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Jain Cosmology
JAIN COSMOLOGY is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe
Universe
(loka) and its constituents (such as living beings, matter, space, time etc.) according to Jainism
Jainism
. Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology
considers the universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having neither beginning nor end. Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom
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Dravyasamgraha
DRAVYASAṃGRAHA (Devnagari: द्रव्यसंग्रह) (Compendium of substances) is a 10th-century Jain text in Jain Sauraseni Prakrit
Prakrit
by Acharya Nemicandra belonging to the Digambara Jain
Jain
tradition. It is a composition of 58 gathas (verses) giving an exposition of the six dravyas (substances) that characterize the Jain view of the world: sentient (jīva ), non-sentient (pudgala ), principle of motion (dharma ), principle of rest (adharma), space (ākāśa) and time (kāla ). It is one of the most important Jain works and has gained widespread popularity. Dravyasaṃgraha has played an important role in Jain
Jain
education and is often memorized because of its comprehensiveness as well as brevity
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Tattvartha Sutra
TATTVARTHA SUTRA (also known as TATTVARTH-ADHIGAMA-SUTRA) is an ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswati , sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD. It is the one of the Jain scripture written in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. Tattvartha Sutra is also known in Jainism
Jainism
as the Moksha-shastra (Scripture describing the path of liberation). The Tattvartha Sutra is regarded as one of the earliest, most authoritative books on Jainism, and the only text authoritative in both the Digambara
Digambara
and Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
sects (prior to the Saman Suttam ). Its importance in Jainism
Jainism
is comparable with that of the Brahma Sutras and YogaSutras of Patanjali in Hinduism
Hinduism

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Kalpa Sūtra
The KALPA SūTRA (Sanskrit : कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras , notably Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
and Mahavira , including the latter's Nirvāṇa . Bhadrabahu
Bhadrabahu
I is considered the author of the text and it is traditionally said to have been composed about one hundred and fifty years after the Nirvāṇa of Mahavira (traditionally 599 – 527 BCE). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Importance * 3 See also * 4 References * 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Sources * 5 External links HISTORYWithin the six sections of the Jain
Jain
literary corpus belonging to the Svetambara school, it is classed as one of the Cheda Sūtras. This Sutra contains detailed life histories and, from the mid-15th century, was frequently illustrated with miniature painting
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History Of Jainism
HISTORY OF JAINISM concerns a religion founded in Ancient India
Ancient India
. Jains trace their history through twenty-four tirthankara and revere Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
as the first tirthankara (in the present time-cycle). The last two tirthankara, the 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
(c. 872 – c. 772 BCE) and the 24th tirthankara Mahavira (c. 599 – c. 527 BCE) are considered historical figures, though many historians date them both about a century later because the Mahavira is widely accepted as a contemporary of the Buddha
Buddha
, and significantly more historical evidence is available for the Buddha. According to Jain texts, the 22nd Tirthankara arsth-Nami lived about 85,000 years ago and was the cousin of Hindu god Krishna
Krishna
. Jains consider their religion to be eternal
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Jain Flag
The FLAG OF JAINISM has five colours: orange or red, yellow, white, green and black or dark blue. These five colours represent the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi (five supreme beings). It also represents the five main vows , small as well as great. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Colours * 1.2 Swastika
Swastika
* 1.3 Three Dots * 1.4 Siddhashila Chakra * 2 Photo gallery * 3 References * 4 See also OVERVIEWCOLOURSThese five colours represent the " Pañca-Parameṣṭhi " and the five vows, small as well as great: * White - represents the arihants , souls who have conquered all passions (anger, attachments, aversion) and have attained omniscience and eternal bliss through self-realization. It also denotes peace or ahimsa (nonviolence). * Red - represents the siddha , souls that have attained salvation and truth
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Jain Agamas
AGAMAS are texts of Jainism
Jainism
based on the discourses of the tirthankara . Agamas exist in Hinduism as well.Originally,'Agama' is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word. The discourse delivered in a samavasarana (divine preaching hall) is called Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas. The discourse is recorded by Ganadharas (chief disciples), and is composed of twelve angas (departments). It is generally represented by a tree with twelve branches. This forms the basis of the Jaina Agamas or canons. These are believed to have originated from Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
, the first tirthankara. The earliest versions of Jain
Jain
Agamas known were composed in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit
Prakrit
language
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Śvētāmbara
The ŚVēTāMBARA (/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/ ; Sanskrit : श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism
Jainism
, the other being the Digambara
Digambara
. Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics ' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara
Digambara
"sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity. Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha . Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara , Māllīnātha , was a woman
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Samantabhadra (Jain Monk)
SAMANTABHADRA was a Digambara
Digambara
acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada . The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami but before Pujyapada . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Thought * 3 Works * 4 Praise * 5 References * 6 Sources LIFESamantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE. He was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
. He was a poet, logician, eulogist and an accomplished linguist. He is credited with spreading Jainism
Jainism
in southern India. Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka (the condition of insatiable hunger)
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Haribhadra
HARIBHADRA SURI was a Svetambara mendicant Jain leader and author. There are multiple contradictory dates assigned to his birth. According to tradition, he lived c. 459–529 CE. However, in 1919, a Jain monk named Jinavijayi pointed out that given his familiarity with Dharmakirti , a more likely choice would be sometime after 650. In his writings, Haribhadra
Haribhadra
identifies himself as a student of Jinabhadra and Jinadatta of the Vidyadhara Kula. There are several, somewhat contradictory, accounts of his life. He wrote several books on Yoga, such as the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya and on comparative religion, outlining and analyzing the theories of Hindus, Buddhists and Jains
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Yashovijaya
YASHOVIJAYA ( IAST
IAST
: Yaśovijaya, 1624–1688), a seventeenth-century Jain philosopher-monk , was a notable Indian philosopher and logician. He was a thinker, prolific writer and commentator who had a strong and lasting influence on Jainism
Jainism
. He was a disciple of Muni Nayavijaya in the lineage of Jain monk Hiravijaya (belonging to the Tapa Gaccha tradition of Svetambara Jains) who influenced the Mughal Emperor Akbar to give up eating meat . He is also known as YASHOVIJAYJI with honorifics like MAHOPADHYAYA or UPADHYAYA or GANI
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Digambara
DIGAMBARA (/dɪˈɡʌmbərə/ ; "sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism
Jainism
, the other being Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
(white-clad). The word Digambara
Digambara
( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
) is a combination of two words: dig (directions) and ambara (sky), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. Digambara
Digambara
monks do not wear any clothes. The monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers (for clearing the place before walking or sitting), kamandalu (a water container made of wood), and shastra (scripture). One of the most important scholar-monks of Digambara tradition was Kundakunda . He authored Prakrit
Prakrit
texts such as the Samayasāra and the Pravacanasāra
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Jain Symbols
JAIN SYMBOLS are symbols based on the Jain philosophy . CONTENTS * 1 Swastika
Swastika
* 2 Symbol
Symbol
of Ahimsa * 3 Jain emblem * 3.1 Fundamental concepts * 3.2 Usage * 4 Jain flag
Jain flag
* 5 Om * 6 Om * 6.1 Other symbols * 7 Photo gallery * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References SWASTIKA Main article: Swastika
Swastika
The swastika is an important Jain symbol. The four arms of the swastika symbolize the four states of existence as per Jainism
Jainism
: * Heavenly beings (devas encantadia") * Human beings * Hellish being * Tiryancha (subhuman like flora or fauna)It represents the perpetual nature of the universe in the material world, where a creature is destined to one of those states based on their karma
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Parasparopagraho Jivanam
PARASPAROPAGRAHO JīVāNāM ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
) is a Jain aphorism from the Tattvārtha Sūtra . It is translated as "Souls render service to one another". It is also translated as, "All life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence." These translations are virtually the same (by virtue, that is), because Jains believe that every living being, from a plant or a bacterium to human, has a soul and the concept forms the very basis of Jainism. ("Soul".. ) MOTTO OF JAINISMThe aphorism Parasparopagraho Jīvānām has been accepted as the motto of Jainism. It stresses the philosophy of non-violence and ecological harmony on which the Jain ethics and doctrine—especially the doctrines of Ahimsa and Anekantavada —are based
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Tirtha (Jainism)
In Jainism
Jainism
, a TīRTHA (Sanskrit : तीर्थ "ford , a shallow part of a body of water that may be easily crossed") is used to refer both to pilgrimage sites as well as to the four sections of the sangha . A tirtha provides the inspiration to enable one to cross over from worldly engagement to the side of moksha . Jain tirthas are located throughout India. Often a tirtha has a number of temples as well as residences (dharmashala) for the pilgrims and wandering monks and scholars
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Samvatsari
SAṃVATSARī (INTERNATIONAL FORGIVENESS DAY) is the last day of Paryushana
Paryushana
—the eight days festival of Switember Jain and ten days festival of Digamber Jain . It is the holiest day of the Jain calendar . Many Jains observe a complete fast on this day. The whole day is spent in prayers and contemplation. A yearly, elaborate penitential retreat called saṃvatsarī pratikramana is performed on this day. After the pratikramana Jains seek forgiveness from all the creatures of the world whom they may have harmed knowingly or unknowingly by uttering the phrase— Micchami Dukkadam , "Khamau Sa" , or "Khamat Khamna". As a matter of ritual, they personally greet their friends and relatives Micchami Dukkadam . No private quarrel or dispute may be carried beyond Saṃvatsarī and messages , telephone calls are made to the outstation friends and relatives asking their forgiveness. REFERENCES * ^ Shah, Nathubhai (1998)
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