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Jacob Bekenstein
Jacob David Bekenstein (Hebrew: יעקב בקנשטיין‬; May 1, 1947 – August 16, 2015) was a Mexican-born Israeli-American theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics and to other aspe
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Mexico City
Mexico
Mexico
City
, or the City of Mexico (Spanish: Ciudad de México, American Spanish: [sjuˈða(ð) ðe ˈmexiko] (About this sound listen); abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico
Mexico
City is one of the most important cultural and financial centers in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 metres (7,350 ft)
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God
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith. The concept of God, as described by theologians, commonly includes the attributes of omniscience (all-knowing), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere), divine simplicity, and as having an eternal and necessary existence. In agnostic thought, the existence of God
God
is unknown and/or unknowable
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Helsinki
Helsinki (/ˈhɛlsɪŋki/ or /hɛlˈsɪŋki/; Finnish pronunciation: [ˈhelsiŋki] (About this sound listen); Swedish: Helsingfors; Swedish pronunciation: [helsiŋˈfors] (About this sound listen)) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland. Helsinki
Helsinki
is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland
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Institute For Advanced Study
The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld. The IAS is perhaps best known as the academic home of Albert Einstein, Hermann Weyl, John von Neumann and Kurt Gödel, after their immigration to the United States. Although it is close to and collaborates with Princeton University, Rutgers University, and other nearby institutions, it is independent and does not charge tuition or fees. Flexner's guiding principle in founding the Institute was the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. There are no degree programs or experimental facilities at the Institute
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American Physical Society
The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists. The Society publishes more than a dozen scientific journals, including the prestigious Physical Review and Physical Review Letters"> Physical Review Letters, and organizes more than twenty science meetings each year
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Electromagnetism
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force usually exhibits electromagnetic fields such as electric fields, magnetic fields and light, and is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature. The other three fundamental interactions are the strong interaction, the weak interaction and gravitation.
Lightning is an electrostatic discharge that travels between two charged regions.
The word electromagnetism is a compound form of two Greek terms, ἤλεκτρον ēlektron, "amber", and μαγνῆτις λίθος magnētis lithos, which means "Μagnesian stone", a type of iron ore
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Physical Constant
A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time. It is contrasted with a mathematical constant, which has a fixed numerical value, but does not directly involve any physical measurement. There are many physical constants in science, some of the most widely recognized being the speed of light in vacuum c, the gravitational constant G, Planck's constant h, the electric constant ε0, and the elementary charge e
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Fine-structure Constant
In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted α (the Greek letter alpha), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles. It is related to the elementary charge e, which characterizes the strength of the coupling of an elementary charged particle with the electromagnetic field, by the formula ε0ħcα = e2--->
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Scalar Field
In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space. The scalar may either be a (dimensionless) mathematical number or a physical quantity. In a physical context, scalar fields are required to be independent of the choice of reference frame, meaning that any two observers using the same units will agree on the value of the scalar field at the same absolute point in space (or spacetime) regardless of their respective points of origin. Examples used in physics include the temperature distribution throughout space, the pressure distribution in a fluid, and spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field
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Mordehai Milgrom
Mordehai "Moti" Milgrom is an Israeli physicist and professor in the department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics at the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel. He received his first degree from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1966. Later he studied at the Weizmann Institute of Science and completed his doctorate in 1972. In 1981, he proposed Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) as an alternative to the dark matter and galaxy rotation curve problems. Milgrom suggests that Newton's Second Law be modified for very small accelerations. In the academic years 1980–1981 and 1985–1986 he was at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Before 1980 he worked primarily on high-energy astrophysics and became well-known for his kinematical model of SS 433.
Modified Newtonian dynamics is solely the invention of Mordehai (Moti) Milgrom
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Ernst David Bergmann
Ernst David Bergmann (Hebrew: ארנסט דוד ברגמן‎; 1903 – April 6, 1975) was an Israeli nuclear scientist and chemist
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Beersheba
Beersheba, also spelled Beer-Sheva (/bɪərˈʃbə/; Hebrew: בְּאֵר שֶׁבַעAbout this sound Be'er Sheva [be.eʁˈʃeva]; Arabic: بئر السبعAbout this sound Bi'ir as-Sab  [biːr esˈsabeʕ]), is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel. Often referred to as the "Capital of the Negev", it is the center of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in Israel, the eighth most populous Israeli city with a population of 205,810, and the second largest city with a total area of 117,500 dunams (after Jerusalem). With an ancient history, and long used as a bedouin encampment, the modern history of Beersheva began at the start of the 20th century when a permanent settlement was established by the Ottoman Turks. The Battle of Beersheba was part of a wider British offensive in World War I aimed at breaking the Turkish defensive line from Gaza to Beersheba
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Lev Landau
Lev Davidovich Landau (Russian: Лев Дави́дович Ланда́у, IPA: [lʲɛv dɐˈvidəvʲitɕ lɐnˈda.u] (About this sound
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Yad Hanadiv
Yad Hanadiv (The Rothschild Foundation) is a Rothschild family philanthropic Foundation in Israel. Currently, Yad Hanadiv operates in five fields: Education, Environment, Academic Excellence, Civil Society and Arab Community
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Scientific American
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine. Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein, have contributed articles in the past 170 years
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