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Jacob Bekenstein
Jacob David Bekenstein (Hebrew: יעקב בקנשטיין‬; May 1, 1947 – August 16, 2015) was a Mexican-born Israeli-American theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics and to other aspects of the connections between information and gravitation.Contents1 Biography 2 Major contributions to physics 3 Personal life 4 Awards 5 Works 6 References 7 External linksBiography[edit] Bekenstein was born in Mexico City
Mexico City
in 1947, to parents Joseph and Esther (née Vladaslavotsky), Polish Jews who had migrated to Mexico.[1] He moved to the United States during his early life, gaining U.S. citizenship in 1968.[2] He was also a citizen of Israel.[3] As a student, Bekenstein attended the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, now known as the New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering, obtaining both an undergraduate degree and a Master of Science degree in 1969
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Mexico City
Mexico
Mexico
City, or the City of Mexico
Mexico
(Spanish: Ciudad de México, American Spanish: [sjuˈða(ð) ðe ˈmexiko] ( listen);[13] abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico
Mexico
and the most populous city in North America.[14] Mexico
Mexico
City is one of the most important cultural and financial centers in the Americas.[15] It is located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 metres (7,350 ft)
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God
In monotheistic thought, God
God
is conceived of as the Supreme Being
Supreme Being
and the principal object of faith.[3] The concept of God, as described by theologians, commonly includes the attributes of omniscience (all-knowing), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere), divine simplicity, and as having an eternal and necessary existence. In agnostic thought, the existence of God
God
is unknown and/or unknowable
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Helsinki
Helsinki
Helsinki
(/ˈhɛlsɪŋki/ or /hɛlˈsɪŋki/;[7][8] Finnish pronunciation: [ˈhelsiŋki] ( listen); Swedish: Helsingfors; Swedish pronunciation: [helsiŋˈfors] ( listen)) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland. Helsinki
Helsinki
is the seat of the region of Uusimaa
Uusimaa
in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland. Helsinki
Helsinki
has a population of 642,045,[3] the Helsinki urban area
Helsinki urban area
has a population of 1,231,595,[9] and the Helsinki metropolitan area has a population of over 1.4 million, making it the most populous municipality and urban area in Finland. Helsinki
Helsinki
is located 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Tallinn, Estonia, 400 km (250 mi) east of Stockholm, Sweden, and 390 km (240 mi) west of Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Institute For Advanced Study
The Institute for Advanced Study
Institute for Advanced Study
(IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld. The IAS is perhaps best known as the academic home of Albert Einstein, Hermann Weyl, John von Neumann
John von Neumann
and Kurt Gödel, after their immigration to the United States. Although it is close to and collaborates with Princeton University, Rutgers University, and other nearby institutions, it is independent and does not charge tuition or fees.[2] Flexner's guiding principle in founding the Institute was the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake.[3] There are no degree programs or experimental facilities at the Institute
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American Physical Society
The American Physical Society
American Physical Society
(APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists. The Society publishes more than a dozen scientific journals, including the prestigious Physical Review and Physical Review Letters, and organizes more than twenty science meetings each year
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Electromagnetism
Electromagnetism
Electromagnetism
is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force usually exhibits electromagnetic fields such as electric fields, magnetic fields and light, and is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature. The other three fundamental interactions are the strong interaction, the weak interaction and gravitation.[1] Lightning
Lightning
is an electrostatic discharge that travels between two charged regions.The word electromagnetism is a compound form of two Greek terms, ἤλεκτρον ēlektron, "amber", and μαγνῆτις λίθος magnētis lithos,[2] which means "Μagnesian stone",[3] a type of iron ore
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Physical Constant
A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time. It is contrasted with a mathematical constant, which has a fixed numerical value, but does not directly involve any physical measurement. There are many physical constants in science, some of the most widely recognized being the speed of light in vacuum c, the gravitational constant G, Planck's constant
Planck's constant
h, the electric constant ε0, and the elementary charge e
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Fine-structure Constant
In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted α (the Greek letter alpha), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles. It is related to the elementary charge e, which characterizes the strength of the coupling of an elementary charged particle with the electromagnetic field, by the formula 4πε0ħcα = e2
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Scalar Field
In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space. The scalar may either be a (dimensionless) mathematical number or a physical quantity. In a physical context, scalar fields are required to be independent of the choice of reference frame, meaning that any two observers using the same units will agree on the value of the scalar field at the same absolute point in space (or spacetime) regardless of their respective points of origin. Examples used in physics include the temperature distribution throughout space, the pressure distribution in a fluid, and spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field
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Mordehai Milgrom
Mordehai "Moti" Milgrom is an Israeli physicist and professor in the department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
Astrophysics
at the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel. He received his first degree from the Hebrew University
Hebrew University
of Jerusalem in 1966. Later he studied at the Weizmann Institute
Weizmann Institute
of Science and completed his doctorate in 1972. In 1981, he proposed Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) as an alternative to the dark matter and galaxy rotation curve problems. Milgrom suggests that Newton's Second Law be modified for very small accelerations
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Ernst David Bergmann
Ernst David Bergmann
Ernst David Bergmann
(Hebrew: ארנסט דוד ברגמן‎; 1903 – April 6, 1975) was an Israeli nuclear scientist and chemist. He is often considered the father of the Israeli nuclear program.Contents1 Life and Education 2 IAEC Career and Chairmanship 3 Awards 4 See also 5 References5.1 Notes 5.2 General referencesLife and Education[edit] Bergmann was born in Germany
Germany
to Rabbi
Rabbi
Judah Bergmann. He studied at the University of Berlin
University of Berlin
under Wilhelm Schlenk, where he received his Ph.D. in 1927
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Beersheba
Beersheba, also spelled Beer-Sheva (/bɪərˈʃiːbə/; Hebrew: בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע‬  Be'er Sheva [be.eʁˈʃeva]; Arabic: بئر السبع‎  Bi'ir as-Sab  [biːr esˈsabeʕ]), is the largest city in the Negev
Negev
desert of southern Israel. Often referred to as the "Capital of the Negev", it is the center of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in Israel, the eighth most populous Israeli city with a population of 205,810,[1] and the second largest city with a total area of 117,500 dunams (after Jerusalem). With an ancient history, and long used as a bedouin encampment, the modern history of Beersheva began at the start of the 20th century when a permanent settlement was established by the Ottoman Turks.[2] The Battle of Beersheba
Beersheba
was part of a wider British offensive in World War I aimed at breaking the Turkish defensive line from Gaza to Beersheba
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Lev Landau
Lev Davidovich Landau (Russian: Лев Дави́дович Ланда́у, IPA: [lʲɛv dɐˈvidəvʲitɕ lɐnˈda.u] ( listen); 22 January [O.S
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Yad Hanadiv
Yad Hanadiv (The Rothschild Foundation) is a Rothschild family[1] philanthropic Foundation in Israel. Currently, Yad Hanadiv operates in five fields: Education, Environment, Academic Excellence, Civil Society and Arab Community. It funds and operates Ramat Hanadiv[2] Memorial Gardens and Nature Park and is engaged in a project to renew the National Library of Israel.[3]Contents1 History 2 Projects 3 Prizes and Fellowships 4 The National Library of Israel 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Yad Hanadiv was established in memory of Baron Edmond James de Rothschild (“The well-known benefactor”), and continues his spirit and legacy. In its current form, the Foundation was established in 1958. Its first Chairperson was Dorothy de Rothschild, who served in this position until 1988. In 1989 Lord Rothschild (Jacob) was appointed Chair and he serves in this position to this day
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Scientific American
Scientific American
Scientific American
(informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine. Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein, have contributed articles in the past 170 years. It is the oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the United States (though it only became monthly in 1921).Contents1 History 2 International editions 3 First issue 4 Editors 5 Special
Special
issues 6 Scientific American
Scientific American
50 award 7 Website 8 Columns 9 Television 10 Books 11 Scientific and political debate 12 Awards 13 Top 10 Science Stories of the Year 14 Controversy 15 See also 16 References 17 External linksHistory[edit] Scientific American
Scientific American
was founded by inventor and publisher Rufus M. Porter in 1845[2] as a four-page weekly newspaper. Throughout its early years, much emphasis was placed on reports of what was going on at the U.S
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