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Jan Łukasiewicz
Jan Łukasiewicz
Jan Łukasiewicz
(Polish: [ˈjan wukaˈɕɛvʲitʂ]; 21 December 1878 – 13 February 1956) was a Polish logician and philosopher born in Lwów, which, before the Polish partitions, was in Poland, Galicia, then Austria-Hungary. His work centred on philosophical logic, mathematical logic, and history of logic. He thought innovatively about traditional propositional logic, the principle of non-contradiction and the law of excluded middle. Modern work on Aristotle's logic builds on the tradition started in 1951 with the establishment by Łukasiewicz of a revolutionary paradigm
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Lwów
Lviv
Lviv
(Ukrainian: Львів [lʲʋiu̯] ( listen); Russian: Львов Lvov; Polish: Lwów[2] [lvuf] ( listen); German: Lemberg; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016. Lviv
Lviv
is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. Named in honor of Leo, the eldest son of Daniel, King of Ruthenia, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
(also called Kingdom of Rus')[3] from 1272 to 1349, when it was conquered by King Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great
who then became known as the King of Poland
Poland
and Rus'. From 1434, it was the regional capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Gisela Striker
Gisela Striker (born 1943) is Professor Emerita of Philosophy
Philosophy
and Classics
Classics
at Harvard University.[1] Biography[edit] Striker was born and educated in Germany
Germany
(with a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Göttingen). She taught philosophy at Göttingen from 1971–1986, at Columbia University
Columbia University
from 1986–1989, and at Harvard from 1989–1997, and then was the sixth Laurence Professor of Ancient Philosophy
Philosophy
at the University of Cambridge, England, until 2000, when she returned to Harvard.[2] Striker specializes in ancient philosophy, teaching Plato
Plato
and Aristotle, as well as earlier and later Greek and Roman authors. She has written mostly on topics in Hellenistic philosophy (the epistemology and ethics of Stoics, Epicureans, and Skeptics) and on Aristotelian logic
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Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Austrian Galicia
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, became a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
as a result of the First Partition of Poland
First Partition of Poland
in 1772, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule. From 1804 to 1918, it was a crownland of the Austrian Empire. After the reforms of 1867, it became an ethnic Pole-administered autonomous unit under the Austrian crown. The country was carved from the entire south-western part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Among the many ceremonial titles of the princes of Hungary
Hungary
was "ruler of Galicia and Lodomeria". The name "Galicia" is the Latinized form of Halych, a principality of the medieval Ruthenia
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Franz Joseph I Of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.[1] From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was also President of the German Confederation. He was the longest-reigning Emperor of Austria
Emperor of Austria
and King of Hungary, as well as the third-longest-reigning monarch of any country in European history, after Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
and Johann II of Liechtenstein.[2] In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne at Olomouc, as part of Minister-president
Minister-president
Felix zu Schwarzenberg's plan to end the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
in Hungary. This allowed Ferdinand's nephew Franz Joseph to accede to the throne
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Humboldt University Of Berlin
The Humboldt University
Humboldt University
of Berlin
Berlin
(German: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), established in 1810,[4] is a university in the central borough of Mitte
Mitte
in Berlin, Germany. It was established by Frederick William III on the initiative of Wilhelm von Humboldt as the University of Berlin, making it the oldest of Berlin's four universities.[n 1] The university is divided into nine faculties, including its medical school shared with the Free University of Berlin, has a student enrollment of around 32,000 students, and offers degree programmes in some 189 disciplines from undergraduate to postdoctorate level.[5] Its main campus is located on the Unter den Linden
Unter den Linden
boulevard in central Berlin
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Old University Of Louvain
The Old University of Leuven (or of Louvain) is the name historians give to the university, or studium generale, founded in Leuven, Brabant (then part of the Burgundian Netherlands, now part of Belgium), in 1425. The university was closed in 1797, a week after the cession to the French Republic of the Austrian Netherlands and the principality of Liège (jointly the future Belgium) by the Treaty of Campo Formio. The name was in medieval Latin Studium generale Lovaniense[2] or Universitas Studii Lovaniensis,[3] in humanistical Latin Academia Lovaniensis,[4] and most usually,[5] Universitas Lovaniensis,[6] in Dutch Universiteyt Loven[7] and also Hooge School van Loven.[8] It is commonly referred to as the University of Leuven or University of Louvain, sometimes with the qualification "old" to distinguish it from the Catholic University of Leuven (established 1835 in Leuven). This might also refer to a short-lived but historically important State University of Leuven, 1817–1835
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Habilitation
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries. Despite all changes implemented in the European higher education systems during the Bologna Process, it is the highest qualification level issued through the process of a university examination and remains a core concept of scientific careers in these countries.[1] The degree is conferred for a habilitation thesis based on independent scholarship, which was reviewed by and successfully defended before an academic committee in a process similar to that of a doctoral dissertation
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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John Corcoran (logician)
John Corcoran (/ˈkɔːrkərən/; born 1937) is an American logician, philosopher, mathematician, and historian of logic. He is best known for his philosophical work on concepts such as the nature of inference, relations between conditions, argument-deduction-proof distinctions, the relationship between logic and epistemology, and the place of proof theory and model theory in logic. Nine of Corcoran’s papers have been translated into Spanish, Portuguese, Persian, and Arabic; his 1989 "signature" essay[1] was translated into three languages
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Ignacy Jan Paderewski
Ignacy Jan Paderewski
Ignacy Jan Paderewski
(Polish: [iɡˈnat͡sɨ ˈjan padɛˈrɛfskʲi]; 18 November [O.S. 6 November] 1860 – 29 June 1941) was a Polish pianist and composer, politician, statesman and spokesman for Polish independence.[1] He was a favorite of concert audiences around the world. His musical fame opened access to diplomacy and the media. Paderewski played an important role in meeting with President Woodrow Wilson and obtaining the explicit inclusion of independent Poland
Poland
as point 13 in Wilson's peace terms in 1918, called the Fourteen Points.[2] He was the Prime Minister of Poland
Prime Minister of Poland
and also Poland's foreign minister in 1919, and represented Poland
Poland
at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Underground University
Flying University (Polish: Uniwersytet Latający, less often translated as "Floating University") was an underground educational[1] enterprise[2] that operated from 1885 to 1905 in Warsaw, the historic Polish capital, then under the control of the Russian Empire, and that was revived between 1977 and 1981 in the People's Republic of Poland. The purpose of this and similar institutions was to provide Polish youth with an opportunity for an education within the framework of traditional Polish scholarship, when that collided with the ideology of the governing authorities
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Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland
(/ˈswɪtsərlənd/), officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern
Bern
is the seat of the federal authorities.[1][2][note 1] The country is situated in Western-Central Europe,[note 4] and is bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi))
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