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Javanese Language
JAVANESE /dʒɑːvəˈniːz/ (ꦧꦱꦗꦮ, basa Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: ) (colloquially known as ꦕꦫꦗꦮ, cara Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: ) is the language of the Javanese people
Javanese people
from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java
Java
, in Indonesia
Indonesia
. There are also pockets of Javanese speakers in the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 98 million people (more than 42% of the total population of Indonesia). Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
, but it is not particularly close to other languages and is difficult to classify. Its closest relatives are the neighbouring languages such as Sundanese , Madurese and Balinese
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Bawean
BAWEAN ISLAND (Indonesian : Pulau Bawean) is an island of Indonesia located approximately 150 km north of Surabaya
Surabaya
in the Java
Java
Sea , off the coast of Java
Java
. It is administered by Gresik
Gresik
Regency of East Java province. It is approximately 15 km in diameter and is circumnavigated by a single narrow road. Bawean
Bawean
is dominated by an extinct volcano at its center that rises to 655 m above sea level. Its population as at the 2010 Census is about 70,000 people, but more than 26,000 of them (that is about 70% of the male population) were temporarily living outside, working in other parts of Indonesia, Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia ). As a result, females constituted about 77% of the actual population of the island, which is thus often referred to as the Island of Women (Indonesian : Pulau Putri)
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and formerly maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany. There are two components: Languoid catalogue, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and Langdoc, the bibliography. It differs from the similar catalogue Ethnologue in several ways, in that it attempts only to accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested"); it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet . It was devised by the International Phonetic Association
International Phonetic Association
in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language . The IPA is used by lexicographers , foreign language students and teachers, linguists , speech-language pathologists , singers , actors , constructed language creators and translators . The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones , phonemes , intonation and the separation of words and syllables . To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping , and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International
International
Phonetic Alphabet , may be used
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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ISO 639-1
ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes . Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international, and formal, shorthand for indicating languages
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Johor
JOHOR (/dʒəˈhɔər, ˌdʒoʊ-/ ) or JOHORE is a Malaysian state , located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city of Johor
Johor
is Johor Bahru . The royal city of the state is Muar and the old state capital is Johor Lama . Johor
Johor
is surrounded by Pahang to the north, Melaka
Melaka
and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest, and the Straits of Johor to the south, which separates Johor
Johor
and the Republic of Singapore
Singapore
. The state also shares a maritime border with the Riau Archipelago from the east and Riau mainland on the west by the South China Sea
South China Sea
and the Strait of Malacca respectively, both of Indonesian territories
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Linguasphere Observatory
The LINGUASPHERE OBSERVATORY (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network. It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor , a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
Senegal
. Its founding director is David Dalby, former director of the International African Institute and emeritus reader in the University of London, and its first research secretary was Philippe Blanchet, a Provençal-language poet currently serving as Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Rennes
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Selangor
Motto: Kejujuran Dan Ketekunan (Honesty and Diligence) Anthem: Duli Yang Maha Mulia SELANGOR in MALAYSIA Coordinates: 3°20′N 101°30′E / 3.333°N 101.500°E / 3.333; 101.500 Coordinates : 3°20′N 101°30′E / 3.333°N 101.500°E / 3.333; 101.500 CAPITAL Shah Alam ROYAL CAPITAL Klang GOVERNMENT • SULTAN Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah • MENTERI BESAR
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Netherlands
The NETHERLANDS (/ˈnɛðərləndz/ ( listen ); Dutch : Nederland ( listen ); Frisian : Nederlân), also known informally as HOLLAND, is a densely populated country in Western Europe
Europe
, also incorporating three island territories in the Caribbean
Caribbean
. It is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands . The European portion of the Netherlands
Netherlands
borders Germany
Germany
to the east, Belgium
Belgium
to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and Germany. The four largest cities in the Netherlands
Netherlands
are Amsterdam
Amsterdam
, Rotterdam , The Hague and Utrecht