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Jacques Massu
Jacques Émile Massu (French pronunciation: ​[ʒak masy]; 5 May 1908 – 26 October 2002) was a French general who fought in World War II, the First Indochina
Indochina
War, the Algerian War
Algerian War
and the Suez crisis. He is famous for having led the French troops in the Battle of Algiers and for his support and, later, denunciation of torture.Contents1 Early life 2 World War II 3 Indochina 4 Egypt 5 Algeria 6 1958 coup d'état 7 Later life 8 Decorations 9 Quotations 10 Footnotes 11 Bibliography 12 Further reading 13 External linksEarly life[edit] Jacques Massu was born in Châlons-sur-Marne to a family of military officers; his father was an artillery officer. He studied successively at Saint-Louis de Gonzague in Paris, the Free College of Gien (1919–1925) and Prytanée National Militaire
Prytanée National Militaire
(1926–1928)
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Torture
Torture
Torture
(from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim. Torture, by definition, is a knowing and intentional act; deeds which unknowingly or negligently inflict pain without a specific intent to do so are not typically considered torture. Torture
Torture
has been carried out or sanctioned by individuals, groups, and states throughout history from ancient times to modern day, and forms of torture can vary greatly in duration from only a few minutes to several days or longer
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Indochina
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia. The name refers to the lands historically within the cultural influence of India
India
and China, and physically bound by the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
in the west and China
China
in the north. It corresponds to the present-day areas of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and (variably) peninsular Malaysia and Singapore
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Colonial Chad
Chad was a part of the French colonial empire from 1900 to 1960. Colonial rule under the French began in 1900 when the Military Territory of Chad was established. From 1905, Chad was linked to the federation of French colonial possessions in Middle Africa, known from 1910 under the name of French Equatorial Africa. Chad passed in 1920 to French civilian administration, but suffered from chronic neglect. Chad distinguished itself in 1940 for being, under the governorship of Félix Éboué, the first French colony to rally by the side of Free France. After World War II, the French permitted a limited amount of representation of the African population, ushering the way to the clash in the political arena between the progressive and southern-based Chadian Progressive Party (PPT) and the Islamic conservative Chadian Democratic Union (UDT)
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Tibesti
The Tibesti Mountains
Tibesti Mountains
are a mountain range in the central Sahara, primarily located in the extreme north of Chad, with a small extension into southern Libya. The highest peak in the range, Emi Koussi, lies to the south at a height of 3,445 metres (11,302 ft) and is the highest point in both Chad
Chad
and the Sahara. Bikku Bitti, the highest peak in Libya, is located in the north of the range. The central third of the Tibesti is of volcanic origin and consists of five shield volcanoes topped by large craters: Emi Koussi, Tarso Toon, Tarso Voon, Tarso Yega and Toussidé. Major lava flows have formed vast plateaus that overlie Paleozoic
Paleozoic
sandstone
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Zouar, Chad
Zouar (Arabic: زوار‎) is a town in the Tibesti Ouest department of the Tibesti region in northern Chad, located in an oasis in the Tibesti Mountains. Prior to 2008 it was in the Tibesti Department of the former Bourkou-Ennedi-Tibesti region The seat of the derde, the highest religious and political authority among the Teda of the Tibesti, the town came under French control in 1917.[1] After Chad's independence, Zouar played an important role during the Chadian Civil War and the Chadian-Libyan conflict, when its control was hotly contended
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Free French Forces
Free France
Free France
and its Free French Forces (French: France
France
Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War
Second World War
and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers
Axis powers
as one of the Allies after the fall of France
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Fezzan
Fezzan
Fezzan
(Berber languages: ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; Arabic: فزان‎, Fizzān; Turkish: Fizan; Latin: Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya. It is largely desert, but broken by mountains, uplands, and dry river valleys (wadis) in the north, where oases enable ancient towns and villages to survive deep in the otherwise inhospitable Sahara
Sahara
Desert. The term originally applied to the land beyond the coastal strip of Africa proconsularis, including the Nafusa
Nafusa
and extending west of modern Libya
Libya
over Ouargla and Illizi. As these Berber areas came to be associated with the regions of Tripoli, Cirta
Cirta
or Algiers, the name was increasingly applied to the arid areas south of Tripolitania
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Philippe Leclerc De Hauteclocque
Philippe François Marie Leclerc
Leclerc
de Hauteclocque (French pronunciation: ​[filip ləklɛʁ də otklɔk]; 22 November 1902 – 28 November 1947) was a French general during the Second World War. He became Marshal of France
Marshal of France
posthumously in 1952, and is known in France simply as le maréchal Leclerc
Leclerc
or just Leclerc. The son of an aristocratic family, de Hauteclocque graduated from the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr, the French military academy, in 1924. After service with the French Occupation of the Ruhr
Occupation of the Ruhr
and in Morocco, he returned to Saint-Cyr as an instructor. He was awarded the croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures for leading goumiers in an attack on caves and ravines on Bou Amdoun on 11 August 1933
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Lieutenant-Colonel
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel
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2nd Armored Division (France)
The French 2nd Armored Division (French: 2e Division Blindée, 2e DB), commanded by General Philippe Leclerc, fought during the final phases of World War II
World War II
in the Western Front. The division was formed around a core of units that had fought in the North African campaign, and re-organized into a light armored division in 1943. The division embarked in April 1944 and shipped to various ports in Britain. On 29 July 1944, bound for France, the division embarked at Southampton. During combat in 1944, the division liberated Paris, defeated a Panzer brigade during the armored clashes in Lorraine, forced the Saverne Gap and liberated Strasbourg
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Saigon
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City (Vietnamese: Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; [tʰàn fǒ hò tɕǐ mɨ̄n] ( listen) or [tʰàn fǒ hò cǐ mɨ̄n]), also informally known by its former name of Saigon (Vietnamese: Sài Gòn; [sàj ɣɔ̀ŋ] ( listen)), is the largest city in Vietnam
Vietnam
by population. It was known as Prey Nokor (Khmer: ព្រៃនគរ) prior to annexation by the Vietnamese in the 17th century. Under the name Saigon, it was the capital of the French colony of Cochinchina and later of the independent republic of South Vietnam
Vietnam
1955–75
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Suez Canal
The Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
(Arabic: قناة السويس‎ qanāt as-suwēs) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the Red Sea
Red Sea
through the Isthmus of Suez. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company
Suez Canal Company
between 1859 and 1869, it was officially opened on November 17, 1869. The canal offers watercraft a shorter journey between the North Atlantic
Atlantic
and northern Indian Oceans via the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Red seas by avoiding the South Atlantic
Atlantic
and southern Indian oceans, in turn reducing the journey by approximately 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi)
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Saintes, Charente-Maritime
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Saintes (French: [sɛ̃t]) is a commune and historic town in southwestern France, in the Charente-Maritime
Charente-Maritime
department of which it is a sub-prefecture, in Nouvelle-Aquitaine. Its inhabitants are called Saintaises and Saintais.[1] Saintes is the second-largest city in Charente-Maritime, with 26,470 inhabitants in 2008
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2nd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment
1947 - present (same unit, different designations) 1947-1953 1955-1962 1965-presentCountry FranceBranch French ArmyType troupes de marineRole AirborneGarrison/HQ Saint-Pierre, RéunionMotto(s)"À la vie. À la mort" (until July 5, 1962) Since : Ne pas subirAnniversaries Saint-Michel DayEngagements First Indochina War Algerian War Suez CrisisCommandersCurrent commander Thierry ChigotNotable commanders Roger TrinquierInsigniaInsignia of the 2nd Marine Infantry Parachute RegimentAbbreviation 2e RPIMaThe 2nd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (French: 2e Régiment de Parachutistes d'Infanterie de Marine, 2e RPIMa) is an airborne regiment of the French Army created in 1947. The regiment is heir to the traditions of the 2nd Colonial Commando Parachute Battalion 2eB.C.C.P
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Nord Noratlas
The Nord Noratlas
Nord Noratlas
was a dedicated military transport aircraft, developed and manufactured by French aircraft manufacturer Nord Aviation. Development commenced during the late 1940s with the aim of producing a suitable aircraft to replace the numerous older types that were in service with the Armée de l'Air
Armée de l'Air
(French Air Force) which dated back to the Second World War. In response to a competition organised by the Direction Technique Industrielle (DTI), Nord produced their Nord 2500 proposal, which was selected as the most promising. Experiences with the first prototype, powered by Gnome-Rhône 14R engines, did not impress, thus the design was revised as the Nord 2501, powered by the SNECMA-built Bristol Hercules
Bristol Hercules
738/9 engines instead, which was found acceptable
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