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James Burnham
James Burnham
James Burnham
(November 22, 1905 – July 28, 1987) was an American philosopher and political theorist. A radical activist in the 1930s and an important factional leader of the American Trotskyist movement, in later years Burnham left Marxism
Marxism
and turned to the political Right, serving as a public intellectual of the American conservative movement, and producing the work for which he is best known, The Managerial Revolution, published in 1941
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Chicago
Chicago
Chicago
(/ʃɪˈkɑːɡoʊ, -ˈkɔː-/ ( listen)), officially the City
City
of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is also the most populous city in both the state of Illinois
Illinois
and the Midwestern United States. It is the county seat of Cook County
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Ted Grant
Edward "Ted" Grant (born Isaac Blank; 9 July 1913 – 20 July 2006) was a South African Trotskyist who spent most of his adult life in Britain. He was a founding member of the group Militant and later Socialist Appeal.Contents1 Early life 2 Political activities 3 Labour Party responses 4 Expulsion from Militant 5 Main ideas 6 Works 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly life[edit] Grant's father had settled in South Africa after fleeing Tsarist Russia in the 19th century. His original family name is reported as "Blank" also in his autobiography, but The Guardian in an obituary suggested that his full birth name was kept unknown.[1] His parents divorced when he was young and he was brought up by his French-born mother who took in lodgers to supplement her income
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Permanent Revolution
Permanent revolution
Permanent revolution
is a term within Marxist
Marxist
theory, coined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
by at least 1850 but which has since become most closely associated with Leon Trotsky. The use of the term by different theorists is not identical. Marx used it to describe the strategy of a revolutionary class to continue to pursue its class interests independently and without compromise, despite overtures for political alliances, and despite the political dominance of opposing sections of society. Trotsky put forward his conception of "permanent revolution" as an explanation of how socialist revolutions could occur in societies that had not achieved advanced capitalism. Part of his theory is the supposed impossibility of "socialism in one country"
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Political Revolution
A political revolution, in the Trotskyist theory, is an upheaval in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact. The revolutions in France
France
in 1830 and 1848 are often cited as political revolutions. Political Revolutions are contrasted with social revolutions in which old property relations are overturned. Leon Trotsky's book, The Revolution
Revolution
Betrayed, is the most widely cited development of the theory.Contents1 Origins 2 Application 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksOrigins[edit] The Trotskyist movement advocates political revolution, as opposed to capitalist counter-revolution, in the countries with deformed workers states
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Social Revolution
Social revolutions are sudden changes in the structure and nature of society.[1] These revolutions are usually recognized as having transformed in society, culture, philosophy, and technology much more than political systems.[2] Theda Skocpol
Theda Skocpol
in her article "France, Russia, China: A Structural Analysis of Social Revolutions" states that social revolution is a "combination of thoroughgoing structural transformation and massive class upheavals".[3] She comes to this definition by combining Samuel P
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Transitional Demand
In Marxist theory, a transitional demand either is a partial realisation of a maximum demand after revolution or an agitational demand made by a socialist organisation with the aim of linking the current situation to progress towards their goal of a socialist society.Contents1 Development of transitional approach 2 Comparison with other demands 3 Citations 4 SourcesDevelopment of transitional approach[edit] Historically the parties adhering to the Second or Socialist International had adopted programmes that included both minimal demands, which it was believed could be satisfied by reform of the bourgeois state, and maximum demands which it was argued would see the end of capitalism and the beginning of a transition to communism
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United Front
A united front is an alliance of groups against their common enemies, figuratively evoking unification of previously separate geographic fronts and/or unification of previously separate armies into a front—the name often refers to a political and/or military struggle carried out by revolutionaries, especially in revolutionary socialism, communism or anarchism. The basic theory of the united front tactic among socialists was first developed by the Comintern, an international communist organization created by communists in the wake of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution
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World Revolution
World revolution
World revolution
is the far-left Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class. These revolutions would not necessarily occur simultaneously, but where and when local conditions allowed a revolutionary party to successfully replace bourgeois ownership and rule, and install a workers' state based on social ownership of the means of production
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Peter Taaffe
Peter Taaffe
Peter Taaffe
(born April 1942) is a British political activist and journalist. He is the general secretary of the Socialist Party of England and Wales and member of the International Executive Committee of the Committee for a Workers' International
Committee for a Workers' International
(CWI), which has sections in over 45 countries around the world.[1] Taaffe was the founding editor of the Trotskyist Militant newspaper in 1964,[2] and became known as a leading member of the entryist Militant group
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Tony Cliff
Tony Cliff
Tony Cliff
(born Yigael Gluckstein (Hebrew: יגאל גליקשטיין‎); 20 May 1917 – 9 April 2000) was a Trotskyist activist. Born to a Jewish family in what is now Israel, he moved to Britain in 1947 and by the end of the 1950s had assumed the pen name of Tony Cliff. A founding member of the Socialist Review
Socialist Review
Group, which eventually became the Socialist Workers Party, in 1977 Cliff became effectively the leader.Contents1 Biography 2 Ideology 3 Selected works 4 Personal life 5 Archives 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksBiography[edit]Part of a series onTrotskyismLeon Trotsky Fourth InternationalMarxism Leninism Russian RevolutionConceptsAnti-Stalinism Deformed workers' state Degenerated workers' state French Turn Leninism Permanent revolution Political revolution Social revolution Transitional demand United front World revolutionKey TrotskyistsJames P
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Pierre Frank
Pierre Frank (24 October 1905, Paris – 18 April 1984, Paris) was a French Trotskyist leader. He served on the secretariat of the Fourth International from 1948 to 1979. Educated as a chemical engineer, Frank was one of the first French Trotskyists, working with surrealist Pierre Naville and the syndicalist Alfred Rosmer. In 1930, he joined Trotsky on the island of Prinkipo to work as a member of the secretariat that prepared the first conference of the International Left Opposition. Returning to France, he was a leader of the Communist League, the French Trotskyist organisation, in the 1930s. After the rise of the 1934 Popular Front government in France, Frank was a part of the faction within the movement led by his friend Raymond Molinier that remained inside the SFIO after the majority followed Trotsky's advice to leave
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Joseph Hansen (socialist)
Joseph Leroy Hansen (June 16, 1910 – January 18, 1979), was an American Trotskyist and leading figure in the Socialist Workers Party.[1][2]Contents1 Life1.1 Background 1.2 Socialism2 Death 3 Publications 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Background[edit] Born in Richfield, Utah, Joseph Hansen was the oldest of 15 children in a poor working-class family, and he was the only one of them who could attend college. His father, Conrad Johan Zahl Hansen, was a tailor, originally from the island Kvitvær, Lurøy, Nordland in northern Norway.[1] Socialism[edit] Hansen became politically radicalized during the Great Depression and he became a convinced socialist and joined the American Trotskyist group led by James P. Cannon.[1] With his wife Reba, Hansen went to Mexico to meet the exiled Russian Communist leader, Leon Trotsky. Hansen served as Trotsky's secretary and guard from 1937 for the next three years
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Degenerated Workers' State
In Trotskyist
Trotskyist
political theory, a degenerated workers' state is a socialist state in which direct working class control of production has given way to control by a bureaucratic clique. The term was developed by Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
in The Revolution Betrayed[1] and in other works.[2]Contents1 The Soviet experience 2 "Degenerated" vs. "deformed" 3 Critics 4 Related terms 5 See also 6 ReferencesThe Soviet experience[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Gerry Healy
Thomas Gerard Healy (3 December 1913 – 14 December 1989), was a political activist, a co-founder of the International Committee of the Fourth International
Fourth International
and the leader of the Socialist Labour League
Socialist Labour League
and later the Workers Revolutionary Party. The part of the Trotskyist movement associated with Healy between 1950–85 was at times the largest in Great Britain during this period.Contents1 Early career 2 Workers Revolutionary Party 3 Implosion of the WRP 4 Personal life 5 References 6 Sources 7 Further reading 8 External linksEarly career[edit] Born in Ballybane, Galway, Ireland, to Michael Healy, a farmer, and Margaret Mary Rabbitte,[1] he emigrated to Britain and worked as a ship radio operator at the age of 14. He soon joined the Communist Party of Great Britain, but then left to join the Trotskyist Militant Group in 1937
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C. L. R. James
Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901 – 31 May 1989),[1] who sometimes wrote under the pen-name J. R. Johnson, was an Afro-Trinidadian historian, journalist and socialist. His works are influential in various theoretical, social, and historiographical contexts
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