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Jews As The Chosen People
In Judaism, "chosenness" is the belief that the Jews
Jews
, via descent from the ancient Israelites
Israelites
, are the chosen people , i.e. chosen to be in a covenant with God
God
. The idea of the Israelites
Israelites
being chosen by God
God
is found most directly in the Book of Deuteronomy
Book of Deuteronomy
as the verb bahar (בָּחַ֣ר (Hebrew )), and is alluded to elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
using other terms such as "holy people". Much is written about these topics in rabbinic literature . The three largest Jewish denominations— Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
, Conservative Judaism
Judaism
and Reform Judaism
Judaism
—maintain the belief that the Jews
Jews
have been chosen by God for a purpose
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Laws And Customs Of The Land Of Israel In Judaism
LAWS AND CUSTOMS OF THE LAND OF ISRAEL IN JUDAISM (Hebrew : מצוות התלויות בארץ‎‎; translit. Mitzvot Ha'teluyot Be'aretz) are special Jewish laws that apply only to the Land of Israel
Israel
. According to a standard view, 26 of the 613 mitzvot
613 mitzvot
apply only in the Land of Israel. Overall, the laws and customs may be classified as follows: * Laws that were in force at the time of the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
and in connection with the Temple service
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Beit Yosef (book)
BEIT YOSEF (Hebrew : בית יוסף‎‎) — also transliterated BETH YOSEF — is a book by Rabbi Joseph Caro . It is a long, detailed commentary on the Arba\'ah Turim . It served as a precursor to the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
, which Rabbi Caro wrote later in his life. For more information on this book, see the section Beth Yosef (in the article Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
). This article about a Judaism
Judaism
-related book or text is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Arba'ah Turim
ARBA\'AH TURIM (Hebrew : אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‎‎‎), often called simply the TUR, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher ( Cologne
Cologne
, 1270 – Toledo, Spain c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the TUR and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
. CONTENTS * 1 Meaning of the name * 2 Arrangement and contents * 3 Later developments * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links MEANING OF THE NAMEThe title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest\'s breastplate
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613 Commandments
The tradition that 613 COMMANDMENTS (Hebrew : תרי"ג מצוות‎, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah
Torah
, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi
Rabbi
Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud
Talmud
Makkot 23b. Although there have been many attempts to codify and enumerate the commandments contained in the Torah, the most traditional enumeration is Maimonides
Maimonides
'. The 613 commandments
613 commandments
include "positive commandments", to perform an act (mitzvot aseh), and "negative commandments", to abstain from certain acts (mitzvot lo taaseh)
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Targum
The TARGUMIM (singular: "targum", Hebrew : תרגום‎) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a Rabbi
Rabbi
would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic
Aramaic
. That had become necessary near the end of the 1st century BCE, as the common language was in transition and Hebrew was used for little more than schooling and worship. The noun "Targum" is derived from the early semitic quadriliteral root 'trgm', and the Akkadian term 'targummanu' refers to "translator, interpreter". It occurs in the Hebrew Bible
Bible
in Ezra 4:7 "..
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Bar And Bat Mitzvah
BAR MITZVAH (Hebrew : בַּר מִצְוָה‎) and BAT MITZVAH (Hebrew : בַּת מִצְוָה‎) (Ashkenazi pronunciation: "Bas Mitzvah") (plural: B'nai Mitzvah for boys, and B'not Mitzvah – Ashkenazi pronunciation: "B'nos Mitzvah" – for girls) are Jewish coming of age rituals. BAR (בַּר‎) is a Jewish
Jewish
Babylonian Aramaic word literally meaning "son" (בֵּן‎), while BAT (בַּת‎) means "daughter" in Hebrew, and MITZVAH (מִצְוָה‎) means "commandment" or "law" (plural: mitzvot). Thus bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah literally translate to "son of commandment" and "daughter of commandment". However, in rabbinical usage, the word bar means "under the category of" or "subject to". Bar mitzvah therefore translates to "an who is subject to the law"
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic (Gemara) —— *
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Mitzvah
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word MITZVAH (/ˈmɪtsvə/ ; meaning "commandment", מִצְוָה‎, , Biblical : miṣwah; plural מִצְווֹת‎ mitzvot , Biblical: miṣwoth; from צִוָּה‎ ṣiwwah "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God. It is used in rabbinical Judaism
Judaism
to refer to the 613 commandments given in the Torah
Torah
at biblical Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
and the seven rabbinic commandments instituted later for a total of 620. The 613 commandments are divided into two categories: 365 negative commandments and 248 positive commandments. According to the Talmud
Talmud
, all moral laws are, or are derived from, divine commandments . The collection is part of the larger Jewish law or halakha
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Shulchan Aruch
The SHULCHAN ARUCH (Hebrew : שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך‎ , literally: "Set Table"), also known by various Jewish communities but not all as "the CODE OF JEWISH LAW," is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism. It was authored in Safed (today in Israel
Israel
) by Yosef Karo in 1563 and published in Venice
Venice
two years later. Together with its commentaries, it is the most widely accepted compilation of Jewish law ever written. The halachic rulings in the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
generally follow Sephardic law and customs , whereas Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
will generally follow the halachic rulings of Moses Isserles , whose glosses to the Shulchan Aruch note where the Sephardic and Ashkenazi customs differ
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Romaniote Jews
The ROMANIOTE JEWS or ROMANIOTS (Greek : Ῥωμανιῶτες, Rhōmaniṓtes; Hebrew : רומניוטים‬, Romanyotim) are an ethnic Jewish community with distinctive cultural features who have lived in Greece
Greece
and neighboring Eastern Mediterranean countries for more than 2,000 years, being the oldest Jewish community in the Eurasian continent. Their distinct language was Judaeo-Greek , a Greek dialect, and is today modern Greek or the languages of their new home countries. They derived their name from the old name for the people of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, Romaioi
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Cochin Jews
COCHIN JEWS, also called MALABAR JEWS, are the oldest group of Jews in India
India
, with possible roots claimed to date to the time of King Solomon . The Cochin Jews
Jews
settled in the Kingdom of Cochin
Kingdom of Cochin
in South India
India
, now part of the state of Kerala
Kerala
. As early as the 12th century, mention is made of the Black Jews
Jews
in southern India. The Jewish traveler, Benjamin of Tudela , speaking of Kollam
Kollam
(Quilon) on the Malabar Coast, writes in his Itinerary: "...throughout the island, including all the towns thereof, live several thousand Israelites. The inhabitants are all black, and the Jews
Jews
also. The latter are good and benevolent
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Jewish Identity
JEWISH IDENTITY is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as a Jew and as relating to being Jewish . Under a broader definition, Jewish identity
Jewish identity
does not depend on whether a person is regarded as a Jew by others, or by an external set of religious, or legal, or sociological norms. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
does not need to imply religious orthodoxy. Accordingly, Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can be cultural in nature. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can involve ties to the Jewish community. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
bases Jewishness on matrilineal descent. According to Jewish law (halacha ), all those born of a Jewish mother are considered Jewish, regardless of personal beliefs or level of observance of Jewish law. Jews
Jews
who are atheists may have a Jewish identity
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Jewish Peoplehood
JEWISH PEOPLEHOOD ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: עמיות יהודית, Amiut Yehudit) is the conception of the awareness of the underlying unity that makes an individual a part of the Jewish
Jewish
people. The concept of peoplehood has a double meaning. The first is descriptive, as a concept factually describing the existence of the Jews
Jews
as a people. The second is normative, as a value that describes the feeling of belonging and commitment to the Jewish
Jewish
people. Some believe that the concept of Jewish
Jewish
peoplehood is a paradigm shift in Jewish
Jewish
life
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