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James Scott, 1st Duke Of Monmouth
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch, KG, PC (9 April 1649 – 15 July 1685) was an English nobleman. Originally called James Crofts or James Fitzroy, he was born in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
in the Netherlands, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his mistress Lucy Walter. He served in the Second Anglo-Dutch War
Second Anglo-Dutch War
and commanded English troops taking part in the Third Anglo-Dutch War
Third Anglo-Dutch War
before commanding the Anglo-Dutch brigade fighting in the Franco-Dutch War. In 1685 he led the unsuccessful Monmouth Rebellion, an attempt to depose his uncle, King James II and VII
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His Grace
His Grace or Her Grace is a style used for various high-ranking personages. It was the style used to address Kings of England until Henry VIII[1] and the King or Queen of Scots up to the Act of Union of 1707, which united the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
and the Kingdom of England. Today, the style is used when referring to non-royal dukes and duchesses, and archbishops, in the United Kingdom. For example, His Grace The Duke of Devonshire
Duke of Devonshire
in the United Kingdom, or His Grace The Lord Archbishop
Archbishop
of Canterbury; or Your Grace in spoken or written address
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Y Chromosome
The Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals. The other is the X chromosome. Y is the sex-determining chromosome in many species, since it is the presence or absence of Y that determines the male or female sex of offspring produced in sexual reproduction. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development. The DNA
DNA
in the human Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is composed of about 59 million base pairs.[5] The Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is passed only from father to son
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Order Of The Garter
The Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
(formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III
Edward III
in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George, England's patron saint. Appointments are made at the Sovereign's sole discretion. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, and no more than 24 living members, or Companions. The order also includes supernumerary knights and ladies (e.g., members of the British Royal Family and foreign monarchs)
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Protestantism
Protestantism
Protestantism
is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.[1][2][3][a] It or
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Roman Catholicism
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Beheading
Decapitation
Decapitation
is the complete separation of the head from the body. Such an injury is usually fatal to humans and most animals, since it deprives all other organs of the involuntary functions that are needed for the body to function, while the brain is deprived of oxygenated blood. The term beheading refers to the act of deliberately decapitating a person, either as a means of murder or execution; it may be accomplished with an axe, sword, knife, or by mechanical means such as a guillotine. An executioner who carries out executions by beheading is called a headsman.[1] Accidental decapitation can be the result of an explosion,[2] car or industrial accident,[note 1] improperly administered execution by hanging or other violent injury
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Schiedam
Schiedam
Schiedam
([sxiˈdɑm] ( listen)) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland
South Holland
in the Netherlands. It is part of the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
metropolitan area. The city is located west of Rotterdam, east of Vlaardingen, and south of Delft. In the south it is connected with the village of Pernis by the Beneluxtunnel. The city is known for its historical center with canals, and for having the tallest windmills in the world. Schiedam
Schiedam
is also well known for the distilleries and malthouses and production of jenever (gin) − such as the internationally renowned Ketel One
Ketel One
− so much so that in French and English the word schiedam (usually without a capital s-) refers to the town's Holland gin
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The Hague
The Hague
The Hague
(/ðə ˈheɪɡ/; Dutch: Den Haag, pronounced [dɛn ˈɦaːx] ( listen), short for 's-Gravenhage; [ˈsxraːvə(n)ˌɦaːɣə] ( listen)) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and the capital of the province of South Holland. With a metropolitan population of more than 1 million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and Rotterdam. The Rotterdam– The Hague
The Hague
metropolitan area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country
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Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl Of Leicester
Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester
Earl of Leicester
(1 December 1595 – 2 November 1677) was an English diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1614 and 1625 and then succeeded to the peerage as Earl of Leicester.Contents1 Life 2 Family 3 References 4 Further readingLife[edit] Sidney was born at Castle Barnard, County Durham, the son of Robert Sidney, 1st Earl of Leicester, and his first wife, Barbara Gamage.[1] He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. In 1610 he was created Knight of the Bath when Prince Henry was created Prince of Wales. He was elected Member of Parliament for Wilton in 1614.[1] Sidney served in the army in the Netherlands during his father's governorship of Flushing, and was given command of an English regiment in the Dutch service in 1616. In 1618 he became a member of Gray's Inn. He was elected MP for Kent in 1621. In 1624 he was elected MP for Monmouthshire
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DNA Profiling
DNA
DNA
profiling (also called DNA
DNA
fingerprinting, DNA
DNA
testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, called a DNA
DNA
profile, that is very likely to be different in unrelated individuals, thereby being as unique to individuals as are fingerprints (hence the alternative name for the technique)
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Theobald Taaffe, 1st Earl Of Carlingford
Theobald Taaffe, 1st Earl of Carlingford (c. 1603 – 31 December 1677), known as 2nd Viscount Taaffe, of Corren and 2nd Baron of Ballymote
Ballymote
between 1642 and 1661, was an Irish Royalist officer who played a prominent part in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Following the outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641, the Catholic
Catholic
Taaffe remained loyal to the authorities in Dublin. He later joined the Irish Confederates, and was awarded command of the Munster
Munster
Army. Taaffe was a supporter of the moderate faction, and strongly supported an alliance between the Confederates and Irish Royalists. After the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Taaffe accompanied Charles II in exile
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Kingdom Of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
(Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain, sharing a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England. It suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert I it fought a successful war of independence and remained an independent state throughout the late Middle Ages. In 1603, James VI of Scotland
Scotland
became King of England, joining Scotland
Scotland
with England in a personal union
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William Sarsfield (died 1675)
William Sarsfield was an Irish landowner of the seventeenth century. He was the elder brother of the Jacobite soldier Patrick Sarsfield and was married to Mary Crofts, a woman believed to have been an illegitimate daughter of Charles II.[1] He was of both Gaelic (he was a grandson of Rory O'Moore) and Old English descent. The Sarsfields had come to Ireland during the Norman conquest of the twelfth century and had become leading figures of The Pale. His great, great-grandfather Sir William Sarsfield served as Mayor of Dublin and purchased an estate at Lucan Manor. Like most of the Old English community, the Sarsfield remained Roman Catholic. His father Patrick Sarsfield senior took part in the Irish Rebellion of 1641, but like other Irish Confederates continued to swear allegiance to Charles I
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Jacobitism
Several headquarters:Kingdom of France Kingdom of Ireland Kingdom of ScotlandArea of operations Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Kingdom of IrelandSizeIn 1745:c. 12,000 French soldiers 4,000 Highlanders c. 700 Irish volunteersAllies  Kingdom of FranceOpponents House of Hanover Jacobitism
Jacobitism
(/ˈdʒækəbaɪˌtɪzəm/ JAK-ə-bye-tiz-əm;[1][2] Scottish Gaelic: Seumasachas [ˈʃeːməs̪əxəs̪], Irish: Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England
James II of England
and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland
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Patrick Sarsfield
Patrick Sarsfield, 1st Earl of Lucan
Earl of Lucan
(ca. 1660 – 21 August 1693), was an Irish Jacobite and soldier, belonging to an Anglo-Norman family long settled in Ireland.[1] Sarsfield gained his first military experience serving with an Anglo-Irish contingent of the French Army
French Army
during the 1670s. When James II came to the throne he was commissioned in the English Army, and served during the suppression of Monmouth's Rebellion
Monmouth's Rebellion
in 1685. During the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688 he remained loyal to James and led an English cavalry detachment at the Battle of Wincanton, the only military engagement of the campaign. In 1689 Sarsfield accompanied James to Ireland and served in the Jacobite Irish Army
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