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Javanese Language
JAVANESE /dʒɑːvəˈniːz/ (ꦧꦱꦗꦮ, basa Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: ) (colloquially known as ꦕꦫꦗꦮ, cara Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: ) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java
Java
, in Indonesia
Indonesia
. There are also pockets of Javanese speakers in the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 98 million people (more than 42% of the total population of Indonesia). Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages , but it is not particularly close to other languages and is difficult to classify. Its closest relatives are the neighbouring languages such as Sundanese , Madurese and Balinese . Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian , the standardized form of Malay spoken in Indonesia, for official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians
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Japanese Language
JAPANESE (日本語, _Nihongo_, or ( listen )) is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan , where it is the national language . It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan ) language family, whose relation to other language groups, particularly to Korean and the suggested Altaic language family, is debated. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period (794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese . Late Middle Japanese (1185–1600) included changes in features that brought it closer to the modern language, and the first appearance of European loanwords
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Javanese Script
The JAVANESE SCRIPT, natively known as _Aksara Jawa_ (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and _Hanacaraka_ (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages spoken in Indonesia , primarily the Javanese language and an early form of Javanese called Kawi , as well as Sanskrit , an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script is a descendant of the Brahmi script and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India and Southeast Asia . The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script , is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts of Southeast Asia. The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands
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Java Island
JAVA (Indonesian : JAWA; Javanese : ꦗꦮ; Sundanese : ᮏᮝ) is an island of Indonesia
Indonesia
. With a population of over 141 million (the island itself) or 145 million (the administrative region), Java
Java
is home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the most populous island on Earth
Earth
. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta
Jakarta
, is located on western Java
Java
. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
. Java
Java
was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java
Java
dominates Indonesia
Indonesia
politically, economically and culturally
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Indonesia
Coordinates : 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic of Indonesia _Republik Indonesia_ (Indonesian ) _ Flag National emblem MOTTO: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika _ ( Old Javanese ) "Unity in Diversity" NATIONAL IDEOLOGY : _Pancasila _ ANTHEM: _ Indonesia Raya _ "Great Indonesia" Area controlled by
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Javanese People
The JAVANESE (_Ngoko_ Javanese : ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦗꦮ, _Madya_ Javanese : ꦠꦶꦪꦁꦗꦮꦶ, _Krama_ Javanese : ꦥꦿꦶꦪꦤ꧀ꦠꦸꦤ꧀ꦗꦮꦶ, _Ngoko_ Gêdrìk : WòNG JåWå, _Madya_ Gêdrìk : TIYANG JAWI, _Krama_ Gêdrìk : PRIYANTUN JAWI, Indonesian : _SUKU JAWA_) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java
Java
. With approximately 100 million people (as of 2011 ), they form the largest ethnic group in Indonesia
Indonesia
. They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of the island. There are also significant numbers of people of Javanese descent in most provinces of Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, Suriname
Suriname
, Saudi Arabia and the Netherlands
Netherlands

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Mataram Sultanate
The SULTANATE OF MATARAM /məˈtɑːrəm/ was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on Java
Java
before the island was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior Central Java
Java
from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century. Mataram reached its peak of power during the reign of Sultan
Sultan
Agung Hanyokrokusumo (r. 1613 – 1645), and began to decline after his death in 1645. By the mid-18th century, Mataram lost both power and territory to the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC). It had become a vassal state of the company by 1749
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Osing People
The OSING people (Ngoko Javanese : ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦎꦱꦶꦁ, Madya Javanese : ꦠꦶꦪꦁꦎꦱꦶꦁ, Krama Javanese : ꦥꦿꦶꦪꦤ꧀ꦠꦸꦤ꧀ꦎꦱꦶꦁ, Ngoko Gêdrìk : WòNG ÔSìNG, Madya Gêdrìk : TIYANG ÔSìNG, Krama Gêdrìk : PRIYANTUN ÔSìNG, Osing : ꦭꦫꦺꦈꦱꦶꦁ LARé USING, Indonesian : SUKU OSING) are a community living in the eastern salient of Java
Java
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, in the easternmost part of East Java . They are the descendants of the people of the ancient Kingdom of Blambangan , whose rulers remained Hindus until they were forced to convert to Islam
Islam
by the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC) in 1770. Their population of approximately 400,000 is centered in the province of East Java in the Banyuwangi Regency
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Tenggerese People
The TENGGERESE (Ngoko Javanese : ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦡꦼꦁꦒꦼꦂ, Madya Javanese : ꦠꦶꦪꦁꦡꦼꦁꦒꦼꦂ, Krama Javanese : ꦥꦿꦶꦪꦤ꧀ꦠꦸꦤ꧀ꦡꦼꦁꦒꦼꦂ, Ngoko Gêdrìk : WòNG TĕNGGĕR, Madya Gêdrìk : TIYANG TĕNGGĕR, Krama Gêdrìk : PRIYANTUN TĕNGGĕR, Indonesian : SUKU TENGGER) people are a Javanese ethnic group in eastern Java
Java
who claim to be the descendants of the Majapahit princes. Their population of roughly 100,000 is centered in 30 villages in the isolated Tengger mountains ( Mount Bromo
Mount Bromo
) in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park
Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park
in eastern Java
Java
. Scattered communities of Tenggerese also exist in the Pasuruan , Probolinggo , Malang , and Lumajang Regencies of eastern Java. They are traditionally believed to be the descendants of legendary Roro Anteng and Joko Seger
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Bawean
BAWEAN ISLAND (Indonesian : Pulau Bawean) is an island of Indonesia located approximately 150 km north of Surabaya
Surabaya
in the Java
Java
Sea , off the coast of Java
Java
. It is administered by Gresik
Gresik
Regency of East Java province. It is approximately 15 km in diameter and is circumnavigated by a single narrow road. Bawean
Bawean
is dominated by an extinct volcano at its center that rises to 655 m above sea level. Its population as at the 2010 Census is about 70,000 people, but more than 26,000 of them (that is about 70% of the male population) were temporarily living outside, working in other parts of Indonesia, Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia ). As a result, females constituted about 77% of the actual population of the island, which is thus often referred to as the Island of Women (Indonesian : Pulau Putri)
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Samin People
The SAMIN\'S CHALLENGE is an Indonesian social movement founded by Surontiko Samin in north-central Java
Java
, Indonesia
Indonesia
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Saminism rejected the capitalist views of the colonial Dutch , who predominately forced taxes upon the people of Indonesia, including the poor, and monopolized their free public forest lands; particularly land which contains precious teak forests used for trade. Though the Samin people are similar to the Muslim faith, they do not practice many of the Islamic rituals such as fasting or praying. However they do focus on the spiritual aspect of religion as well as good values, such as modesty, honesty, and simplicity. Because Surontiko Samin was illiterate, and also his followers and other Saminist leaders, there is no written first-hand accounts of the Saminist movement
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Cirebonese
The CIREBONESE people are an ethnic group centered on the city of Cirebon in the northern part of the island of Java
Java
in Indonesia
Indonesia
. Numbering approximately 1.9 million, the Cirebonese are mostly Muslim . The language spoken by the Cirebonese is a mixture of Javanese and Sundanese language , with a heavier influence from Javanese. Generally Cirebonese can be considered as an Independent language outside Javanese and Sundanese
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Banyumasan People
The BANYUMASAN people (Ngoko Javanese : ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦨꦚꦸꦩꦱꦤ꧀, Madya Javanese : ꦠꦶꦪꦁꦡꦺꦴꦪꦗꦼꦤꦺꦲꦤ꧀, Krama Javanese : ꦥꦿꦶꦪꦤ꧀ꦠꦸꦤ꧀ꦡꦺꦴꦪꦗꦼꦤꦺꦲꦤ꧀, Ngoko Gêdrìk : WòNG BANYUMASAN, Madya Gêdrìk : TIYANG TOYåJêNéAN, Krama Gêdrìk : PRIYANTUN TOYåJêNéAN, Indonesian : SUKU BANYUMASAN) (colloquially known as NGAPAK JAVANESE) is a collective term for a Javanese sub-ethnic native to the Indonesia
Indonesia
's westernmost part of Central Java . At approximately 12–15 million people, they are concentrated in Banyumas , Majenang , Cilacap , Gombong , Kebumen , Banjarnegara , Purbalingga , Purwokerto
Purwokerto
, Bumiayu , Slawi , Pemalang , Tegal , and Brebes
Brebes
regencies
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Austronesian Languages
The AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGES are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia , Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean , with a few members in continental Asia . Austronesian languages are spoken by about 386 million people, making it the fifth-largest language family by number of speakers, behind only the Indo-European languages , the Sino-Tibetan languages , the Niger-Congo languages , and the Afroasiatic languages . It is on par with Indo-European , Niger–Congo , and Afroasiatic as one of the best-established language families. Major Austronesian languages with the highest number of speakers are Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian ), Javanese , and Filipino (Tagalog ). The family contains 1,257 languages, which is the second most of any language family
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Malayo-Polynesian Languages
The MALAYO-POLYNESIAN LANGUAGES are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages , with approximately 385.5 million speakers. The Malayo- Polynesian languages are spoken by the Austronesian people of the island nations of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean , with a smaller number in continental Asia
Asia
. Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam serve as the northwest geographic outlier, going well into the Malay peninsula. On the northernmost geographical outlier does not pass beyond the north of Pattani, which is located in southern Thailand. Malagasy is spoken in the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
located off the eastern coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean

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