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Jerky
JERKY is lean meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage . Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt, to prevent bacteria from developing on the meat before sufficient moisture has been removed. The word "jerky" is derived from the Quechua word ch\'arki which means "dried, salted meat". All that is needed to produce basic "jerky" is a low-temperature drying method, and salt to inhibit bacterial growth. Modern manufactured jerky is normally marinated in a seasoned spice rub or liquid, and dried, dehydrated or smoked with low heat (usually under 70 °C/160 °F). Some product manufacturers finely grind meat, mix in seasonings, and press the meat-paste into flat shapes prior to drying. The resulting jerky from the above methods would be a salty and/or savory snack
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Beef Jerky (other)
BEEF JERKY is a type of jerky, a lean meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage. BEEF JERKY or BEEF JERKY may also refer to: * "Beef Jerky" (John Lennon song) , 1974 song from the album Walls and Bridges * "Beef Jerky", song from The Jerky Boys album The Jerky Boys * "Beef Jerky", song from Cibo Matto album Viva! La Woman * "Beef Jerky", song from Glen Campbell album The Big Bad Rock Guitar of Glen Campbell * Beef Jerky, a character in an episode of Quack Pack This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title BEEF JERKY. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Beef_jerky_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Meat
MEAT is animal flesh that is eaten as food . :1 Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, sheep, pigs and cattle. This eventually led to their use in meat production on an industrial scale with the aid of slaughterhouses . Meat is mainly composed of water, protein , and fat . It is edible raw, but is normally eaten after it has been cooked and seasoned or processed in a variety of ways. Unprocessed meat will spoil or rot within hours or days as a result of infection with and decomposition by bacteria and fungi . Most often, _meat_ refers to skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may also describe other edible tissues such as offal
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Drying (food)
FOOD DRYING is a method of food preservation in which food is dried (dehydrated or desiccated ). Drying
Drying
inhibits the growth of bacteria , yeasts , and mold through the removal of water . Dehydration has been used widely for this purpose since ancient times; the earliest known practice is 12,000 B.C. by inhabitants of the modern Middle East and Asia regions. Water
Water
is traditionally removed through evaporation (air drying, sun drying, smoking or wind drying), although today electric food dehydrators or freeze-drying can be used to speed the drying process and ensure more consistent results. 1890 newspaper advertisement showing tin of dried coconut CONTENTS * 1 Food
Food
types * 2 Preparation * 3 Other methods * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links FOOD TYPES A collection of dried mushrooms Sun-drying octopus Many different foods can be prepared by dehydration
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Decomposition
1. Pallor mortis 2. Algor mortis 3. Rigor mortis 4. Livor mortis 5. Putrefaction 6. Decomposition 7. Skeletonization * v * t * e Decomposing fallen nurse log in a forest DECOMPOSITION is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler matter. The process is a part of nutrient cycle and is essential for recycling the finite matter that occupies physical space in the biosphere . Bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death . Animals, such as worms, also help decompose the organic materials. Organisms that do this are known as decomposers . Although no two organisms decompose in the same way, they all undergo the same sequential stages of decomposition. The science which studies decomposition is generally referred to as _taphonomy _ from the Greek word _taphos_, meaning tomb
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Quechua Languages
QUECHUA /ˈkɛtʃwə/ , also known as _RUNA SIMI_ ("people's language"), is an indigenous language family , with variations spoken by the Quechua peoples , primarily living in the Andes
Andes
and highlands of South America. Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas , with a total of probably some 8–10 million speakers. Approximately 13% of Peruvians speak Quechua. It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of the Inca Empire , and was disseminated by the colonizers throughout their reign
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Ch'arki
CH\'ARKI (Quechua for dried, salted meat, Hispanicized spellings charque, charqui, charquí) is dried and salted meat common in South America , originally llama , nowadays mostly horse and beef . Llama is still widely used in Bolivia. This was a very popular way to preserve meat in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay and Brazil. It was industrialized in charqueadas, also named saladeros (in Argentina and Uruguay). In the United States ch'arki was Anglicised as jerky. When encountered by the Spanish , the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
supplied tampu (inns ) along the Inca road system
Inca road system
with llama ch'arki for travelers. The Inca used a freeze drying process that took advantage of their cold dry mountain air and strong sun
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Marinated
MARINATION is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned , often acidic, liquid before cooking. The origin of the word alludes to the use of brine (aqua marina) in the pickling process, which led to the technique of adding flavor by immersion in liquid. The liquid in question, the 'marinade', can be either acidic (made with ingredients such as vinegar , lemon juice, or wine ) or enzymatic (made with ingredients such as pineapple , papaya or ginger ). In addition to these ingredients, a marinade often contains oils, herbs , and spices to further flavor the food items. It is commonly used to flavor foods and to tenderize tougher cuts of meat . The process may last seconds or days. Different marinades are used in different cuisines. For example, in Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
the marinade is usually prepared with a mixture of spices
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Spice Rub
SPICE RUB is any mixture of ground spices that is made for the purpose of being rubbed on raw food before the food is cooked. The spice rub forms a coat on the food. The food can be marinated in the spice rub for some time for the flavors to incorporate into the food or it can be cooked immediately after it is coated in the rub. The spice rub can be left on or partially removed before cooking. CONTENTS * 1 Ingredients * 2 Foods * 3 Cooking methods * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links INGREDIENTSThe spices are usually coarsely ground. In addition to spices, salt and sugar may be added to the rub, the salt for flavor and the sugar for caramelization . The simplest rub is just coarsely ground black pepper as in steak au poivre . Spice
Spice
rubs can also have ingredients such as herbs, crushed garlic or oil added to make a paste. Less common ingredients can include coffee beans
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Smoking (cooking)
SMOKING is the process of flavoring , browning , cooking , or preserving food by exposing it to smoke from burning or smoldering material, most often wood . Meats and fish are the most common smoked foods, though cheeses , vegetables , and ingredients used to make beverages such as whisky , smoked beer , and lapsang souchong tea are also smoked. In Europe
Europe
, alder is the traditional smoking wood, but oak is more often used now, and beech to a lesser extent. In North America , hickory , mesquite , oak, pecan , alder, maple , and fruit-tree woods, such as apple , cherry , and plum , are commonly used for smoking. Other biomass besides wood can also be employed, sometimes with the addition of flavoring ingredients. Chinese tea-smoking uses a mixture of uncooked rice , sugar , and tea , heated at the base of a wok . Some North American ham and bacon makers smoke their products over burning corncobs
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Biltong
BILTONG is a form of dried , cured meat that originated in South Africa , Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and Namibia
Namibia
. Various types of meat are used to produce it, ranging from beef and game meats to fillets of meat cut into strips following the grain of the muscle, or flat pieces sliced across the grain. It is related to beef jerky in that they are both spiced, dried meats, however the typical ingredients, taste and production processes differ; in particular the main difference is that Biltong
Biltong
is typically much less sweet than jerky. The word biltong is from the Dutch bil ("rump") and tong ("strip" or "tongue")
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Refrigeration
REFRIGERATION is a process of removing heat from low temperature reservoir and transferring it to high temperature reservoir. The work of heat transfer is traditionally driven by mechanical work , but can also be driven by heat, magnetism , electricity , laser , or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to: household refrigerators , industrial freezers , cryogenics , and air conditioning . Heat pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process, and also may be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise similar to air conditioning units. Refrigeration has had a large impact on industry, lifestyle, agriculture and settlement patterns. The idea of preserving food dates back to at least the ancient Roman and Chinese empires. However, mechanical refrigeration technology has rapidly evolved in the last century, from ice harvesting to temperature-controlled rail cars
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Curing (food Preservation)
CURING is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat , fish and vegetables , by the addition of combinations of salt , nitrates , nitrites , or sugar , with the aim of drawing moisture out of the food by the process of osmosis . Many curing processes also involve smoking , spicing, or cooking . Dehydration was the earliest form of food curing. Because curing increases the solute concentration in the food and hence decreases its water potential , the food becomes inhospitable for the microbe growth that causes food spoilage. Curing can be traced back to antiquity, and was the primary way of preserving meat and fish until the late 19th century. Nitrates and nitrites, in conjunction with salt, are one of the most common agents in curing meat because they further inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium botulinum
. They also contribute to the characteristic pink color. Slices of beef in a can
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Water Activity
WATER ACTIVITY or aw is the partial vapor pressure of water in a substance divided by the standard state partial vapor pressure of water. In the field of food science , the standard state is most often defined as the partial vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature . Using this particular definition, pure distilled water has a water activity of exactly one. As temperature increases, aw typically increases, except in some products with crystalline salt or sugar . Higher aw substances tend to support more microorganisms . Bacteria usually require at least 0.91, and fungi at least 0.7. See also fermentation . Water migrates from areas of high aw to areas of low aw. For example, if honey (aw ≈ 0.6) is exposed to humid air (aw ≈ 0.7), the honey absorbs water from the air . If salami (aw ≈ 0.87) is exposed to dry air (aw ≈ 0.5), the salami dries out , which could preserve it or spoil it
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Sodium
SODIUM is a chemical element with symbol NA (from Latin _natrium_) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal . Sodium is an alkali metal , being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom—the Na+ cation . Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but must be prepared from compounds. Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars , sodalite and rock salt (NaCl). Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth\'s minerals over eons, and thus sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans. Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide
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Dietary Reference Intake
The DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States) . It was introduced in 1997 in order to broaden the existing guidelines known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs, see below). The DRI values differ from those used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada, which uses Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs) and Daily Values (%DV) which were based on outdated RDAs from 1968 but in the U.S. have been updated as of 2016
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