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Jhakri
Jhākri
Jhākri
(Nepali: झाक्री) is the Nepali word for shaman ( Witch Doctors). It is sometimes reserved specifically for practitioners of Nepali shamanism, such as that practiced among the Tamang people
Tamang people
and the Magars; it is also used in the Indian states of Sikkim
Sikkim
and West Bengal, which border Nepal. Jhākri
Jhākri
shamanism is practiced among numerous ethnic groups of Nepal and Northeast India, including the Limbu, Rai, Sunwar, Sherpa, Kami, Tamang, Gurung, Magars, Lepcha and Khas.[1] Belief in spirits is prevalent, hence also the fear of spirit possession.[2] Some vernacular words for jhākri are phedangbo in the Limbu language, maangpa or nakchyong in Khambu, and boongthing in Lepcha. Jhākris perform rituals during weddings, funerals, and harvests. They diagnose and cure diseases
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Sherpa People
Sherpa are a Tibetic ethnic group native to the most mountainous regions of Nepal, China, Bhutan
Bhutan
and India, the Himalayas. The term sherpa or sherwa derives from the Sherpa language words shar ("east") and wa ("people"), a reference to their geographical origin in northeastern Tibet.[2]:2 Most Sherpa people
Sherpa people
live in eastern regions of Nepal; however, some live farther west in the Rolwaling valley and in the Helambu
Helambu
region north of Kathmandu. Tengboche
Tengboche
is the oldest Sherpa village in Nepal. Sherpa people
Sherpa people
also live in China, Bhutan, as well as in the Indian states of Sikkim
Sikkim
and the northern portion of West Bengal, specifically the district of Darjeeling
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Rai People
The Khambu or Rai are indigenous ethnolinguistic groups of Nepal, the Indian State of Sikkim
Sikkim
and Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Hills. They were Rai meaning king (Rai means King
King
in old Khas kura (Nepali). When the king Prithvi Narayan Shah couldn't defeat Khambu king, he somehow took them in confidence that the land is theirs forever and gave them the title Rai in around B.S. 1832 . The title of Rai instead khambu kirant people who used to live in majh kirant for particular reason. Then the post Rai was provided to the topmost leaders of the region. They were given the power to collect land tax. That's why sometimes Rai people
Rai people
are called Jimee or Jimee-wal. The Rai belong to the Kirati
Kirati
group or the Kirat
Kirat
confederaticludes Limbu, Sunuwar, Yakkha and Dhimal ethnic groups
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Bön
Bon, also spelled Bön[2] (Tibetan: བོན་, Wylie: bon, Lhasa dialect IPA: pʰø̃̀), is a Tibetan religion, which self-identifies as distinct from Tibetan Buddhism, although it shares the same overall teachings and terminology
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Mun (religion)
Mun or Munism (also called Bongthingism) is the traditional polytheistic, animist, shamanistic, and syncretic religion of the Lepcha people. It predates the seventh century Lepcha conversion to Lamaistic Buddhism, and since that time, the Lepcha have practiced it together with Buddhism. Since the arrival of Christian missionaries in the nineteenth century, Mun traditions have been followed alongside that religion as well. The traditional religion permits incorporation of Buddha
Buddha
and Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
as deities, depending on household beliefs.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The exonym "Mun" derives from the traditional belief in spirits called mun or mung. Together with bongthing (also bungthing or bóngthíng), mun comprise a central element in the religion
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Tibetan Buddhism
New branches:Blue Lotus AssemblyGateway of the Hidden FlowerNew Kadampa
Kadampa
Buddhism Shambhala
Shambhala
BuddhismTrue Awakening TraditionHistoryTantrismMahasiddhaSahajaPursuit
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Hinduism
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra


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Lepcha Language
Lepcha language, or Róng language (Lepcha: ᰛᰩᰵ་ᰛᰧᰶᰵ; Róng ríng), is a Himalayish language spoken by the Lepcha people
Lepcha people
in Sikkim
Sikkim
and parts of West Bengal, Nepal
Nepal
and Bhutan.Contents1 Population 2 Classification 3 Features 4 Script and romanization 5 Phonology5.1 Consonants 5.2 Vowels6 Grammar6.1 Nouns6.1.1 Thematic classes6.2 Verbs7 See also 8 References 9 Further readingPopulation[edit] Lepcha is spoken by minorities in the Indian states of Sikkim
Sikkim
and West Bengal, as well as parts of Nepal
Nepal
and Bhutan. Where it is spoken, it is considered to be an aboriginal language, pre-dating the arrival of the Tibetan languages
Tibetan languages
(Sikkimese, Dzongkha, and others) and more recent Nepali language
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Khambu
Kulung (autonym: Kulu rɩŋ, [kulu rɪŋ]) is a Kiranti language spoken by an estimated 33,000 people.Contents1 Locations 2 Phonology2.1 Vowels 2.2 Consonants3 Nominal morphology3.1 Personal pronouns 3.2 Cases4 Verbal morphology 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksLocations[edit] Kulung in some ten villages along the upper reaches of the Huṅga or Hoṅgu river (a tributary of the Dūdhkosī), in Solu Khumbu
Solu Khumbu
District of Sagarmāthā Zone, Nepal. The main Kulung-speaking villages are Chhemsi and Chheskam. The particular dialect of the language spoken in these two villages is considered by the Kulung to be the most original form of their language
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Limbu Language
Nepal Sikkim, IndiaLanguage codesISO 639-3 lifGlottolog limb1266[3] Limbu
Limbu
(Limbu: ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ ᤐᤠᤴ, yakthung pān) is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Limbu people
Limbu people
of eastern Nepal
Nepal
and India
India
(particularly Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Sikkim, Assam
Assam
and Nagaland) as well as expatriate communities in Bhutan, Burma, Thailand, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Canada and the US. The Limbu
Limbu
refer to themselves as Yakthung and their language as Yakthungpan
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Spirit Possession
Spirit
Spirit
possession is a term for the belief that animas, aliens, demons, extraterrestrials, gods, or spirits can take control of a human body. The concept of spirit possession exists in many religions, including Christianity,[1] Buddhism, Haitian Vodou, Wicca, Hinduism, Islam
Islam
and Southeast Asian and African traditions. In a 1969 study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, spirit possession beliefs were found to exist in 74 percent of a sample of 488 societies in all parts of the world.[2] Depending on the cultural context in which it is found, possession may be considered voluntary or involuntary and may be considered to have beneficial or detrimental effects on the host
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Lepcha People
The Lepcha are also called the Rongkup meaning the children of God and the Rong, Mútuncí Róngkup Rumkup (Lepcha: ᰕᰫ་ᰊᰪᰰ་ᰆᰧᰶ ᰛᰩᰵ་ᰀᰪᰱ ᰛᰪᰮ་ᰀᰪᰱ; "beloved children of the Róng and of God"), and Rongpa (Sikkimese: རོང་པ་), are among the indigenous peoples of Sikkim
Sikkim
and number between 30,000 and 50,000. Many Lepcha are also found in western and southwestern Bhutan, Tibet, Darjeeling, the Mechi Zone
Mechi Zone
of eastern Nepal, and in the hills of West Bengal
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Gurung People
The Gurung people, also called Tamu, are an ethnic group from different parts of Nepal.[2] They believe that till the 15th century they were ruled by a Gurung king. When the British Empire came to South Asia, the Gurung people
Gurung people
began serving the British in Army regiments of Gurkhas.[3]Contents1 Religion 2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksReligion Priestly practitioners of the Gurung Dharma include Ghyabri (Klehpri), Pachyu (Paju), and Bon Lamas.[4] Shamanistic elements among the Gurungs remain strong and most Gurungs often embrace Buddhist
Buddhist
and Bön rituals in communal activities.[5][6] See alsoGurung language Gurung (surname) Guru BaajeReferences^ Dr. Dilli Ram Dahal (2002-12-30). "Chapter 3. Social composition of the Population: Caste/Ethnicity and Religion in Nepal". Government of Nepal, Central Bureau of Statistics
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Kami (caste)
Kami/Bishwakarma (Nepali: कामी) is an ethno-linguistic Indo-Aryan Nepali speaking group. It is a Khas
Khas
occupational caste belonging to blacksmiths.[2] The 1854 Nepalese Muluki Ain (Legal Code) categorized Kami as "Impure and Untouchable (Pani Na Chalne)" category.[3] Kami are categorized under "Hill Dalit" among the 9 broad social groups, along with Damai, Badi, Sarki and Gaine by the Government of Nepal.[1] Thus, the tribal designation of Khas
Khas
is given only in few context to Kami, Damai
Damai
and Sarki due to traditional low and untouchable status.[2] Kamis are essentially blacksmiths and goldsmiths and are scattered across almost all hilly districts of Nepal, districts of Sikkim, Darjeeling (a District of W.B), and Assam; some have settled in other parts of India as well
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Frame Drum
A frame drum is a drum that has a drumhead width greater than its depth. Usually the single drumhead is made of rawhide or man-made materials. Shells are traditionally constructed of bent wood (rosewood, oak, ash etc.) scarf jointed together; plywood and man-made materials are also used. Some frame drums have mechanical tuning and on many the drumhead is stretched and tacked in place. It is the earliest skin drum known to have existed. Examples are found in many places and cultures. The frame drum is one of the most ancient musical instruments; it is reputed to be the first drum to be invented. Frame drums are often constructed with a round, wooden frame. Metal rings or jingles may also be attached to the frame
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