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Jaffna University Helidrop
The Jaffna
Jaffna
University Helidrop was the first of the operations launched by the Indian Peace Keeping Forces (IPKF) aimed at disarming the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
(LTTE) by force and securing the town of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, in the opening stages of Operation Pawan during the active Indian mediation in the Sri Lankan Civil War. Mounted on the midnight of 12 October 1987, the operation was planned as a fast heliborne assault involving Mi-8's of the No.109 HU, the 10th Para Commandos and a contingent of the 13th Sikh LI
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Sooriyakanda Mass Grave
The Sooriyakanda mass grave is the mass burial ground of murdered school children from Embilipitiya Maha Vidyalaya (Embilipitiya High School) in Sri Lanka. These school children were killed and buried as part of the counter insurgency during the second JVP uprising in Sri Lanka. It was alleged that over 300 bodies were buried in the location. The mass grave was located in 1994. The Sri Lankan government last reported in 1996 to have conducted a forensic analysis of the burial ground uncovering an unspecified number of bodies
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Vankalai Massacre
The Vankalai
Vankalai
massacre was a massacre of a family of four minority Sri Lankan Tamils at the hands of the Sri Lankan military
Sri Lankan military
personnel from the village of Vankalai
Vankalai
in Mannar District, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
on June 8, 2006. The victims were tortured and the mother was gang raped before her murder.[1] [2][3][4]Contents1 Background 2 Incident 3 Reactions 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBackground[edit] The village of Vankalai
Vankalai
is located about six miles southeast of the town of Mannar, in Mannar District. The village was the scene of numerous incidents during the Sri Lankan Civil War, including the killing of Catholic priest Mary Bastian
Mary Bastian
in 1985
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Tactical Victory
A tactical victory may refer to a victory that results in the completion of a tactical objective as part of an operation or a victory where the losses of the defeated outweigh those of the victor.Contents1 Concepts1.1 Based on planning 1.2 Based on losses2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesConcepts[edit] Large scale planning of goals may be called strategy and are conducted at the "strategic level of war".[1] Operations at a lower level which fulfil the strategic planning are conducted at the "operational level of war".[2] The lowest level of planning which fulfills operational goals and strategy is called the "tactical level of war".[3] Based on planning[edit] A tactical mission is one within the operational area which aims to complete the goals of the assigned mission or task given by "tactical control"[3] and so a tactical victory would be the successful completion of that mission. Tactical missions contribute to the success or failure of the whole operation
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India
India
India
(official name: the Republic
Republic
of India;[19] Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya) is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[d] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar
Myanmar
to the east
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Depinder Singh
Lieutenant general
Lieutenant general
Depinder Singh
Depinder Singh
(born 1930, Punjab British India) was the Overall commander of the IPKF in Sri Lanka from July 1987 to March 1990,[1]He was the military assistant to Sam Manekshaw
Sam Manekshaw
from 1969-73 during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.[2][3] Books[edit] Singh has written a few books on his experience in the Indian army.The IPKF in Sri Lanka [4] Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw, M.C. : soldiering with dignity [5][6]Awards[edit] Singh was conferred with the prestigious Param Vishisht Seva Medal
Param Vishisht Seva Medal
and Vishisht Seva Medal.Param Vishisht Seva MedalVishisht Seva MedalReferences[edit]^ "The overall commander of the IPKF in Sri Lanka is Lt-General Depinder Singh". indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 20 July 2016.  ^ "Poor operational planning marred 1965 war: Lt Gen (retd) Depinder Singh". indianexpress.com
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Harkirat Singh (Major General)
Major General Harkirat Singh (retd.) is an ex-officer of the Indian Army. Singh is notable as the first commander of the IPKF during its deployment in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in 1987.[1] See also[edit]Ashok K. MehtaReferences[edit]^ The IPKF in Sri Lanka, 10 years on. By Josy Joseph.rediff.comExternal links[edit]Shocking disclosures Intervention in Sri Lanka: The IPKF Experience Retold India's Vietnam A Mission in Jaffna & the Memories of War-Torn JaffnaThis Indian military-related biographical article is a stub
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Anuradhapura Massacre
Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura
(Sinhalese: අනුරාධපුරය; Tamil: அனுராதபுரம்) is a major city in Sri Lanka. It is the capital city of North Central Province, Sri Lanka
North Central Province, Sri Lanka
and the capital of Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura
District. Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura
is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous for its well-preserved ruins of an ancient Sri Lankan civilization. It was the third capital of the Kingdom of Rajarata, following the kingdoms of Tambapanni and Upatissa Nuwara. The city, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was the centre of Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
for many centuries. The city lies 205 km (127 mi) north of the current capital Colombo
Colombo
in the North Central Province, on the banks of the historic Malvathu Oya
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Prawn Farm Massacre
The Prawn farm massacre, also known as the 1987 Kokkadichcholai massacre, took place on January 27, 1987 in the village of Kokkadichcholai, Sri Lanka. At least 83 people who worked at the farm were killed.[1] [2] The Special
Special
Task Force, an elite special forces unit of the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Police specialising in counter-terrorist and counter-insurgency operations, is accused of having perpetrated the massacre.[2][3][4] The foreign owner of the farm sued the government and eventually the victims were paid some monetary compensation.[5]Contents1 Background 2 Attack 3 Reaction 4 References 5 External linksBackground[edit] As part of the ongoing Sri Lankan civil war, a shrimp culture farm was owned by Serendip Seafood Limited, a business located in Mahiladiththivu and owned by Hong Kong based American investors in conjunction with local partners was attacked and destroyed in 1987
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Eastern University Massacre
Eastern University massacre
Eastern University massacre
also known as Vantharamulai (also Vantharoomulai) campus massacre refers to the arrest and subsequent mass murder of 158 minority Sri Lankan Tamil
Sri Lankan Tamil
refugees who had taken refuge in the Eastern University campus close to the city Batticaloa on September 5, 1990. A witness identified the Sri Lankan Army personnel as the perpetrator. The event is part of what is known amongst Sri Lankan Tamils as Black September series of civilian massacres.[1] The Sri Lankan government eventually established a presidential commission of inquiry. The inquiry found evidence of illegal abduction and mass murders
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1990 Batticaloa Massacre
The 1990 Batticaloa
Batticaloa
massacre, also known as the Sathurukondan
Sathurukondan
massacre (Tamil: சத்துருக்கொண்டான் படுகொலை), was a massacre of at least 184 minority Sri Lankan Tamil refugees, including infants, from three villages in the Batticaloa
Batticaloa
District by the Sri Lankan Army
Sri Lankan Army
on September 9, 1990.[1][2][3][4][5] Although the government instituted two investigations, no one was ever charged.Contents1 Background information 2 The massacre 3 Government investigation 4 ReferencesBackground information[edit] See also: Origins of the Sri Lankan civil war During the British colonial period, approximately 60% of the civil service jobs were held by the minority Sri Lankan Tamils, who constituted approximately 15% of the population prior to 1948
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1991 Kokkadichcholai Massacre
1991 Kokkadichcholai
Kokkadichcholai
massacre refers to the massacres of minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians in the village Kokkadichcholai
Kokkadichcholai
near the eastern province town of Batticaloa. The massacre happened on June 12, 1991, in which 152[1][2] civilians were killed. The Sri Lankan government instituted presidential commission to investigate the massacre. The commission found the commanding officer negligent in controlling his troops and recommended that he be removed from office. The commission also identified 19 members of the Sri Lankan military as responsible for mass murder
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Jaffna Lagoon Massacre
The Jaffna
Jaffna
lagoon massacre or Kilaly massacre occurred on January 2, 1993, when a Sri Lankan Navy
Sri Lankan Navy
Motor Gun Boat
Motor Gun Boat
and a number of smaller speed boats intercepted a number of boats transporting people between the south and north shores of the Jaffna
Jaffna
Lagoon in the Northern province in Sri Lanka, and attacked them under the glare of a spot light. The estimated number of deaths range from thirty five (35) to one hundred (100)
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Navaly Church Bombing
The Navaly
Navaly
Church bombing was the bombing of the Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in Navaly
Navaly
(or Navali) in the Jaffna peninsula
Jaffna peninsula
by the Sri Lankan Air Force
Sri Lankan Air Force
during the Sri Lankan Civil War. It is estimated that at least 125 civilians, who had taken refuge from the fighting inside the church, died as a result of this incident. The victims included men, women and children.[1][2]Contents1 Background 2 Incident 3 Initial reports 4 Aftermath 5 Government investigation 6 ReferencesBackground[edit] This incident occurred during a phase of the Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War
when the Sri Lankan military were on the offensive to retake the Jaffna peninsula
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Nagerkovil School Bombing
The Nager Kovil school bombing refers to a disputed incident in the Sri Lankan Civil War. Tamil sources claim that on September 22, 1995, the Sri Lankan Air Force
Sri Lankan Air Force
bombed the Nagar Kovil
Nagar Kovil
Maha Vidyalayam school in Jaffna, resulting in the death of, by varying accounts, 34-71 Sri Lankan Tamil civilians, primarily schoolchildren and the injury of many more
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Allaipiddy Massacre
The Allaipiddy
Allaipiddy
massacre or Allaipiddy
Allaipiddy
murders refers to the May 13, 2006 killing of 13 minority Tamil civilians in separate incidents in three villages in the islet of Kayts in northern Sri Lanka.[1]Contents1 Incident 2 Reactions 3 Investigation 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksIncident[edit] The massacre took place on the night of May 13, 2006 in the villages of Allaipiddy, Puliyankoodal, and Vangalady. In all three incidents, Sri Lankan Navy
Sri Lankan Navy
entered a home and opened fire on the residents. The deadliest incident took place in Allaipiddy, where nine people, including two children, died. Three more were killed in Puliyankoodal and one in Vangalady
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