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Jazz Guitar
The term JAZZ GUITAR may refer to either a type of guitar or to the variety of guitar playing styles used in the various genres which are commonly termed "jazz ". The jazz-type guitar was born as a result of using electric amplification to increase the volume of conventional acoustic guitars. Conceived in the early 1930s, the electric guitar became a necessity as jazz musicians sought to amplify their sound to be heard over loud big bands . When guitarists in big bands only had acoustic guitars, all they could do was play chords ; they could not play solos because the acoustic guitar is not a loud instrument. Once guitarists switched from acoustic guitar to semi-acoustic guitar and began using guitar amplifiers , it made the guitar much easier to hear, which enabled guitarists to play guitar solos . Arguably, no other musical instrument had greater influence on how jazz evolved since the beginning of the twentieth century
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Musical Phrasing
MUSICAL PHRASING refers to the way a musician shapes a sequence of notes in a passage of music to express an emotion or impression. A musician accomplishes this by interpreting the music—from memory or sheet music —by altering tone , tempo , dynamics , articulation , inflection, and other characteristics. Phrasing can emphasise a concept in the music or a message in the lyrics, or it can digress from the composer's intention. For example, accelerating the tempo or prolonging a note may add tension. Giuseppe Cambini —a composer, violinist, and music teacher of the Classical period —had this to say about violin phrasing: The bow can express the affections of the soul: but besides there being no signs that indicate them, such signs, even were one to invent them, would become so numerous that the music, already too full of indications, would become a formless mass to the eyes, almost impossible to decipher
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Eddie Lang
EDDIE LANG (October 25, 1902 – March 26, 1933) is known as the father of jazz guitar. During the 1920s, he gave the guitar a prominence it previously lacked as a solo instrument, as part of a band or orchestra, and as accompaniment for vocalists. He recorded duets with guitarists Lonnie Johnson and Carl Kress , with jazz violinist Joe Venuti
Joe Venuti
, and played rhythm guitar in the big bands of Paul Whiteman
Paul Whiteman
and Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby

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Improvising
IMPROVISATION is creating or performing something spontaneously or without preparation, or making something from whatever is available. Improvisation, in the performing arts is a very spontaneous performance without specific or scripted preparation. The skills of improvisation can apply to many different faculties, across all artistic, scientific, physical, cognitive, academic, and non-academic disciplines; see Applied improvisation . Musical improvisation
Musical improvisation
is the composition (and simultaneous playing) of music, without prior preparation. Improvisational comedy is a theatre art performed throughout the world and has had on-again, off-again status throughout history. Dance improvisation is frequently used as a choreographic tool. Choreography is also frequently used as a tool for improvisation. Improvisation
Improvisation
also exists outside the arts
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Walking Bass
A BASSLINE (also known as a BASS LINE or BASS PART) is the term used in many styles of popular music , such as jazz , blues , funk , dub and electronic , or traditional music , for the low-pitched instrumental part or line played by a rhythm section instrument such as the electric bass , double bass , cello , tuba or keyboard (piano , Hammond organ , electric organ, or synthesizer). It is also used sometimes in classical music. In unaccompanied solo performance, basslines may simply be played in the lower register of any instrument such as guitar or piano while melody and/or further accompaniment is provided in the middle or upper register. In solo music for piano and pipe organ, these instruments have an excellent lower register that can be used to play a deep bassline. On organs, the bass line is typically played using the pedal keyboard and massive 16' and 32' bass pipes
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Solid Body
A SOLID-BODY musical instrument is a string instrument such as a guitar , bass or violin built without its normal sound box and relying on an electric pickup system to directly receive the vibrations of the strings. Solid-body instruments are preferred in situations where acoustic feedback may otherwise be a problem and are inherently both less expensive to build and more rugged than acoustic electric instruments. Fender Esquire
Fender Esquire
1st prototype in 1949 at Fender Guitar
Guitar
Factory museum The most well-known solid body instruments are the electric guitar and electric bass . These were instrumental in creating new genres of music such as rock and heavy metal . Common woods used in the construction of solid body instruments are ash, alder, maple, mahogany, korina, spruce, rosewood, and ebony. The first two make up the majority of solid body electric guitars
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Kenny Burrell
KENNETH EARL "KENNY" BURRELL (born July 31, 1931) is an American jazz guitarist known for his work on the Blue Note label which included collaborations with Jimmy Smith , which produced the 1965 Billboard Top Twenty hit album Organ Grinder Swing . He has cited jazz guitarists Charlie Christian
Charlie Christian
and Django Reinhardt
Django Reinhardt
as influences, along with blues musicians T-Bone Walker
T-Bone Walker
and Muddy Waters
Muddy Waters
. Burrell also serves as a professor and Director of Jazz
Jazz
Studies at the UCLA Herb Alpert School of Music . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards * 3 Discography * 3.1 As leader * 3.2 Compilations * 3.3 As sideman * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYBurrell was born in Detroit
Detroit
, Michigan
Michigan

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Upright Bass
The DOUBLE BASS, or simply the BASS (and numerous other names ), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra . It is a transposing instrument and is typically notated one octave higher than sounding to avoid excessive ledger lines below the staff. The double bass is the only modern bowed string instrument that is tuned in fourths (like a viol ), rather than fifths, with strings usually tuned to E1, A1, D2 and G2 . The instrument's exact lineage is still a matter of some debate, with scholars divided on whether the bass is derived from the viol or the violin family . The double bass is a standard member of the orchestra's string section , as well as the concert band , and is featured in concertos , solo and chamber music in Western classical music
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George Barnes (musician)
GEORGE WARREN BARNES (July 17, 1921 – September 5, 1977) was an American swing jazz guitarist who played the first electric guitar in 1931, preceding Charlie Christian
Charlie Christian
by five years. He made the first commercial recording of an electric guitar on March 1, 1938, in sessions with Big Bill Broonzy . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 First recording with electric guitar * 3 Style and technique * 4 Discography * 5 Singles * 6 Songs * 7 References * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYBarnes was born in South Chicago Heights , Illinois in 1921. His father was a guitarist and taught Barnes acoustic guitar at the age of nine. A year later, in 1931, Barnes's brother made a pickup and amplifier for him. Barnes said that he was the first person to play electric guitar. From 1935–1937, he had his own band that performed in the Midwest
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Oscar Moore
OSCAR FREDERIC MOORE (December 25, 1915 – October 8, 1981) was an American jazz guitarist who spent ten years with the Nat King Cole Trio. Moore was born in Austin, Texas, but grew up in Los Angeles. During the 1930s he often worked with his brother, Johnny, who was also a guitarist. Beginning in 1937, he spent ten years with Nat King Cole in the guitar-bass-piano trio format that influenced Oscar Peterson
Oscar Peterson
, Art Tatum , and Ahmad Jamal
Ahmad Jamal
. After he left Cole, he joined his brother in Johnny Moore\'s Three Blazers through the 1950s. He recorded two solo albums in 1954, then left the field of music. During the last decades of his life, he laid bricks and ran a gas station. He died in Las Vegas, Nevada, in 1981. Barney Kessel
Barney Kessel
said that Moore practically created the role of the jazz guitarist in small combos
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Nat “King” Cole
NATHANIEL ADAMS COLES (March 17, 1919 – February 15, 1965), known professionally as NAT KING COLE, was an American jazz pianist and vocalist. He recorded over one hundred songs that became hits on the pop charts. His trio was the model for small jazz ensembles that followed. Cole also acted in films and on television and performed on Broadway. He was the first black man to host an American television series
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Benny Goodman
BENJAMIN DAVID GOODMAN (May 30, 1909 – June 13, 1986) was an American jazz clarinetist and bandleader known as the "King of Swing". In the mid-1930s, Goodman led one of the most popular musical groups in the United States. His concert at Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
in New York City on January 16, 1938 is described by critic Bruce Eder as "the single most important jazz or popular music concert in history: jazz's 'coming out' party to the world of 'respectable' music." Goodman's bands launched the careers of many major jazz artists. During an era of racial segregation, he led one of the first well-known integrated jazz groups. Goodman performed nearly to the end of his life while exploring an interest in classical music
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Count Basie
WILLIAM JAMES "COUNT" BASIE (August 21, 1904 – April 26, 1984) was an American jazz pianist, organist, bandleader, and composer. His mother taught him to play the piano and he started performing in his teens. Dropping out of school, he learned to operate lights for vaudeville and to improvise accompaniment for silent films at a local movie theater in his home town of Red Bank, New Jersey
Red Bank, New Jersey
. By age 16, he increasingly played jazz piano at parties, resorts and other venues. In 1924, he went to Harlem
Harlem
, where his performing career expanded; he toured with groups to the major jazz cities of Chicago, St. Louis and Kansas City . In 1929 he joined Bennie Moten 's band in Kansas City, and played with them until Moten's death in 1935
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Rhythm Section
A RHYTHM SECTION (also called a backup band ) is a group of musicians within a music ensemble or band who provide the underlying rhythm and pulse of the accompaniment, providing a rhythmic reference and "beat" for the rest of the band. Many of the rhythm section instruments, such as keyboard instruments and guitars , are also used to play the chord progression upon which the song is based. The bass instrument (either double bass or electric bass , or another low-register instrument, such as synth bass , depending on the group and its style of music) plays the low-pitched bassline that supports the chord progression, typically by emphasizing the roots of the chords (and to a lesser degree the fifths and thirds of the chords). The term is common in modern small musical ensembles , such as bands that play jazz , country , blues , and rock
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