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Japan
Coordinates : 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 Japan 日本国 _Nippon-koku_ _Nihon-koku_ _ Flag Imperial Seal ANTHEM: * " Kimigayo _" * 君が代 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN * _ * Go-Shichi no Kiri_ (五七桐) Area controlled by Japan shown in green; claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green
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Nippon (other)
NIPPON (Hiragana: にっぽん) is a reading of kanji 日本 that refers to Japan
Japan
. NIPPON is more formal and rarer than Nihon (にほん), an alternative reading. For more information see Names of Japan
Japan
. NIPPON can also refer to: COMPANY NAMESAll of the following companies are based in Japan
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Japanese Language
JAPANESE (日本語, _Nihongo_, or ( listen )) is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan , where it is the national language . It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan ) language family, whose relation to other language groups, particularly to Korean and the suggested Altaic language family, is debated. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period (794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese . Late Middle Japanese (1185–1600) included changes in features that brought it closer to the modern language, and the first appearance of European loanwords . The standard dialect moved from the Kansai region to the Edo (modern Tokyo ) region in the Early Modern Japanese period (early 17th century–mid-19th century). Following the end in 1853 of Japan\'s self-imposed isolation , the flow of loanwords from European languages increased significantly. English loanwords, in particular, have become frequent, and Japanese words from English roots have proliferated
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Flag Of Japan
The national FLAG OF JAPAN is a white rectangular flag with a red disc in the center. This flag is officially called _NISSHōKI_ (日章旗, "sun-mark flag") in the Japanese language
Japanese language
, but is more commonly known as _HINOMARU_ (日の丸, "circle of the sun"). The flag embodies Japan
Japan
's nickname as the Land of the Rising Sun . The _Nisshōki_ flag is designated as the national flag in the Law Regarding the National Flag and National Anthem , which was promulgated and became effective on August 13, 1999. Although no earlier legislation had specified a national flag, the sun-disc flag had already become the _de facto_ national flag of Japan. Two proclamations issued in 1870 by the Daijō-kan , the governmental body of the early Meiji period , each had a provision for a design of the national flag. A sun-disc flag was adopted as the national flag for merchant ships under Proclamation No. 57 of Meiji 3 (issued on February 27, 1870), and as the national flag used by the Navy under Proclamation No. 651 of Meiji 3 (issued on October 27, 1870). Use of the _Hinomaru_ was severely restricted during the early years of the Allied occupation of Japan
Japan
after World War II
World War II
; these restrictions were later relaxed
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Imperial Seal Of Japan
The IMPERIAL SEAL OF JAPAN , also called the CHRYSANTHEMUM SEAL (菊紋, _KIKUMON_), CHRYSANTHEMUM FLOWER SEAL (菊花紋, 菊花紋章, _KIKUKAMON, KIKUKAMONSHō_) or IMPERIAL CHRYSANTHEMUM EMBLEM (菊の御紋, _KIKUNOGOMON_), is one of the national seals and a crest (_mon _) used by the Emperor of Japan and members of the Imperial Family . It is a contrast to the Paulownia Seal used by the Japanese government . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 References * 4 See also HISTORYDuring the Meiji period , no one was permitted to use the Imperial Seal except the Emperor of Japan , who used a 16 petal chrysanthemum with sixteen tips of another row of petals showing behind the first row. Therefore, each member of the Imperial family used a slightly modified version of the seal. Shinto
Shinto
shrines either displayed the imperial seal or incorporated elements of the seal into their own emblems. Earlier in Japanese history, when Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
, who tried to break the power of the shogunate in 1333, was exiled, he adopted the seventeen-petal chrysanthemum to differentiate himself from the Northern Court's Emperor Kōgon , who kept the imperial 16-petal _mon_. DESCRIPTIONThe symbol is a yellow or orange chrysanthemum with black or red outlines and background. A central disc is surrounded by a front set of 16 petals
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Kimigayo
"KIMIGAYO" (君が代, ; His Imperial Majesty
Majesty
's Reign) is the national anthem of Japan
Japan
. Its lyrics are the oldest among the world's national anthems, and with a length of 11 measures and 32 characters "Kimigayo" is also one of the world's shortest. Its lyrics are from a _waka _ poem written in the Heian period
Heian period
(794–1185), and the current melody was chosen in 1880, replacing an unpopular melody composed eleven years earlier. While the title "Kimigayo" is usually translated as "His Imperial Majesty's Reign", no official translation of the title or lyrics has been established in law. From 1888 to 1945 "Kimigayo" served as the national anthem of the Empire of Japan
Japan
. When the Empire was dissolved following its surrender at the end of World War II
World War II
, the State of Japan
Japan
succeeded it in 1945. This successor state was a parliamentary democracy and the polity therefore changed from a system based on imperial sovereignty to one based on popular sovereignty . Emperor Shōwa was not dethroned, and "Kimigayo" was retained as the _de facto _ national anthem. The passage of the Act on National Flag and Anthem in 1999 recognized it as the official national anthem
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Government Seal Of Japan
The GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN, one of the national seals , is an emblem _(mon )_ of paulownia used by the Cabinet and the Government of Japan on official documents. It is one of various paulownia _mon_, collectively known as the PAULOWNIA SEALS (桐紋, _KIRIMON_) or the PAULOWNIA FLOWER SEALS (桐花紋, _TōKAMON_). The 5-7 PAULOWNIA (五七桐, _GO-SHICHI (NO ) KIRI_) is used as the official emblem of the Prime Minister of Japan . It resembles a stylized paulownia with 5-7-5 flowers. Before the Chrysanthemum Seal was used extensively, the Paulownia Seal originally was the private symbol of the Japanese Imperial Family , from as early as the twelfth century. The Toyotomi clan , led by Toyotomi Hideyoshi , later adopted the Paulownia Seal for use as the crest of his clan. After the Meiji Restoration , the seal was eventually adopted as the emblem of the Japanese government. It is now still mainly used by the Japanese government , as a contrast to the Chrysanthemum Seal which represents the Emperor as the symbol of the sovereignty of the State, and members of the Imperial Family . CONTENTS* 1 Designs * 1.1 5-3 Paulownia * 1.2 5-7 Paulownia * 1.3 Other * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DESIGNSMore than 140 designs exist
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Tokyo
TOKYO (Japanese: (_ listen ), English: /ˈtoʊki.oʊ/ ), officially TOKYO METROPOLIS, is the capital of Japan and one of its 47 prefectures . The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese government . Tokyo is in the Kantō region on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands . Formerly known as Edo , it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. It officially became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from the old capital of Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture (東京府, Tōkyō-fu_) and the city of Tokyo (東京市, _Tōkyō-shi_). Tokyo is often referred to as a city, but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo
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Languages Of Japan
The most widely spoken language in Japan is Japanese , which is separated into a large number of dialects with Tokyo dialect considered standard Japanese. In addition to the Japanese language, Ryukyuan languages are spoken in Okinawa and parts of Kagoshima in the Ryukyu Islands . Along with Japanese, these languages are part of the Japonic language family , but they are separate languages, and are not mutually intelligible with Japanese, or with each other. All of the spoken Ryukyuan languages are classified by UNESCO as endangered. In Hokkaido , there are Ainu languages , which are spoken by the Ainu people , who are the indigenous people of Japan. The Ainu languages are isolated and do not fall under any language family. Ever since the Meiji period, Japanese has become widely used among the Ainu people and consequently Ainu languages have been classified critically endangered by UNESCO . In addition, languages such as Orok , Evenki , and Nivkh spoken in formerly Japanese controlled southern Sakhalin are becoming more and more endangered. After the Soviet Union took control of the region, speakers of these languages and their descendants migrated to mainland Japan and still exist but in small numbers. Speakers of Korean , Chinese , and Zainichi Korean , which stems from Korean, also reside in Japan
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Ainu Language
HOKKAIDO AINU (/ˈaɪnuː/ ; Ainu: アイヌ・イタㇰ _Aynu=itak_; Japanese : アイヌ語 _Ainu-go_) is the sole survivor of the Ainu languages . It is spoken by members of the Ainu ethnic group on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido . Until the 20th century, Ainu languages were also spoken throughout the southern half of the island of Sakhalin and by small numbers of people in the Kuril Islands . There were at least 19 dialects of the Ainu languages. Only the Hokkaido variant survives, the last speaker of Sakhalin Ainu having died in 1994. Hokkaido Ainu is moribund , though attempts are being made to revive it. Ainu has no generally accepted genealogical relationship to any other language family
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Amami Ōshima Language
The AMAMI LANGUAGE or languages (Japanese : 島口, シマユムタ, Shimayumuta), also known as AMAMI ŌSHIMA or simply ŌSHIMA ('Big Island'), is a Ryukyuan language spoken in the Amami Islands
Amami Islands
south of Kyūshū . The southern variety of Setouchi township may be a distinct language more closely related to Okinawan than it is to northern Ōshima. As Amami does not have recognition within Japan
Japan
as a language, it is officially known as the Amami dialect (奄美方言, Amami Hōgen). CONTENTS * 1 Speakers * 2 Classification * 3 Dialects * 4 Names * 5 Phonology * 5.1 Consonants * 5.1.1 Closed syllables * 5.2 Vowels * 6 Resources * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 Link SPEAKERSThe number of competent native speakers is not known, but native speakers are found mostly among old people—as a result of Japanese language policy, the younger generations speak mostly Japanese as their first language. Estimates run around 10,000 for the northern variety and 2,000 for the southern (Setouchi ) variety. CLASSIFICATIONLinguists mostly agree on the validity of the Amami–Okinawan languages as a family
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Kikai Language
The KIKAI LANGUAGE (しまゆみた _Shimayumita_) is spoken on Kikai Island , Kagoshima Prefecture of southwestern Japan . It is debated whether it is a single dialect cluster . Regardless, all Kikai dialects are members of the Amami–Okinawan languages , which are part of the Japonic languages . As Kikai does not have recognition within Japan as a language, it is officially known as the Kikai Island dialect (喜界島方言, _Kikai-jima hōgen_). CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Dialects * 3 Name * 4 Phonology * 4.1 Northern Kikai * 4.1.1 Consonants * 4.1.2 Vowels * 4.2 South–Central Kikai * 4.2.1 Consonants * 4.2.2 Vowels * 5 Resources * 6 References * 7 External links CLASSIFICATION Main article: Amami–Okinawan languages § Subgroups The classification of Kikai is disputed. Some even dispute the existence of the Kikai cluster. The languages of the Amami Islands can be divided into the conservative northern group (Northern Amami Ōshima , Southern Amami Ōshima and Tokunoshima ) and the innovative southern group (Okinoerabu and Yoron ). The problem here is which Kikai belongs to. It has been noted that northern communities of Kikai are phonologically more conservative and show some similarity to Amami Ōshima and Tokunoshima while the rest of the island is closer to Southern Amami
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Kunigami Language
The KUNIGAMI or NORTHERN OKINAWAN language (_ Yanbaru Kutuuba_ (山原言葉/ヤンバルクトゥーバ)) is a Ryukyuan language of northern Okinawa Island in Kunigami District and city of Nago , otherwise known as the Yanbaru region, historically the territory of the Hokuzan kingdom. The Nakijin dialect is often considered representative of Kunigami, analogous to the Shuri /Naha dialect of Central Okinawan . The number of fluent native speakers of Kunigami is not known. As a result of Japanese language policy, the younger generation mostly speaks Japanese as their first language. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Scope and classification * 3 Folk terminology * 4 Phonology * 5 Morphology * 6 References LOCATIONIn addition to the northern portion of Okinawa Island, Kunigami is spoken on the small neighboring islands of Ie, Tsuken and Kudaka. SCOPE AND CLASSIFICATION_Glottolog_, following Pellard (2009), classifies Kunigami with Central Okinawan as the two Okinawan languages
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Miyako Language
The MIYAKO LANGUAGE (宮古口/ミャークフツ _Myaakufutsu_ or 島口/スマフツ _Sumafutsu_) is a language spoken in the Miyako Islands , located southwest of Okinawa . The combined population of the islands is about 52,000 (as of 2011). Miyako is a Southern Ryukyuan language , most closely related to Yaeyama . The number of competent native speakers is not known; as a consequence of Japanese language policy which refers to the language as the Miyako dialect (宮古方言, _Miyako hōgen_), reflected in the education system, people below the age of 60 tend to not use the language except in songs and rituals, and the younger generation mostly uses Japanese as their first language. Miyako is notable among the Japonic languages in that it allows non-nasal syllable-final consonants, something not found in most Japonic languages. CONTENTS * 1 Dialects * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Vowels * 2.2 Consonants * 3 References * 4 External links DIALECTSThe most divergent dialect is that of Tarama Island , the farthest island away. The other dialects cluster as Ikema Irabu and Central Miyako. An illustrative lexeme is _ Alocasia _ (evidently an Austronesian loan: Tagalog /biːɡaʔ/). This varies as Central Miyako (Hirara, Ōgami) /biʋkasːa/, Ikema /bɯbɯːɡamː/, Irabu (Nagahama) /bɭbɭːɡasːa/, Tarama /bivːuɭɡasːa/
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