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Jews As The Chosen People
In Judaism, "chosenness" is the belief that the Jews , via descent from the ancient Israelites , are the chosen people , i.e. chosen to be in a covenant with God . The idea of the Israelites being chosen by God is found most directly in the Book of Deuteronomy as the verb bahar (בָּחַ֣ר (Hebrew )), and is alluded to elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible using other terms such as "holy people". Much is written about these topics in rabbinic literature . The three largest Jewish denominations— Orthodox Judaism , Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism —maintain the belief that the Jews have been chosen by God for a purpose. Sometimes this choice is seen as charging the Jewish people with a specific mission — to be a light unto the nations, and to exemplify the covenant with God as described in the Torah
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Outline Of Judaism
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Judaism : CONTENTS* 1 History of Judaism * 1.1 Pre-monarchic period * 1.2 Monarchic period * 1.2.1 United monarchy * 1.2.2 Divided monarchy * 1.2.2.1 Kingdom of Judah * 1.2.2.1.1 Kings of Judah * 1.2.2.1.2 Major events * 1.2.2.2 Kingdom of
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Jews
The JEWS (/dʒuːz/ ; Hebrew : יְהוּדִים‎ ISO 259-3 _Yhudim_, Israeli pronunciation ), also known as the JEWISH PEOPLE, are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites , or Hebrews , of the Ancient Near East . Jewish ethnicity , nationhood and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel . The Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE (Late Bronze Age)
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Judaism
JUDAISM (from Latin : _Iudaismus_, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew יהודה‎, _Yehudah_, "Judah "; in Hebrew: יהדות‎, _Yahadut_, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos ) is an ancient monotheistic Abrahamic religion , with the Torah as its foundational text (part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible ), and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud . It encompasses the religion , philosophy , culture and way of life of the Jewish people . Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel . With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world
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Jew (word)
The term JEW passed into the English language from the Greek Ioudaios and Latin Iudaeus, from which the Old French
Old French
giu was derived after dropping the letter "d", and later after a variety of forms found in early English (from about the year 1000) such as: Iudea, Gyu, Giu, Iuu, Iuw, Iew developed into the English word “Jew.” It thus ultimately originates in the Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
word Yehudi meaning "from the Tribe of Judah
Tribe of Judah
", "from the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
", or " Jew
Jew
". The Jewish ethnonym in Hebrew is יהודים‎, Yehudim (plural of יהודי‎, Yehudi)
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Who Is A Jew?
"WHO IS A JEW?" ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: מיהו יהודי‎‎ pronounced ) is a basic question about Jewish identity
Jewish identity
and considerations of Jewish self-identification . The question is based on ideas about Jewish personhood, which have cultural , ethnic religious , political , genealogical , and personal dimensions. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
and Conservative Judaism
Judaism
follow the Halakha , deeming a person to be Jewish
Jewish
if their mother is Jewish, or they underwent a proper conversion . Reform Judaism
Judaism
and Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
accept both matrilineal and patrilineal descent. Karaite Judaism
Judaism
predominantly follows patrilineal descent. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
is also commonly defined through ethnicity
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Jewish Peoplehood
JEWISH PEOPLEHOOD ( Hebrew : עמיות יהודית, _Amiut Yehudit_) is the conception of the awareness of the underlying unity that makes an individual a part of the Jewish people. The concept of peoplehood has a double meaning. The first is descriptive, as a concept factually describing the existence of the Jews as a people. The second is normative, as a value that describes the feeling of belonging and commitment to the Jewish people. Some believe that the concept of Jewish peoplehood is a paradigm shift in Jewish life. Insisting that the mainstream of Jewish life is focused on Zionism , Jewish nationalism, they argue that Jewish life should instead focus on Jewish peoplehood
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Jewish Identity
JEWISH IDENTITY is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as a Jew and as relating to being Jewish . Under a broader definition, Jewish identity does not depend on whether a person is regarded as a Jew by others, or by an external set of religious, or legal, or sociological norms. Jewish identity does not need to imply religious orthodoxy. Accordingly, Jewish identity can be cultural in nature. Jewish identity can involve ties to the Jewish community. Orthodox Judaism bases Jewishness on matrilineal descent. According to Jewish law (halacha ), all those born of a Jewish mother are considered Jewish, regardless of personal beliefs or level of observance of Jewish law. Jews who are atheists may have a Jewish identity
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God In Judaism
In Judaism , GOD is understood to be the absolute one , indivisible, and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Judaism holds that Yahweh , the god of Abraham , Isaac , and Jacob and the national god of the Israelites , delivered the Israelites from slavery in Egypt , and gave them the Law of Moses at biblical Mount Sinai as described in the Torah . Traditional interpretations of Judaism generally emphasize that God is personal , while some modern interpretations of Judaism emphasize that God is a force or ideal. The Hebrew Bible refers to this concept using the letters YHWH (יהוה‎). In Jewish tradition another name of God is Elohim
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Names Of God In Judaism
Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
describes seven names which are so holy that, once written, should not be erased: The Tetragrammaton (whether written YHWH or Adonai
Adonai
), El ("God"), Eloah ("God"), Elohim
Elohim
("Gods"), Shaddai (" God
God
Almighty"), Ehyeh , and Tzevaot (" Hosts"). Other names are considered mere epithets or titles reflecting different aspects of God, but chumrah sometimes dictates special care such as the writing of "G-d" instead of "God" in English or saying Ṭēt -Vav (טו, lit. "9-6") instead of Yōd -Hē (יה, lit. "10-5" but also " Jah
Jah
") for the number fifteen in Hebrew . The name of God
God
used most often in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
is the Tetragrammaton YHWH (Hebrew : יהוה‎)
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Jewish Principles Of Faith
There is no established formulation of PRINCIPLES OF FAITH that are recognized by all branches of Judaism . Central authority in Judaism is not vested in any one person or group - although the Sanhedrin , the supreme Jewish religious court, would fulfill this role when it is re-established - but rather in Judaism's sacred writings , laws , and traditions . The various principles of faith that have been enumerated over the centuries carry no weight other than that imparted to them by the fame and scholarship of their respective authors. Judaism affirms the existence and uniqueness of God and stresses performance of deeds or commandments alongside adherence to a strict belief system
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Mitzvah
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word _MITZVAH_ (/ˈmɪtsvə/ ; meaning "commandment", מִצְוָה‎, , Biblical : _miṣwah_; plural מִצְווֹת‎ _mitzvot_ , Biblical: _miṣwoth_; from צִוָּה‎ _ṣiwwah_ "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God. It is used in rabbinical Judaism to refer to the 613 commandments given in the Torah at biblical Mount Sinai and the seven rabbinic commandments instituted later for a total of 620. The 613 commandments are divided into two categories: 365 negative commandments and 248 positive commandments. According to the Talmud , all moral laws are, or are derived from, divine commandments . The collection is part of the larger Jewish law or _halakha _
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613 Commandments
The tradition that 613 COMMANDMENTS (Hebrew : תרי"ג מצוות‎, _taryag mitzvot_, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah , began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b. Although there have been many attempts to codify and enumerate the commandments contained in the Torah, the most traditional enumeration is Maimonides '. The 613 commandments include "positive commandments", to perform an act (_mitzvot aseh_), and "negative commandments", to abstain from certain acts (_mitzvot lo taaseh_). The negative commandments number 365, which coincides with the number of days in the solar year , and the positive commandments number 248, a number ascribed to the number of bones and main organs in the human body (Babylonian Talmud, _Makkot_ 23b–24a)
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Halakha
_HALAKHA_ (/hɑːˈlɔːxə/ ; Hebrew
Hebrew
: הֲלָכָה‎, Sephardic : ; also transliterated as _HALACHA_, _HALAKHAH_, _HALACHAH_ or _HALOCHO_) (Ashkenazic : ) is the collective body of Jewish
Jewish
religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah
Torah
. It includes the 613 _mitzvot_ ("commandments"), subsequent Talmudic and rabbinic law and the customs and traditions compiled in the _ Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
_ (literally "Prepared Table", but more commonly known as the "Code of Jewish
Jewish
Law"). Judaism
Judaism
classically draws no distinction in its laws between religious and non-religious life; Jewish
Jewish
religious tradition does not distinguish clearly between religious, national, racial, or ethnic identities. Halakhaguides not only religious practices and beliefs, but numerous aspects of day-to-day life
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Shabbat
SHABBAT (/ʃəˈbɑːt/ ; Hebrew : שַׁבָּת‎‎ , "rest" or "cessation") or SHABBOS ( , Yiddish : שבת‎) or THE SABBATH is Judaism
Judaism
's day of rest and seventh day of the week , on which religious Jews
Jews
and certain Christians (such as Seventh Day Adventists and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age
Messianic Age
. Shabbat
Shabbat
observance entails refraining from work activities , often with great rigor , and engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat
Shabbat
originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins
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Jewish Holidays
JEWISH HOLIDAYS, also known as JEWISH FESTIVALS or _YAMIM TOVIM_ (ימים טובים, "Good Days", or singular יום טוב _YOM TOV_, in transliterated Hebrew ), are holidays observed in Judaism and by Jews
Jews
throughout the Hebrew calendarand include religious, cultural and national elements, derived from three sources: Biblical _mitzvot _ ("commandments"); rabbinic mandates ; Jewish history
Jewish history
and the history of the State of Israel
Israel
. Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
occur on the same dates every year in the Hebrew calendar, but the dates vary in the Gregorian . This is because the Hebrew calendaris a lunisolar calendar (_i.e._, based on the cycles of both the sun and moon), whereas the Gregorian is a solar calendar
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