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Jeremy Bentham
JEREMY BENTHAM (/ˈbɛnθəm/ ; 15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher , jurist , and social reformer . He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism . Bentham defined as the "fundamental axiom" of his philosophy the principle that "it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong". He became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law , and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism . He advocated individual and economic freedom , the separation of church and state , freedom of expression , equal rights for women, the right to divorce, and the decriminalising of homosexual acts. He called for the abolition of slavery , the abolition of the death penalty , and the abolition of physical punishment , including that of children. He has also become known in recent years as an early advocate of animal rights
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Separation Of Church And State
The SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE is a philosophic concept for defining political distance in the relationship between organized religion and the nation state . Conceptually, the term refers to the creation of a secular state (with or without legally explicit church–state separation) and to disestablishment, the changing of an existing, formal relationship between the church and the state. In a society, the degree of political separation between the church and the civil state are determined by the legal structures and prevalent legal views that define the proper relationship between organized religion and the state. The Arm\'s length principle proposes a relationship wherein the two, political entities interact as organizations independent of the authority of the other
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Freedom Of Expression
FREEDOM OF SPEECH is the right to articulate one's opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship . The term "freedom of expression " is sometimes used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. Freedom of expression
Freedom of expression
is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Rights
(ICCPR)
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Welfarism
WELFARISM is a form of consequentialism . Like all forms of consequentialism, welfarism is based on the premise that actions, policies, and/or rules should be evaluated on the basis of their consequences. Welfarism is the view that the morally significant consequences are impacts on human (or animal) welfare. There are many different understandings of human welfare, but the term "welfarism" is usually associated with the economic conception of welfare. Economists usually think of individual welfare in terms of utility functions , a perspective in which social welfare can be conceived as an aggregation of individual utilities or utility functions. Welfarist views have been especially influential in the law and economics movement. Steven Shavell and Louis Kaplow have argued in an influential book, Fairness versus Welfare that welfare should be the exclusive criteria by which legal analysts evaluate legal policy choices
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Economic Freedom
ECONOMIC FREEDOM or ECONOMIC LIBERTY is the ability of members of a society to undertake economic actions. This is a term used in economic and policy debates as well as in the philosophy of economics . One approach to economic freedom comes from classical liberal and libertarian traditions emphasizing free markets , free trade , and private property under free enterprise. Another approach to economic freedom extends the welfare economics study of individual choice, with greater economic freedom coming from a "larger" (in some technical sense) set of possible choices. Other conceptions of economic freedom include freedom from want and the freedom to engage in collective bargaining . The free market viewpoint defines economic liberty as the freedom to produce, trade and consume any goods and services acquired without the use of force, fraud or theft
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Francis Y. Edgeworth
FRANCIS YSIDRO EDGEWORTH FBA (8 February 1845 – 13 February 1926) was an Anglo-Irish philosopher and political economist who made significant contributions to the methods of statistics during the 1880s. From 1891 onward he was appointed the founding editor of The Economic Journal . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Contributions to economics * 3 Publications * 3.1 Collections/selections * 3.2 Individual works * 4 References * 5 External links * 6 Additional reading LIFEEdgeworth was born in Edgeworthstown , County Longford
County Longford
, Ireland
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Social Reformer
A REFORM MOVEMENT is the kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change , or change in certain aspects of society , rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements . Reformists' ideas are often grounded in liberalism , although they may be rooted in socialist (specifically, social democratic ) or religious concepts. Some rely on personal transformation; others rely on small collectives, such as Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
's spinning wheel and the self-sustaining village economy, as a mode of social change . Reactionary
Reactionary
movements , which can arise against any of these, attempt to put things back the way they were before any successes the new reform movement(s) enjoyed, or to prevent any such successes
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Philosopher
A PHILOSOPHER is someone who practices philosophy , which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside of either theology or science . The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλόσοφος (philosophos) meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(6th century BC). In the classical sense, a philosopher was someone who lived according to a certain way of life, focusing on resolving existential questions about the human condition , and not someone who discourses upon theories or comments upon authors. Typically, these particular brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers
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Thomas Frye
THOMAS FRYE (c. 1710 – 3 April 1762 was an Anglo-Irish painter, best known for his portraits in oil and pastel, including some miniatures and his early mezzotint engravings. He was also the patentee of the Bow porcelain factory
Bow porcelain factory
, London, and claimed in his epitaph to be "the inventor and first manufacturer of porcelain in England," though his rivals at the Chelsea porcelain factory seem to have preceded him in bringing wares to market. The Bow porcelain works did not long survive Frye's death; their final auctions took place in May 1764. Frye was born at Edenderry, County Offaly
County Offaly
, Ireland, in 1710; in his youth he went to London to practice as an artist. His earliest works are a pair of pastel portraits of boys, one dated 1734 (Earl of Iveagh)
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Individual Rights
GROUP RIGHTS, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves. Group rights have historically been used both to infringe upon and to facilitate individual rights, and the concept remains controversial. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Organizational group rights * 3 Constitutions * 4 Philosophies * 5 See also * 6 Further reading * 7 References * 7.1 Bibliography * 8 External links OVERVIEWIn American discourse, individual rights are often associated with political and economic freedom , whereas group rights are associated with social control . This is because in America the establishment of individual rights is associated with equality before the law and protection from the state
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Houndsditch
HOUNDSDITCH is a one-way street in London
London
linking Outwich Street in the north-west to St. Botolph Street in the south-east. It runs through parts of the Portsoken and Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
Without wards of the City of London
London
, the historic nucleus and modern financial centre of London. It marks the route of an old ditch that ran outside a part of the London
London
Wall , renowned for being used as a site for disposing of waste and, particularly, deceased dogs . The road forms part of the A1211 route from Barbican to Whitechapel
Whitechapel
. Traffic continues onto Houndsditch
Houndsditch
from Outwich Street, a short section of road behind the Heron Tower , and then enters St. Botolph Street at the south-eastern end of Houndsditch
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London
London
has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it Londinium
Londinium
. London's ancient core, the City of London , largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Tory (British Political Party)
The TORIES were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England , the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries. The first Tories emerged in 1678 in England , when they opposed the Whig -supported Exclusion Bill which set out to disinherit the heir presumptive James, Duke of York , who eventually became James II of England and VII of Scotland. This party ceased to exist as an organised political entity in the early 1760s, although it was used as a term of self-description by some political writers. A few decades later, a new Tory party would rise to establish a hold on government between 1783 and 1830, with William Pitt the Younger followed by Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool
Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool

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John Locke
JOHN LOCKE FRS (/ˈlɒk/ ; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism ". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists , following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy . His writings influenced Voltaire
Voltaire
and Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries . His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence
United States Declaration of Independence

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Michel Foucault
PAUL-MICHEL FOUCAULT (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as MICHEL FOUCAULT (French: ), was a French philosopher , historian of ideas , social theorist , and literary critic . Foucault's theories primarily addressed the relationship between power and knowledge , and how they are used as a form of social control through societal institutions. Though often cited as a post-structuralist and postmodernist , Foucault rejected these labels, preferring to present his thought as a critical history of modernity . His thought has influenced academics, especially those working in sociology , cultural studies , literary theory and critical theory . Activist groups have also found his theories compelling
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