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Jew (word)
The term JEW passed into the English language from the Greek Ioudaios and Latin Iudaeus, from which the Old French
Old French
giu was derived after dropping the letter "d", and later after a variety of forms found in early English (from about the year 1000) such as: Iudea, Gyu, Giu, Iuu, Iuw, Iew developed into the English word “Jew.” It thus ultimately originates in the Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
word Yehudi meaning "from the Tribe of Judah
Tribe of Judah
", "from the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
", or " Jew
Jew
". The Jewish ethnonym in Hebrew is יהודים‎, Yehudim (plural of יהודי‎, Yehudi)
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Brit Milah
The _BRIT MILAH_ (Hebrew : בְּרִית מִילָה‎, pronounced ; Ashkenazi pronunciation: , "covenant of circumcision "; Yiddish pronunciation: _bris_ ) is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel ("circumciser") on the eighth day of a male infant's life. The _brit milah_ is followed by a celebratory meal (_seudat mitzvah _)
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta —— Amoraic ( Gemara ) —— * Jerusalem Talmud * Babylonian Talmud
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Shulchan Aruch
The SHULCHAN ARUCH (Hebrew : שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך‎ , literally: "Set Table"), also known by various Jewish communities but not all as "the CODE OF JEWISH LAW," is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism. It was authored in Safed (today in Israel
Israel
) by Joseph Karo in 1563 and published in Venice
Venice
two years later. Together with its commentaries, it is the most widely accepted compilation of Jewish law ever written. The halachic rulings in the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
generally follow Sephardic law and customs , whereas Ashkenazi Jews will generally follow the halachic rulings of Moses Isserles , whose glosses to the Shulchan Aruch note where the Sephardic and Ashkenazi customs differ. These glosses are widely referred to as the mappah (literally: the "tablecloth") to the Shulchan Aruch's "Set Table"
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Zohar
The ZOHAR ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: זֹהַר‎, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah
Kabbalah
. It is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah (the five books of Moses
Moses
) and scriptural interpretations as well as material on mysticism , mythical cosmogony , and mystical psychology . The Zohar
Zohar
contains discussions of the nature of God
God
, the origin and structure of the universe, the nature of souls, redemption, the relationship of Ego to Darkness and "true self" to "The Light of God", and the relationship between the "universal energy" and man. Its scriptural exegesis can be considered an esoteric form of the Rabbinic literature known as Midrash , which elaborates on the Torah
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Jewish Prayer
JEWISH PRAYER (Hebrew : תְּפִלָּה‎, _tefillah_ ; plural Hebrew : תְּפִלּוֹת‎, _tefillot_ ; Yiddish תּפֿלה _tfile_ , plural תּפֿלות _tfilles_ ; Yinglish : DAVENING /ˈdɑːvənɪŋ/ from Yiddish דאַוון _daven_ ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism . These prayers, often with instructions and commentary, are found in the _siddur _, the traditional Jewish prayer book. However, if the Talmud mentions _tefillah_, it refers to the Shemoneh Esreh only. Prayer—as a "service of the heart"—is in principle a Torah-based commandment . It is not time-dependent and is mandatory for both Jewish men and women
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Shabbat
SHABBAT (/ʃəˈbɑːt/ ; Hebrew : שַׁבָּת‎‎ , "rest" or "cessation") or SHABBOS ( , Yiddish : שבת‎) or THE SABBATH is Judaism
Judaism
's day of rest and seventh day of the week , on which religious Jews
Jews
and certain Christians (such as Seventh Day Adventists and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age
Messianic Age
. Shabbat
Shabbat
observance entails refraining from work activities , often with great rigor , and engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat
Shabbat
originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins
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Tzedakah
_TZEDAKAH_ or _Ṣ\'DAQAH_ in Classical Hebrew (Hebrew : צדקה‎; Arabic : صدقة‎‎), is a Hebrew word literally meaning justice or righteousness but commonly used to signify _charity _, though it is a different concept from charity because tzedakah is an obligation and charity is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity. It is based on the Hebrew word (צדק, _Tzedek _) meaning _righteousness _, _fairness _ or _justice _, and it is related to the Hebrew word Tzadik meaning _righteous_ as an adjective (or _righteous individual_ as a noun in the form of a substantive ). In Judaism , _tzedakah_ refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, which Judaism emphasises are important parts of living a spiritual life
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta —— Amoraic (Gemara) —— * Jerusalem Talmud * Babylonian Talmud —— Later —— * Minor Tractates HALAKHIC MIDRASH —— Exodus —— * Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael *
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Bene Israel
The BENE ISRAEL ("Sons of Israel"), formerly known in India
India
as the "Native Jew Caste", are a historic community of Jews in India
India
. It has been suggested that it is made up of descendants of one of the disputed Lost Tribes and ancestors who had settled there centuries ago. In the 19th century, after the people were taught about normative ( Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
/ Sephardi
Sephardi
) Judaism, they tended to migrate from villages in the Konkan
Konkan
area to the nearby cities, primarily Mumbai
Mumbai
, but also to Pune
Pune
, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
, and Kolkata
Kolkata
, India; and Karachi
Karachi
, in today's Pakistan
Pakistan
. Many gained positions with the British colonial authority of the period
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Beit Yosef (book)
BEIT YOSEF (Hebrew : בית יוסף‎‎) — also transliterated BETH YOSEF — is a book by Rabbi Joseph Caro . It is a long, detailed commentary on the Arba\'ah Turim . It served as a precursor to the Shulchan Aruch , which Rabbi Caro wrote later in his life. For more information on this book, see the section Beth Yosef (in the article Shulchan Aruch ). This article about a Judaism
Judaism
-related book or text is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Beit_Yosef_(book) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Targum
The TARGUMIM (singular: "targum", Hebrew : תרגום‎) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a Rabbi
Rabbi
would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic . That had become necessary near the end of the 1st century BCE, as the common language was in transition and Hebrew was used for little more than schooling and worship. The noun "Targum" is derived from the early semitic quadriliteral root 'trgm', and the Akkadian term 'targummanu' refers to "translator, interpreter". It occurs in the Hebrew Bible
Bible
in Ezra 4:7 "..
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta—— Amoraic ( Gemara ) —— * Jerusalem Talmud * Babylonian Talmud —— Later —— * Minor Tractates HALAKHIC MIDRASH —— Exodus —— * Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael *
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Romaniote Jews
The ROMANIOTE JEWS or ROMANIOTS (Greek : Ῥωμανιῶτες, Rhōmaniṓtes; Hebrew : רומניוטים‎‎, Romanyotim) are a Jewish community with distinctive cultural features who have lived in Greece
Greece
and neighboring Eastern Mediterranean countries for more than 2,000 years, being the oldest Jewish community in the Eurasian continent. Their distinct language was Judaeo-Greek , a Greek dialect, and is today modern Greek or the languages of their new home countries. They derived their name from the old name for the people of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, Romaioi
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Tanakh
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible book Bible portal * v * t * e The TANAKH (/tɑːˈnɑːx/ ; Hebrew : תַּנַ"ךְ‎, pronounced or ; also _Tenakh_, _Tenak_, _Tanach_), also called the _ Mikra _ or Hebrew Bible , is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament . These texts are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew , with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel , Ezra and a few others). The traditional Hebrew text is known as the Masoretic Text . The Tanakh consists of twenty-four books. _Tanakh_ is an acronym of the first Hebrew letter of each of the Masoretic Text's three traditional subdivisions: Torah ("Teaching", also known as the Five Books of Moses), Nevi\'im ("Prophets") and Ketuvim ("Writings")—hence TaNaKh
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Kabbalah
KABBALAH (Hebrew : קַבָּלָה‎, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition" ) is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism. A traditional Kabbalist in Judaism
Judaism
is called a _Mekubbal_ (מְקוּבָּל‎). Kabbalah's definition varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it, from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaism, to its later Christian