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Jewish Holidays
Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim (ימים טובים, "Good Days", or singular יום טוב Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew [English: /ˈjɔːm ˈtɔːv, joʊm ˈtoʊv/]),[1] are holidays observed in Judaism
Judaism
and by Jews[Note 1] throughout the Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
and include religious, cultural and national elements, derived from three sources: Biblical mitzvot ("commandments"); rabbinic mandates; Jewish history
Jewish history
and the history of the State of Israel. Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
occur on the same dates every year in the Hebrew calendar, but the dates vary in the Gregorian
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Gregorian Calendar
The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.[1][2][Note 1] It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October
October
1582. It was a refinement to the Julian calendar[3] involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the northern vernal equinox, which helps set the date for Easter. Transition to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe
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Book Of Exodus
The Book
Book
of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from Ancient Greek: ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; Hebrew: וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת‬, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" Hebrew: וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל‬), is the second book of the Torah
Torah
and the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.[1] The book tells how the Israelites
Israelites
leave slavery in Egypt through the strength of Yahweh, the God who has chosen Israel as his people
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Grammatical Number
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").[2] In many languages, including English, the number categories are singular and plural. Some languages also have a dual, trial, and paucal number or other arrangements. The count distinctions typically, but not always, correspond to the actual count of the referents of the marked noun or pronoun. The word "number" is also used in linguistics to describe the distinction between certain grammatical aspects that indicate the number of times an event occurs, such as the semelfactive aspect, the iterative aspect, etc
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Romanization Of Hebrew
Hebrew
Hebrew
uses the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
with optional vowel diacritics. The romanization of Hebrew
Hebrew
is the use of the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
to transliterate Hebrew
Hebrew
words. For example, the Hebrew
Hebrew
name spelled יִשְׂרָאֵל‬ ("Israel") in the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
can be romanized as Yisrael or Yiśrāʼēl in the Latin alphabet. Romanization
Romanization
includes any use of the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
to transliterate Hebrew
Hebrew
words. Usually it is to identify a Hebrew
Hebrew
word in a non-Hebrew language that uses the Latin alphabet, such as German, Spanish, Turkish, and so on
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Hebrew Language
Hebrew (/ˈhiːbruː/; עִבְרִית, Ivrit [ʔivˈʁit] ( listen) or [ʕivˈɾit] ( listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[8][9] Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites
Israelites
and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 1] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[10] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family
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Book Of Genesis
The Book
Book
of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek γένεσις, meaning "Origin"; Hebrew: בְּרֵאשִׁית‬, Bərēšīṯ, "In [the] beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible
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God
In monotheistic thought, God
God
is conceived of as the Supreme Being
Supreme Being
and the principal object of faith.[3] The concept of God, as described by theologians, commonly includes the attributes of omniscience (all-knowing), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere), divine simplicity, and as having an eternal and necessary existence. In agnostic thought, the existence of God
God
is unknown and/or unknowable
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Hebrew Bible
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t ePage from an 11th-century Aramaic Targum
Targum
manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.Hebrew Bible
Bible
or Hebrew Scriptures (Latin: Biblia Hebraica) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh
Tanakh
(Hebrew: תנ"ך‎; Latin: Thanach), the canonical collection of Jewish texts. They are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few others). The Hebrew Bible
Bible
is the common textual source of several canonical editions of the Christian
Christian
Old Testament
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Weekly Torah Portion
The weekly Torah
Torah
portion (Hebrew: פָּרָשַׁת הַשָּׁבוּעַ‬ Parashat ha-Shavua), popularly just parashah (or parshah /pɑːrʃə/ or parsha) and also known as a Sidra (or Sedra /sɛdrə/) is a section of the Torah
Torah
(Five Books of Moses) used in Jewish liturgy during a single week. It is chanted publicly by a designated reader (ba'al koreh) in Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
services, starting with a partial reading on the afternoon of Shabbat
Shabbat
(Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath), again during the Monday and Thursday morning services, and ending with a full reading during the following Shabbat morning services. The weekly reading is pre-empted by a special reading on major religious holidays. The Saturday morning and holiday readings are followed by a reading (Haftarah) from the Book of Prophets (Nevi'im)
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Shabbat Candles
Shabbat
Shabbat
candles (Hebrew: נרות שבת‎) are candles lit on Friday evening before sunset to usher in the Jewish
Jewish
Sabbath.[1] Lighting Shabbat
Shabbat
candles is a rabbinically mandated law.[2] Candlelighting is traditionally done by the woman of the household, but in the absence of a woman, it is done by a man
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Lunisolar Calendar
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. If the solar year is defined as a tropical year, then a lunisolar calendar will give an indication of the season; if it is taken as a sidereal year, then the calendar will predict the constellation near which the full moon may occur. As with all calendars which divide the year into months there is an additional requirement that the year have a whole number of months
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Yiddish
Yiddish
Yiddish
(ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German)[3] is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[4] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages.[5][6] Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז‎ (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש‎ (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
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Capital Punishment In Judaism
Capital and corporal punishment in Judaism
Judaism
has a complex history which has been a subject of extensive debate
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Havdalah
Havdalah
Havdalah
(Hebrew: הַבְדָּלָה, "separation") is a Jewish religious ceremony that marks the symbolic end of Sabbath
Sabbath
and ushers in the new week
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Sanhedrin
The Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
(Greek: Συνέδριον,[1] synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel. There were two classes of rabbinical courts called Sanhedrin, the Great Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
and the Lesser Sanhedrin. A lesser Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
of 23 judges was appointed to each city, but there was to be only one Great Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
of 71 judges, which among other roles acted as the Supreme Court, taking appeals from cases decided by lesser courts
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