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János Bolyai
János Bolyai
János Bolyai
(Hungarian: [ˈjaːnoʃ ˈboːjɒi]; 15 December 1802 – 27 January 1860) or Johann Bolyai,[2] was a Hungarian mathematician, one of the founders of non- Euclidean geometry
Euclidean geometry
— a geometry that differs from Euclidean geometry
Euclidean geometry
in its definition of parallel lines
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Notices Of The American Mathematical Society
Notices of the American Mathematical Society
American Mathematical Society
(often abbreviated as Notices Amer. Math. Soc.) is the membership journal of the American Mathematical Society (AMS), published monthly except for the combined June/July issue. The first volume appeared in 1953. Each issue of the magazine since January 1995 is available in its entirety on the journal web site. Articles are peer-reviewed by an editorial board of mathematical experts. Since 2016, the editor-in-chief is Frank Morgan. The cover regularly features mathematical visualizations. The Notices is the world's most widely read mathematical journal.[1] As the membership journal of the American Mathematical Society, the Notices is sent to the approximately 30,000 AMS members worldwide, one-third of whom reside outside the United States. By publishing high-level exposition, the Notices provides opportunities for mathematicians to find out what is going on in the field
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Analytical Mechanics
In theoretical physics and mathematical physics, analytical mechanics, or theoretical mechanics is a collection of closely related alternative formulations of classical mechanics. It was developed by many scientists and mathematicians during the 18th century and onward, after Newtonian mechanics. Since Newtonian mechanics
Newtonian mechanics
considers vector quantities of motion, particularly accelerations, momenta, forces, of the constituents of the system, an alternative name for the mechanics governed by Newton's laws
Newton's laws
and Euler's laws is vectorial mechanics. By contrast, analytical mechanics uses scalar properties of motion representing the system as a whole—usually its total kinetic energy and potential energy—not Newton's vectorial forces of individual particles.[1] A scalar is a quantity, whereas a vector is represented by quantity and direction
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Theresian Military Academy
The Theresian Military Academy
Theresian Military Academy
(German: Theresianische Militärakademie, TherMilAk) is a military academy in Austria, where the Austrian Armed Forces
Austrian Armed Forces
train their officers
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Vienna
Vienna
Vienna
(/viˈɛnə/ ( listen);[9][10] German: Wien, pronounced [viːn] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Austria
Austria
and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million[1] (2.6 million within the metropolitan area,[4] nearly one third of Austria's population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union
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Euclid
Euclid
Euclid
(/ˈjuːklɪd/; Greek: Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs [eu̯.klěː.dɛːs]; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid
Euclid
of Alexandria[1] to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry"[1] or the "father of geometry". He was active in Alexandria
Alexandria
during the reign of Ptolemy I (323–283 BC). His Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century.[2][3][4] In the Elements, Euclid
Euclid
deduced the theorems of what is now called Euclidean geometry
Euclidean geometry
from a small set of axioms
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Budapest
Budapest
Budapest
(Hungarian: [ˈbudɒpɛʃt] ( listen))[11] is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.[12][13][14] With an estimated 2016 population of 1,759,407 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres (203 square miles), Budapest
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Personal Name
A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual. In many cultures, the term is synonymous with the birth name or legal name of the individual. The academic study of personal names is called anthroponymy. In Western culture, nearly all individuals possess at least one given name (also known as a first name, forename, or Christian name), together with a surname (also known as a last name or family name)—respectively, the Thomas and Jefferson in Thomas Jefferson—the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan
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Minor Planet
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun
Sun
(or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.[a] Before 2006 the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
(IAU) officially used the term minor planet, but during that year's meeting it reclassified minor planets and comets into dwarf planets and small Solar System
Solar System
bodies (SSSBs).[1] Minor planets can be dwarf planets, asteroids, trojans, centaurs, Kuiper belt
Kuiper belt
objects, and other trans-Neptunian objects.[2] As of 2018, the orbits of 757,626 minor planets were archived at the Minor Planet Center, 516,386 of which had received permanent numbers (for the complete list, see index).[3] The first minor planet to be discovered was Ceres in 1801
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Moon
The Moon
The Moon
is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter's satellite Io, the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
among those whose densities are known. The Moon
The Moon
is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
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Complex Numbers
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers, and i is a solution of the equation x2 = −1, which is called an imaginary number because there is no real number that satisfies this equation. For the complex number a + bi, a is called the real part, and b is called the imaginary part. Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers, and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world.[1][2] The complex number system can be defined as the algebraic extension of the ordinary real numbers by an imaginary number i.[3] This means that complex numbers can be added, subtracted, and multiplied, as polynomials in the variable i, with the rule i2 = −1 imposed. Furthermore, complex numbers can also be divided by nonzero complex numbers
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Real Numbers
In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a line. The adjective real in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes, who distinguished between real and imaginary roots of polynomials. The real numbers include all the rational numbers, such as the integer −5 and the fraction 4/3, and all the irrational numbers, such as √2 (1.41421356..., the square root of 2, an irrational algebraic number). Included within the irrationals are the transcendental numbers, such as π (3.14159265...). Real numbers can be thought of as points on an infinitely long line called the number line or real line, where the points corresponding to integers are equally spaced. Any real number can be determined by a possibly infinite decimal representation, such as that of 8.632, where each consecutive digit is measured in units one tenth the size of the previous one
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Teleki-Bolyai Library
The Teleki Library
Teleki Library
(Hungarian: Teleki Téka, Romanian: Biblioteca Teleki-Bolyai), also known as Teleki-Bolyai Library and Bibliotheca Telekiana, is a historic public library and current museum in Târgu-Mureş, Romania. One of the richest Transylvanian collections of cultural artefacts, it was founded by the Hungarian Count Sámuel Teleki in 1802, at the time when Transylvania
Transylvania
was part of the Habsburg Monarchy, and has been open to the reading public ever since. It was among the first institutions of its kind in the Habsburg-ruled Kingdom of Hungary. It houses over 200,000 volumes, of which many are rarities, constituting a comprehensive scientific database
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Hyperpolyglot
Polyglotism or polyglottism[1] is the ability to master, or the state of having mastered, multiple languages. The word is a synonym of multilingualism, but in recent usage polyglot is sometimes used to refer to a person who learns multiple languages as an avocation.[2][3] The term "hyperpolyglot" was coined in 2008 by linguist Richard Hudson to describe individuals who speak–to some degree–dozens of languages.[4] Multilingualism, including multilingual societies as well as individuals who speak more than one language, is common. Individual polyglots or hyperpolyglots speak, study, or use large numbers of languages
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Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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