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Jessica Fridrich
Jessica Fridrich
Jessica Fridrich
is a professor at Binghamton University, who specializes in data hiding applications in digital imagery. She is also known for documenting and popularizing the CFOP
CFOP
method, one of the most commonly used methods for speedsolving the Rubik's Cube, also known as speedcubing.[1] She is considered as one of the pioneers of speedcubing, along with Lars Petrus. Nearly all of the fastest speedcubers have based their methods on Fridrich's, usually referred to as CFOP
CFOP
(Cross, First 2 Layers, Orient Last Layer, Permuting Last Layer). The method describes solving the cube in a layer-by-layer fashion. First a so-called "cross" is made on the first layer, consisting of the center piece and four edges. The first layer corners and edges of the second layer are put into their correct positions simultaneously (four pairs)
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Czech Republic
The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(/ˈtʃɛk rɪˈpʌblɪk/ ( listen)[10] Czech: Česká republika, Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka] ( listen)),[11] also known as Czechia[12] (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ ( listen); Czech: Česko, pronounced [ˈtʃɛsko] ( listen)), is a landlocked country in Central Europe
Europe
bordered by Germany
Germany
to the west, Austria
Austria
to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland
Poland
to the northeast.[13] The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.6 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents
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Tony Fisher (puzzle Designer)
Fisher
Fisher
is an archaic term for a fisherman, revived as gender-neutral. Fisher, Fishers or The Fisher
Fisher
may also refer to: Fisher (animal)
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Octahedron
In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices. The term is most commonly used to refer to the regular octahedron, a Platonic solid
Platonic solid
composed of eight equilateral triangles, four of which meet at each vertex. A regular octahedron is the dual polyhedron of a cube. It is a rectified tetrahedron. It is a square bipyramid in any of three orthogonal orientations
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Dodecahedron
In geometry, a dodecahedron (Greek δωδεκάεδρον, from δώδεκα dōdeka "twelve" + ἕδρα hédra "base", "seat" or "face") is any polyhedron with twelve flat faces. The most familiar dodecahedron is the regular dodecahedron, which is a Platonic solid. There are also three regular star dodecahedra, which are constructed as stellations of the convex form. All of these have icosahedral symmetry, order 120. The pyritohedron is an irregular pentagonal dodecahedron, having the same topology as the regular one but pyritohedral symmetry while the tetartoid has tetrahedral symmetry. The rhombic dodecahedron, seen as a limiting case of the pyritohedron, has octahedral symmetry. The elongated dodecahedron and trapezo-rhombic dodecahedron variations, along with the rhombic dodecahedra, are space-filling
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Helicopter Cube
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forward, backward, and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL
VTOL
(vertical takeoff and landing) aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix (ἕλιξ) "helix, spiral, whirl, convolution"[1] and pteron (πτερόν) "wing".[2][3][4][5] English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", and "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61
Focke-Wulf Fw 61
being the first operational helicopter in 1936
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Icosahedron
In geometry, an icosahedron (/ˌaɪkɒsəˈhiːdrən, -kə-, -koʊ-/ or /aɪˌkɒsəˈhiːdrən/[1]) is a polyhedron with 20 faces. The name comes from Greek εἴκοσι (eíkosi), meaning 'twenty', and ἕδρα (hédra), meaning 'seat'. The plural can be either "icosahedra" (/-drə/) or "icosahedrons". There are many kinds of icosahedra, with some being more symmetrical than others
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Great Dodecahedron
In geometry, the great dodecahedron is a Kepler–Poinsot polyhedron, with Schläfli symbol
Schläfli symbol
5,5/2 and Coxeter–Dynkin diagram
Coxeter–Dynkin diagram
of . It is one of four nonconvex regular polyhedra
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Truncated Icosahedron
In geometry, the truncated icosahedron is an Archimedean solid, one of 13 convex isogonal nonprismatic solids whose faces are two or more types of regular polygons. It has 12 regular pentagonal faces, 20 regular hexagonal faces, 60 vertices and 90 edges. It is the Goldberg polyhedron
Goldberg polyhedron
GPV(1,1) or 5+,3 1,1, containing pentagonal and hexagonal faces. This geometry is associated with footballs (soccer balls) typically patterned with white hexagons and black pentagons. Geodesic domes such as those whose architecture Buckminster Fuller
Buckminster Fuller
pioneered are often based on this structure
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Panagiotis Verdes
Panagiotis Verdes
Panagiotis Verdes
is the Greek inventor of the 6x6x6, 7x7x7, 8x8x8 and 9x9x9 Twisty Puzzles. He has also worked on new designs of every Twisty Puzzle from 2x2x2 to 11x11x11.[1] Inventions[edit]The V-Cube 6
V-Cube 6
in solved stateThe V-Cube 7
V-Cube 7
in solved statePrior to Verdes's invention, the 6x6x6 cube was thought to be impossible due to geometry constraints. Verdes's invention uses a completely different mechanism than the smaller Rubik's cubes; his mechanism is based on concentric, right-angle conical surfaces whose axes of rotation coincide with the semi-axes of the cube.[1] The patents for the cubes were awarded in 2004, and mass-production began in 2008. Verdes's mechanism allows cubes of up to size 11x11x11, as larger cubes have geometrical constraints.[1] References[edit]^ a b c Slocum, Jerry (2009). The Cube: The Ultimate Guide to the World's Bestselling Puzzle
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Tetrahedron
In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners. The tetrahedron is the simplest of all the ordinary convex polyhedra and the only one that has fewer than 5 faces.[1] The tetrahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a Euclidean simplex, and may thus also be called a 3-simplex. The tetrahedron is one kind of pyramid, which is a polyhedron with a flat polygon base and triangular faces connecting the base to a common point. In the case of a tetrahedron the base is a triangle (any of the four faces can be considered the base), so a tetrahedron is also known as a "triangular pyramid". Like all convex polyhedra, a tetrahedron can be folded from a single sheet of paper
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Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
is a commercial publisher of scientific, technical, and medical (STM) literature. Founded in 1997, Hindawi currently publishes more than 400 peer-reviewed scientific journals as well as a number of scholarly monographs, with an annual output reaching 22,000 articles in 2012. As of October 2014[update], 11% of the journals were indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded.[2] The company has its headquarters in Cairo
Cairo
and a virtual office address in New York City
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Czech Technical University In Prague
Czech Technical University
University
in Prague
Prague
(Czech: České vysoké učení technické v Praze, ČVUT) is one of the largest universities in the Czech Republic, and is one of the oldest institutes of technology in Central Europe
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Binghamton University
The State University of New York
State University of New York
at Binghamton, commonly referred to as Binghamton University
University
or SUNY Binghamton, is a public research university with campuses in Binghamton, Vestal, and Johnson City, New York, United States. Since its establishment as Triple Cities
Triple Cities
College in 1946, the school has evolved from a small liberal arts college to a large doctoral-granting institution. Presently consisting of eight colleges and schools, it is now home to more than 17,000 undergraduate and graduate students. Binghamton is one of the four university centers in the State University of New York
State University of New York
(SUNY) system.[5][6] Binghamton University
University
is currently ranked 87th nationally and 725th globally in U.S
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Cuboid
In geometry, a cuboid is a convex polyhedron bounded by six quadrilateral faces, whose polyhedral graph is the same as that of a cube. While mathematical literature refers to any such polyhedron as a cuboid,[1] other sources use "cuboid" to refer to a shape of this type in which each of the faces is a rectangle (and so each pair of adjacent faces meets in a right angle); this more restrictive type of cuboid is also known as a rectangular cuboid, right cuboid, rectangular box, rectangular hexahedron, right rectangular prism, or rectangular parallelepiped.[2]Contents1 General cuboids 2 Rectangular cuboid2.1 Nets3 See also 4 References 5 External linksGeneral cuboids[edit] By Euler's formula the numbers of faces F, of vertices V, and of edges E of any convex polyhedron are related by the formula F + V = E + 2
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Tuttminx
A Tuttminx
Tuttminx
(/ˈtʊtmɪŋks/ or /ˈtʌtmɪŋks/) is a Rubik's Cube-like twisty puzzle, in the shape of a truncated icosahedron. It was invented by Lee Tutt
Lee Tutt
in 2005.[1] It has a total of 150 movable pieces to rearrange, compared to 20 movable pieces of the Rubik’s Cube.Contents1 Description 2 Number of combinations 3 Variations 4 See also 5 ReferencesDescription[edit] The Tuttminx
Tuttminx
has a total of 32 face centre pieces (12 pentagon and 20 hexagon), 60 corner pieces and 90 edge pieces. The face centres each have a single colour, which identifies the colour of that face in the solved state. The edge pieces have two colours and the corner pieces have three colours
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