many other names. She married Mao in Yan'an
Yan'an
in November 1938 and served as the inaugural "First Lady" of the People's Republic of China
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Western Zhou Dynasty
The Western Zhou
Western Zhou
(/dʒoʊ/;[1] Chinese: 西周; c. 1046 – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
of ancient China. It began when King Wu of Zhou
King Wu of Zhou
overthrew the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
at the Battle of Muye
Battle of Muye
and ended when the Quanrong nomads sacked its capital Haojing and killed King You of Zhou in 771 BC. The dynasty was successful for about seventy-five years and then slowly lost power. The former Shang lands were divided into hereditary fiefs which became increasingly independent of the king
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Henan Province
Henan
Henan
(Chinese: 河南) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan
Henan
is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (中州) which literally means "central plain land" or "midland", although the name is also applied to the entirety of China
China
proper. Henan
Henan
is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 3,000 years of recorded history, and remained China's cultural, economical, and political center until approximately 1,000 years ago. Henan province
Henan province
is a home to a large number of heritage sites which have been left behind including the ruins of Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
capital city Yin and the Shaolin Temple
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Spring And Autumn Period
The Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
(simplified Chinese: 春秋时代; traditional Chinese: 春秋時代; pinyin: Chūnqiū Shídài) was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC[a])[2] which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou
Eastern Zhou
Period. The period's name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC, which tradition associates with Confucius. During this period, the Zhou royal authority over the various feudal states started to decline, as more and more dukes and marquesses obtained de facto regional autonomy, defying the king's court in Luoyi, and waging wars amongst themselves
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Chu (state)
Chu (Chinese: 楚, Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ[2]) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state. From King Wu of Chu
King Wu of Chu
in the early 8th century BCE, the rulers of Chu declared themselves kings on an equal footing with the Zhou kings. Though initially inconsequential, removed to the south of the Zhou heartland and practising differing customs, Chu began a series of administrative reforms, becoming a successful expansionist state during the Spring and Autumn period. With its continued expansion Chu became a great Warring States period
Warring States period
power. Also known as Jing (荆), Jingchu (荆楚) and Shu (舒), Chu included most of the present-day provinces of Hubei
Hubei
and Hunan, along with parts of Chongqing, Guizhou, Henan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Shanghai
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Song (state)
Sòng (Chinese: 宋; Old Chinese: *[s]ˤuŋ-s) was a state during the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
of ancient China, with its capital at Shangqiu. The state was founded soon after King Wu of Zhou
King Wu of Zhou
conquered the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
to establish the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
in 1046/46 BC. It was conquered by the State of Qi
State of Qi
in 286 BC, during the Warring States period. Confucius
Confucius
was a descendant of a Song nobleman who moved to the State of Lu.Contents1 Origin 2 History 3 Rulers of the state 4 Descendants 5 Song in astronomy 6 See also 7 ReferencesOrigin[edit] After King Wu overthrew the last ruler of Shang, marking the transition to the Zhou Dynasty, the victor was honor-bound by feudal etiquette to allow the defeated house (Shang) to continue offering sacrifices to their ancestors
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Qi (state)
Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march, duchy, and independent kingdom. Its capital was Yingqiu, located within present-day Zibo
Zibo
in Shandong. Qi was founded shortly after the Zhou overthrow of Shang in the 11th century BC. Its first marquis was Jiang Ziya, minister of King Wen and a legendary figure in Chinese culture. His family ruled Qi for several centuries before it was replaced by the Tian family in 386 BC.[1] In 221 BC, Qi was the final major state annexed by Qin during its unification of China.Contents1 History1.1 Foundation 1.2 Spring and Autumn period 1.3 Warring States period2 Culture of Qi 3 Qi architecture 4 Qi in astronomy 5 Rulers5.1 House of Jiang 5.2 House of Tian6 Famous people 7 References 8 Further readingHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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Huai River
The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China. It is located about midway between the Yellow River
Yellow River
and Yangtze,[1] the two largest rivers in China, and like them runs from west to east. Historically draining directly into the Yellow Sea, floods have changed the course of the river such that it is now a major tributary of the Yangtze. The Huai is notoriously vulnerable to flooding. The Huai River- Qin Mountains
Qin Mountains
line is generally regarded as the geographical dividing line between Northern and southern China. This line approximates the 0 degree January isotherm and the 800 mm isohyet in China
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Chinese Clan
A Chinese kin, lineage or sometimes rendered as clan, is a patrilineal and patrilocal group of related Chinese people with a common surname sharing a common ancestor and, in many cases, an ancestral home.Contents1 Description 2 Zupu—the genealogy book 3 Kinship corporation 4 Ancestral shrine 5 Variations5.1 Consort kinship 5.2 Qing period6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksDescription[edit] Chinese kinship tend to be strong in southern China, reinforced by ties to an ancestral village, common property, and often a common spoken Chinese dialect unintelligible to people outside the village. Kinship structures tend to be weaker in northern China, with clan members that do not usually reside in the same village nor share property. Zupu—the genealogy book[edit] A zupu (simplified Chinese: 族谱; traditional Chinese: 族譜; pinyin: zúpǔ) is a Chinese kin register or genealogy book, which contains stories of the kin's origins, male line
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Mao Zedong
Mao
Mao
Zedong[a] (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China
Chairman of the Communist Party of China
from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. His theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism. Mao
Mao
was the son of a wealthy farmer in Shaoshan, Hunan. He had a Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist outlook early in his life, and was particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Movement
May Fourth Movement
of 1919
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Hubei Province
Hubei
Hubei
(Chinese: 湖北; pinyin: Húběi) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China
Central China
region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake.[4] The provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political, cultural, and economic hub of Central China. Hubei
Hubei
is officially abbreviated to "鄂" (È), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the Qin dynasty, while a popular name for Hubei
Hubei
is "楚" (Chǔ), after the powerful State of Chu
State of Chu
that existed here during the Eastern Zhou dynasty
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General Secretary Of The Communist Party Of China
Current leadershipXi-Li Administration National leadersPresident (list): Xi JinpingVice President (list): Wang QishanProvincial leadersCommunist PartyHistory OrganizationNational Party Congress (19th)Central Committee (19th) General Secretary (list)Xi JinpingCentral Politburo (19th)Standing Committee (list)Central SecretariatTop-ranked secretary: Wang HuningCentral Military CommissionChairman: Xi JinpingVice Chairmen: Xu Qiliang, Zhang YouxiaNational Security CommissionChairman: Xi Jinping Central Commission for Discipline I
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March Fong Eu
March Kong Fong Eu (Chinese: 余江月桂; pinyin: Yú Jiāng Yuèguì; Jyutping: Jyu4 Gong1 Jyut6 Gwai3; March 29, 1922 – December 21, 2017) was a Chinese-American politician. She was a member of the California State Assembly
California State Assembly
and went on to serve as Secretary of State of California.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career2.1 California Assembly 2.2 California Secretary of State 2.3 Other political activities3 Later life and family 4 Recognition 5 References 6 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Eu was born in Oakdale, California
Oakdale, California
in the San Joaquin Valley, where her Chinese immigrant parents ran a hand-wash laundry. The family later moved to San Francisco.[1] Eu earned a Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science
in dentistry from the University of California, Berkeley in 1943 and a Master of Arts from Mills College. She earned a Ed.D
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