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Jewish Principles Of Faith
There is no established formulation of PRINCIPLES OF FAITH that are recognized by all branches of Judaism
Judaism
. Central authority in Judaism is not vested in any one person or group - although the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
, the supreme Jewish religious court, would fulfill this role when it is re-established - but rather in Judaism's sacred writings , laws , and traditions . The various principles of faith that have been enumerated over the centuries carry no weight other than that imparted to them by the fame and scholarship of their respective authors. Judaism
Judaism
affirms the existence and uniqueness of God
God
and stresses performance of deeds or commandments alongside adherence to a strict belief system
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Beit Yosef (book)
BEIT YOSEF (Hebrew : בית יוסף‎‎) — also transliterated BETH YOSEF — is a book by Rabbi Joseph Caro . It is a long, detailed commentary on the Arba\'ah Turim . It served as a precursor to the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
, which Rabbi Caro wrote later in his life. For more information on this book, see the section Beth Yosef (in the article Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
). This article about a Judaism
Judaism
-related book or text is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic (Gemara) —— *
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Targum
The TARGUMIM (singular: "targum", Hebrew : תרגום‎) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a Rabbi
Rabbi
would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic
Aramaic
. That had become necessary near the end of the 1st century BCE, as the common language was in transition and Hebrew was used for little more than schooling and worship. The noun "Targum" is derived from the early semitic quadriliteral root 'trgm', and the Akkadian term 'targummanu' refers to "translator, interpreter". It occurs in the Hebrew Bible
Bible
in Ezra 4:7 "..
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Bene Israel
The BENE ISRAEL ("Sons of Israel"), formerly known in India
India
as the "Native Jew Caste", are a historic community of Jews in India
India
. It has been suggested that it is made up of descendants of one of the disputed Lost Tribes and ancestors who had settled there centuries ago. In the 19th century, after the people were taught about normative ( Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
/ Sephardi
Sephardi
) Judaism, they tended to migrate from villages in the Konkan
Konkan
area to the nearby cities, primarily Mumbai
Mumbai
, but also to Pune
Pune
, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
, and Kolkata
Kolkata
, India; and Karachi
Karachi
, in today's Pakistan
Pakistan
. Many gained positions with the British colonial authority of the period
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Brit Milah
The BRIT MILAH (Hebrew : בְּרִית מִילָה‎, pronounced ; Ashkenazi pronunciation: , "covenant of circumcision "; Yiddish pronunciation: bris ) is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel ("circumciser") on the eighth day of a male infant's life. The brit milah is followed by a celebratory meal (seudat mitzvah )
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Laws And Customs Of The Land Of Israel In Judaism
LAWS AND CUSTOMS OF THE LAND OF ISRAEL IN JUDAISM (Hebrew : מצוות התלויות בארץ‎‎; translit. Mitzvot Ha'teluyot Be'aretz) are special Jewish laws that apply only to the Land of Israel
Israel
. According to a standard view, 26 of the 613 mitzvot
613 mitzvot
apply only in the Land of Israel. Overall, the laws and customs may be classified as follows: * Laws that were in force at the time of the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
and in connection with the Temple service
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Bar And Bat Mitzvah
BAR MITZVAH (Hebrew : בַּר מִצְוָה‎) and BAT MITZVAH (Hebrew : בַּת מִצְוָה‎) (Ashkenazi pronunciation: "Bas Mitzvah") (plural: B'nai Mitzvah for boys, and B'not Mitzvah – Ashkenazi pronunciation: "B'nos Mitzvah" – for girls) are Jewish coming of age rituals. BAR (בַּר‎) is a Jewish
Jewish
Babylonian Aramaic word literally meaning "son" (בֵּן‎), while BAT (בַּת‎) means "daughter" in Hebrew, and MITZVAH (מִצְוָה‎) means "commandment" or "law" (plural: mitzvot). Thus bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah literally translate to "son of commandment" and "daughter of commandment". However, in rabbinical usage, the word bar means "under the category of" or "subject to". Bar mitzvah therefore translates to "an who is subject to the law"
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Arba'ah Turim
ARBA\'AH TURIM (Hebrew : אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‎‎‎), often called simply the TUR, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher ( Cologne
Cologne
, 1270 – Toledo, Spain c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the TUR and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
. CONTENTS * 1 Meaning of the name * 2 Arrangement and contents * 3 Later developments * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links MEANING OF THE NAMEThe title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest\'s breastplate
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Tzedakah
TZEDAKAH or Ṣ\'DAQAH in Classical Hebrew (Hebrew : צדקה‎; Arabic : صدقة‎‎), is a Hebrew word literally meaning justice or righteousness but commonly used to signify charity , though it is a different concept from charity because tzedakah is an obligation and charity is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity. It is based on the Hebrew word (צדק, Tzedek ) meaning righteousness , fairness or justice , and it is related to the Hebrew word Tzadik meaning righteous as an adjective (or righteous individual as a noun in the form of a substantive ). In Judaism
Judaism
, tzedakah refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, which Judaism
Judaism
emphasises are important parts of living a spiritual life
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Midrash
In Judaism
Judaism
, the MIDRASH (/ˈmɪdrɑːʃ/ ; Hebrew : מִדְרָשׁ‎; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah ) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha ), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture ( Tanakh ). The Midrash, capitalized, refers to a specific compilation of these writings, primarily from the first ten centuries CE . The purpose of midrash was to resolve problems in the interpretation of difficult passages of the text of the Hebrew Bible, using Rabbinic principles of hermeneutics and philology to align them with the religious and ethical values of religious teachers
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Shulchan Aruch
The SHULCHAN ARUCH (Hebrew : שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך‎ , literally: "Set Table"), also known by various Jewish communities but not all as "the CODE OF JEWISH LAW," is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism. It was authored in Safed (today in Israel
Israel
) by Yosef Karo in 1563 and published in Venice
Venice
two years later. Together with its commentaries, it is the most widely accepted compilation of Jewish law ever written. The halachic rulings in the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
generally follow Sephardic law and customs , whereas Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
will generally follow the halachic rulings of Moses Isserles , whose glosses to the Shulchan Aruch note where the Sephardic and Ashkenazi customs differ
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Jewish Prayer
JEWISH PRAYER (Hebrew : תְּפִלָּה‎, tefillah ; plural Hebrew : תְּפִלּוֹת‎, tefillot ; Yiddish
Yiddish
תּפֿלה tfile , plural תּפֿלות tfilles ; Yinglish : DAVENING /ˈdɑːvənɪŋ/ from Yiddish
Yiddish
דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
. These prayers, often with instructions and commentary, are found in the siddur , the traditional Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
book. However, if the Talmud
Talmud
mentions tefillah, it refers to the Shemoneh Esreh only. Prayer—as a "service of the heart"—is in principle a Torah-based commandment . It is not time-dependent and is mandatory for both Jewish men and women. You shall serve God with your whole heart
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Mitzvah
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word MITZVAH (/ˈmɪtsvə/ ; meaning "commandment", מִצְוָה‎, , Biblical : miṣwah; plural מִצְווֹת‎ mitzvot , Biblical: miṣwoth; from צִוָּה‎ ṣiwwah "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God. It is used in rabbinical Judaism
Judaism
to refer to the 613 commandments given in the Torah
Torah
at biblical Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
and the seven rabbinic commandments instituted later for a total of 620. The 613 commandments are divided into two categories: 365 negative commandments and 248 positive commandments. According to the Talmud
Talmud
, all moral laws are, or are derived from, divine commandments . The collection is part of the larger Jewish law or halakha
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