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Javanese Numerals The Javanese language Javanese language has a DECIMAL NUMERAL SYSTEM with distinct words for the 'tweens' from 21 to 29, called likuran. The basic numerals 1–10 have independent and combining forms, the latter derived via a suffix ng. The combining forms are used to form the tens, hundreds, thousands, and millions. The numerals 1–5 and 10 have distinct highregister (halus, or in Javanese krama) and low register (ngoko) forms. The halus forms are listed below in italics. (Dasa 10 is derived from Sanskrit désa.) Like English, Javanese has compound forms for the teens; however, it also has a series of compound 'tweens', 21–29. The teens are based on a root (wə)las, the tweens on likur, and the tens are formed by the combining forms. Hyphens are not used in the orthography, but have been added to the table below to clarify their derivation. Final orthographic a tends to in many dialects, as does any preceding a (as in sanga 9) [...More...]  "Javanese Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Brahmi Numerals The BRAHMI NUMERALS are a numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). They are the direct graphic ancestors of the modern Indian and Hindu–Arabic numerals . However, they were conceptually distinct from these later systems, as they were not used as a positional system with a zero . Rather, there were separate numerals for each of the tens (10, 20, 30, etc.). There were also symbols for 100 and 1000 which were combined in ligatures with the units to signify 200, 300, 2000, 3000, etc. ORIGINSThe source of the first three numerals seems clear: they are collections of 1, 2, and 3 strokes, in Ashoka 's era vertical I, II, III like Roman numerals Roman numerals , but soon becoming horizontal like the modern Chinese numerals Chinese numerals [...More...]  "Brahmi Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Babylonian Numerals BABYLONIAN NUMERALS were written in cuneiform , using a wedgetipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. The Babylonians , who were famous for their astronomical observations and calculations (aided by their invention of the abacus ), used a sexagesimal (base60) positional numeral system inherited from either the Sumerian or the Eblaite civilizations. Neither of the predecessors was a positional system (having a convention for which ‘end’ of the numeral represented the units). CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Characters * 3 Zero * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links ORIGINThis system first appeared around 2000 BC; its structure reflects the decimal lexical numerals of Semitic languages Semitic languages rather than Sumerian lexical numbers [...More...]  "Babylonian Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Egyptian Numerals The system of ancient EGYPTIAN NUMERALS was used in Ancient Egypt around 3000 BC until the early first millennium AD. It was a system of numeration based on the scale of ten, often rounded off to the higher power, written in hieroglyphs , but they had no concept of a placevalued system such as the decimal system is. The hieratic form of numerals stressed an exact finite series notation, ciphered one to one onto the Egyptian alphabet. The Ancient Egyptian system used bases of ten [...More...]  "Egyptian Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Etruscan Numerals The ETRUSCAN NUMERALS were used by the ancient Etruscans . The system was adapted from the Greek Attic numerals Attic numerals and formed the inspiration for the later Roman numerals via the Old Italic script Old Italic script . ETRUSCAN ARABIC SYMBOL * OLD ITALIC θu 1 𐌠 maχ 5 𐌡 śar 10 𐌢 muvalχ 50 𐌣 ? 100 or C 𐌟There is very little surviving evidence of these numerals. Examples are known of the symbols for larger numbers, but it is unknown which symbol represents which number. Thanks to the numbers written out on the Tuscania Tuscania dice , there is agreement that zal, ci, huθ and śa are the numbers up to six (besides 1 and 5). The assignment depends on whether the numbers on opposite faces of Etruscan dice add up to seven, like nowadays. Some dice found did not show this proposed pattern [...More...]  "Etruscan Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Inuit Numerals Inuit , like other Eskimo languages (and Celtic and Mayan languages as well), uses a vigesimal counting system. Inuit counting has subbases at 5, 10, and 15. Arabic numerals Arabic numerals , consisting of 10 distinct digits (09) are not adequate to represent a base20 system. Students from Kaktovik, Alaska , came up with the KAKTOVIK INUPIAQ NUMERALS, which has since gained wide use among Alaskan Iñupiaq , and is slowly gaining ground in other countries where dialects of the Inuit language Inuit language are spoken. The numeral system has helped to revive counting in Inuit, which had been falling into disuse among Inuit speakers due to the prevalence of the base10 system in schools. The picture below shows the numerals 1–19 and then 0. Twenty is written with a one and a zero, forty with a two and a zero, and four hundred with a one and two zeros [...More...]  "Inuit Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Attic Numerals ATTIC NUMERALS were used by the ancient Greeks , possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as HERODIANIC NUMERALS because they were first described in a 2ndcentury manuscript by Herodian . They are also known as ACROPHONIC NUMERALS because the symbols derive from the first letters of the words that the symbols represent: five, ten, hundred, thousand and ten thousand. See Greek numerals and acrophony . DECIMAL SYMBOL GREEK NUMERAL IPA 1 Ι – – 5 Π πέντε 10 Δ δέκα 100 Η ἑκατόν 1000 Χ χίλιοι / χιλιάς 10000 Μ μύριονThe use of Η for 100 reflects the early date of this numbering system: Η (Eta ) in the early Attic alphabet represented the sound /h/. In later, "classical" Greek, with the adoption of the Ionic alphabet throughout the majority of Greece, the letter eta had come to represent the long e sound while the rough aspiration was no longer marked [...More...]  "Attic Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Aegean Numerals AEGEAN NUMBERS was the numeral system used by the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations. They are attested in several Aegean scripts ( Linear A , Linear B ). They may have survived in the CyproMinoan script , where a single sign with "100" value is attested so far on a large clay tablet from Enkomi [...More...]  "Aegean Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Georgian Numerals The GEORGIAN NUMERALS are the system of number names used in Georgian , a language spoken in the country of Georgia . The Georgian numerals from 30 to 99 are constructed using a base20 system, similar to the scheme used in Basque , French for numbers 80 through 99, or the notion of the score in English. The symbols for numbers in modern Georgian texts are the same Arabic numerals used in English, except that the comma is used as the decimal separator , and digits in large numbers are divided into groups of three using spaces or periods (full stops). An older method for writing numerals exists in which most of letters of the Georgian alphabet (including some obsolete letters) are each assigned a numeric value [...More...]  "Georgian Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Greek Numerals GREEK NUMERALS, also known as IONIC, IONIAN, MILESIAN, or ALEXANDRIAN NUMERALS, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet . In modern Greece Greece , they are still used for ordinal numbers and in contexts similar to those in which Roman numerals are still used elsewhere in the West. For ordinary cardinal numbers , however, Greece Greece uses Arabic numerals Arabic numerals . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Table * 4 Higher numbers * 5 Zero * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations ' Linear A and Linear B alphabets used a different system, called Aegean numerals Aegean numerals , which included specialized symbols for numbers: 𐄇 = 1, 𐄐 = 10, 𐄙 = 100, 𐄢 = 1000, and 𐄫 = 10000 [...More...]  "Greek Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Hebrew Numerals The system of HEBREW NUMERALS is a quasidecimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet . The system was adapted from that of the Greek numerals in the late 2nd century BC. The current numeral system is also known as the Hebrew alphabetic numerals to contrast with earlier systems of writing numerals used in classical antiquity. These systems were inherited from usage in the Aramaic and Phoenician scripts, attested from c. 800 BC in the socalled Samaria ostraca and sometimes known as HebrewAramaic numerals, ultimately derived from the Egyptian Hieratic numerals . The Greek system was adopted in Hellenistic Judaism and had been in use in Greece since about the 5th century BC. In this system, there is no notation for zero , and the numeric values for individual letters are added together [...More...]  "Hebrew Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Roman Numerals The numeric system represented by ROMAN NUMERALS originated in ancient Rome Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe Europe well into the Late Middle Ages . Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet . Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols: SYMBOL I V X L C D M VALUE 1 5 10 50 100 500 1,000The use of Roman numerals Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire Roman Empire . From the 14th century on, Roman numerals Roman numerals began to be replaced in most contexts by the more convenient HinduArabic numerals ; however, this process was gradual, and the use of Roman numerals persists in some minor applications to this day [...More...]  "Roman Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Kharosthi Numerals Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs 32 c. BCE * Hieratic Hieratic 32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* ProtoSinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * PaleoHebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* LibycoBerber 3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semisyllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family Brahmic family (see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul Hangul (core letters only) 1443* Devanagari Devanagari 13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* Sogdian 2 c. BCE * Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c [...More...]  "Kharosthi Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Maya Numerals The MAYA NUMERAL SYSTEM is a vigesimal (base20) positional notation used in the Maya civilization to represent numbers. The numerals are made up of three symbols; zero (shell shape, with the plastron uppermost), one (a dot) and five (a bar). For example, thirteen is written as three dots in a horizontal row above two horizontal lines stacked above each other. 400s 20s 1s 33 429 5125 Numbers after 19 were written vertically in powers of twenty. For example, thirtythree would be written as one dot above three dots, which are in turn atop two lines. The first dot represents "one twenty" or "1×20", which is added to three dots and two bars, or thirteen. Therefore, (1×20) + 13 = 33. Upon reaching 202 or 400, another row is started (203 or 8000, then 204 or 160,000, and so on). The number 429 would be written as one dot above one dot above four dots and a bar, or (1×202) + (1×201) + 9 = 429 