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Japanese Rock Garden
The JAPANESE ROCK GARDEN (枯山水, karesansui) or "dry landscape" garden, often called a ZEN GARDEN, creates a miniature stylized landscape through carefully composed arrangements of rocks, water features, moss, pruned trees and bushes, and uses gravel or sand that is raked to represent ripples in water. A zen garden is usually relatively small, surrounded by a wall, and is usually meant to be seen while seated from a single viewpoint outside the garden, such as the porch of the hojo, the residence of the chief monk of the temple or monastery. Classical zen gardens were created at temples of Zen Buddhism in Kyoto
Kyoto
during the Muromachi period . They were intended to imitate the intimate essence of nature, not its actual appearance, and to serve as an aid to meditation about the true meaning of life
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Ryōan-ji
RYōAN-JI ( Shinjitai : 竜安寺, Kyūjitai
Kyūjitai
: 龍安寺, The Temple of the Dragon at Peace) is a Zen
Zen
temple located in northwest Kyoto
Kyoto
, Japan
Japan
. It belongs to the Myōshin-ji
Myōshin-ji
school of the Rinzai branch of Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
. The Ryōan-ji
Ryōan-ji
garden is considered one of the finest surviving examples of kare-sansui ("dry landscape"), a refined type of Japanese Zen
Zen
temple garden design generally featuring distinctive larger rock formations arranged amidst a sweep of smooth pebbles (small, carefully selected polished river rocks) raked into linear patterns that facilitate meditation
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Kyoto
KYOTO (京都市, _Kyōto-shi_, pronounced ( listen ), pronounced ( listen ); UK : /kɪˈoʊtoʊ/ , US : /kiˈoʊ-/ , or /ˈkjoʊ-/ ) is a city located in the central part of the island of Honshu , Japan . It has a population close to 1.5 million. Formerly the Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, it is now the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture located in the Kansai region , as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka- Kobe metropolitan area. Kyoto is also known as the thousand-year capital
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Daisen-in
DAISEN-IN (大仙院) is a sub-temple of Daitoku-ji , a temple of the Rinzai school of Zen
Zen
in Buddhism
Buddhism
, one of the five most important Zen temples of Kyoto
Kyoto
. The name means "The Academy of the Great Immortals." Daisen-in
Daisen-in
was founded by the Zen
Zen
priest Kogaku Sōkō (古岳宗亘) (1464–1548), and was built between 1509 and 1513. Daisen-in
Daisen-in
is noted for its screen paintings and for its kare-sansui , or zen garden . The screen paintings inside the temple and the garden are attributed to Sōami (died in 1525), a zen monk, ink painter and follower of the sect of the Amida Buddha . He was particularly known for his use of diluted ink to create delicate and nuanced, misty and ethereal landscapes
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Zen Buddhism
ZEN IN JAPAN * Dōgen * Hakuin Ekaku SEON IN KOREA * Taego Bou * Jinul * Daewon * Seongcheol ZEN IN THE USA * D. T
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Muromachi Period
The MUROMACHI PERIOD (室町時代, _Muromachi jidai_, also known as the MUROMACHI ERA, the ASHIKAGA ERA, or the ASHIKAGA PERIOD) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. The period marks the governance of the Muromachi or Ashikaga shogunate (_Muromachi bakufu_ or _Ashikaga bakufu_), which was officially established in 1338 by the first Muromachi shogun , Ashikaga Takauji , two years after the brief Kenmu Restoration (1333–36) of imperial rule was brought to a close. The period ended in 1573 when the 15th and last shogun of this line, Ashikaga Yoshiaki , was driven out of the capital in Kyoto by Oda Nobunaga . From a cultural perspective, the period can be divided into the Kitayama and Higashiyama periods (later 15th – early 16th centuries). The early years from 1336 to 1392 of the Muromachi period are known as the _Nanboku-chō _ or Northern and Southern Court period
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Heian Period
The HEIAN PERIOD (平安時代, _Heian jidai_) is the last division of classical Japanese history , running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō , or modern Kyōto . It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism
Buddhism
, Taoism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period
Heian period
is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art , especially poetry and literature . Although the Imperial House of Japan
Japan
had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan , a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family . Many emperors actually had mothers from the Fujiwara family. _Heian_ (平安) means "peace" in Japanese
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Sakuteiki
SAKUTEIKI (作庭記, literally, Records of Garden
Garden
Making) is the oldest published Japanese text on garden-making. It was most likely the work of Tachibana Toshitsuna . Sakuteiki is most likely the oldest garden planning text in the world. It was written in the mid-to-late 11th century. During the Kamakura period, it was referred to as the SENZAI HISSHō, or the Secret Selection on Gardens before it acquired the title Sakuteiki in the Edo period. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References OVERVIEWThe unillustrated Sakuteiki is the first systematic record of the styles of gardening in the Heian period , which had been the product of oral tradition for many years. It precisely defines the art of landscape gardening as an aesthetic endeavor based on poetic feeling of the designer and the site
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Song Dynasty
The SONG DYNASTY (Chinese : 宋朝; pinyin : _Sòng cháo_; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period , coincided with the Liao and Western Xia dynasties, and was followed by the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy . This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder , as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass . The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern. During the NORTHERN SONG (Chinese : 北宋; 960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng
Kaifeng
) and the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China
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Mount Penglai
PENGLAI is a legendary land of Chinese mythology . It is known in Japanese mythology as HōRAI. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 In Chinese mythology * 3 In Japanese mythology * 4 See also * 5 References LOCATIONAccording to the Classic of Mountains and Seas , the mountain is said to be on an island in the eastern end of Bohai Sea , along with four other islands where the immortals lived, called Fāngzhàng (方丈), Yíngzhōu (瀛州), Dàiyú (岱輿), and Yuánjiāo (員嬌). Various theories have been offered over the years as to the "real" location of these places, including Japan
Japan
, Jejudo south of the Korean Peninsula , and Taiwan
Taiwan
. Penglai, Shandong exists, but its claimed connection is as the site of departures for those leaving for the island rather than the island itself
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Eight Immortals
The EIGHT IMMORTALS (Chinese : 八仙; pinyin : Bāxiān; Wade–Giles : Pa¹-hsien¹) are a group of legendary _xian _ ("immortals") in Chinese mythology . Each immortal's power can be transferred to a power tool (法器) that can bestow life or destroy evil. Together, these eight tools are called the "Covert Eight Immortals" (暗八仙). Most of them are said to have been born in the Tang or Song dynasty
Song dynasty
. They are revered by the Taoists and are also a popular element in the secular Chinese culture . They are said to live on a group of five islands in the Bohai Sea , which includes Penglai Mountain-Island
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Chinese Mythology
MODEL HUMANITY: * Xian * Zhenren * Wen and wu Practices * Fenxiang * Jingxiang * Feng shui * Miaohui * Wu shamanism * Jitong med
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Horai
PENGLAI is a legendary land of Chinese mythology . It is known in Japanese mythology
Japanese mythology
as HōRAI. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 In Chinese mythology * 3 In Japanese mythology
Japanese mythology
* 4 See also * 5 References LOCATIONAccording to the Classic of Mountains and Seas , the mountain is said to be on an island in the eastern end of Bohai Sea , along with four other islands where the immortals lived, called Fāngzhàng (方丈), Yíngzhōu (瀛州), Dàiyú (岱輿), and Yuánjiāo (員嬌). Various theories have been offered over the years as to the "real" location of these places, including Japan
Japan
, Jejudo south of the Korean Peninsula , and Taiwan
Taiwan

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Shinto Religion
SHINTO (神道, Shintō), or KAMI-NO-MICHI (among other names) is the ethnic religion of Japan
Japan
that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently, to establish a connection between present-day Japan
Japan
and its ancient past. Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki
Nihon Shoki
in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified " Shinto religion", but rather to a collection of native beliefs and mythology . Shinto today is the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of gods (kami ), suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals , and applies as well to various sectarian organizations
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Renaissance
The RENAISSANCE (UK : /rᵻˈneɪsəns/ , US : /rɛnəˈsɑːns/ ) was a period in European history , from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and modern history . It started as a cultural movement in Italy
Italy
in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe, marking the beginning of the Early Modern Age . The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism , derived from the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras
Protagoras
, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete
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Japanese Tea Ceremony
The JAPANESE TEA CEREMONY, also called the WAY OF TEA, is a Japanese cultural activity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of _matcha _ (抹茶), powdered green tea . In Japanese , it is called _chanoyu_ (茶の湯) or _sadō, chadō_ (茶道), while the manner in which it is performed, or the art of its performance, is called _(o)temae_ (手前; 点前). Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
was a primary influence in the development of the Japanese tea ceremony
Japanese tea ceremony
. Much less commonly, Japanese tea ceremony
Japanese tea ceremony
uses leaf tea, primarily sencha , in which case it is known in Japanese as _senchadō_ (煎茶道, the way of sencha) as opposed to chanoyu or chadō; see sencha tea ceremony , below. Tea