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Israil Gelfand
Israel Moiseevich Gelfand, also written Israïl Moyseyovich Gel'fand, or Izrail M. Gelfand (Yiddish: ישראל געלפֿאַנד‎, Russian: Изра́иль Моисе́евич Гельфа́нд; 2 September [O.S. 20 August] 1913 – 5 October 2009) was a prominent Soviet mathematician. He made significant contributions to many branches of mathematics, including group theory, representation theory and functional analysis
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Alexander Gelfond
Alexander Osipovich Gelfond (Russian: Алекса́ндр О́сипович Ге́льфонд; 24 October 1906 – 7 November 1968) was a Soviet mathematician. Gelfond's theorem is named after him.Contents1 Biography 2 Results 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Alexander Gelfond was born in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire in the family of a professional physician and amateur philosopher Osip Gelfond. He entered the Moscow State University in 1924, started his postgraduate studies there in 1927 and obtained his PhD in 1930. His advisors were Alexander Khinchin and Vyacheslav Stepanov. In 1930 he stayed for five months in Germany (in Berlin and Göttingen) where he worked with Edmund Landau, Carl Ludwig Siegel and David Hilbert. In 1931 he started teaching as a Professor at the Moscow State University and worked there until the last day of his life
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Yiddish Language
Yiddish
Yiddish
(ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German)[3] is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[4] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages.[5][6] Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז‎ (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש‎ (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
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Georgy Adelson-Velsky
Georgy Maximovich Adelson-Velsky (Russian: Гео́ргий Макси́мович Адельсо́н-Ве́льский; name is sometimes transliterated as Georgii Adelson-Velskii) (8 January 1922 – 26 April 2014) was a Soviet and Israeli mathematician and computer scientist. Born in Samara, Adelson-Velsky was originally educated as a pure mathematician. His first paper, with his fellow student and eventual long-term collaborator Alexander Kronrod in 1945, won a prize from the Moscow
Moscow
Mathematical Society.[1] He and Kronrod were the last students of Nikolai Luzin, and he earned his doctorate in 1949 under the supervision of Israel
Israel
Gelfand.[2] He began working in artificial intelligence and other applied topics in the late 1950s.[1] Along with Evgenii Landis, he invented the AVL tree in 1962
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Felix Berezin
Felix Alexandrovich Berezin (Russian: Фе́ликс Алекса́ндрович Бере́зин; 25 April 1931 – 14 July 1980) was a Soviet Russian mathematician and physicist known for his contributions to the theory of supersymmetry and supermanifolds as well as to the path integral formulation of quantum field theory. Berezin studied at the Moscow
Moscow
State University, but was not allowed to do his graduate studies there on account of his Jewish origin (his mother was Jewish). For the next three years Berezin taught at Moscow high schools. He continued to study mathematical physics under direction of Israel Gelfand
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Victor Ginzburg
Victor Ginzburg
Victor Ginzburg
(born 1957) is a Russian American
Russian American
mathematician who works in representation theory and in noncommutative geometry. He is known for his contributions to geometric representation theory, especially, for his works on representations of quantum groups and Hecke algebras, and on the geometric Langlands program (Satake equivalence of categories). The book " Representation theory
Representation theory
and complex geometry", by Chriss and Ginzburg, is nowadays a classical text on geometric representation theory. In an influential paper by Beilinson, Ginzburg, and Soergel, the authors introduced the concept of Koszul duality (cf. Koszul algebra) and the technique of "mixed categories" to representation theory
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Alexander Goncharov
Alexander B. Goncharov (born April 7, 1960) is a Russian American mathematician and professor at Yale University. He won the EMS Prize in 1992. Goncharov won a gold medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad in 1976. He attained his doctorate at Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1987, under supervision of Israel Gelfand with thesis Generalized conformal structures on manifolds.[1] Goncharov was an Invited Speaker at the 1994 International Congress of Mathematicians and gave a talk Polylogarithms in arithmetic and geometry.Contents1 Selected publications 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksSelected publications[edit]Geometry of configurations, polylogarithms, and motivic cohomology. Adv. Math. 114 (1995), no. 2, 197–318. (with A. M. Levin) Zagier's conjecture on L(E,2). Invent. Math. 132 (1998), no. 2, 393–432. Volumes of hyperbolic manifolds and mixed Tate motives. J. Amer. Math. Soc. 12 (1999), no. 2, 569–618. (with P
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Alexandre Kirillov
Alexandre Aleksandrovich Kirillov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Кири́ллов, born 1936) is a Soviet and Russian mathematician,[1] known for his works in the fields of representation theory, topological groups and Lie groups. In particular he introduced the orbit method[2] into representation theory. Kirillov studied at Moscow State University where he was a student of Israel Gelfand. His Ph.D. (kandidat) dissertation Unitary representations of nilpotent Lie groups was published in 1962. He was awarded the degree of Doctor of Science. At the time he was the youngest Doctor of Science in the Soviet Union. He worked at the Moscow State University until 1994 when he became the Francis J. Carey Professor of Mathematics at the University of Pennsylvania. During his school years, Kirillov was a winner of many mathematics competitions, and he is still an active organizer of Russian mathematical contests
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Georgiy Shilov
Georgi Evgen'evich Shilov (Russian: Гео́ргий Евге́ньевич Ши́лов; 3 February 1917 – 17 January 1975) was a Soviet mathematician and expert in the field of functional analysis, who contributed to the theory of normed rings and generalized functions. He was born in Ivanovo-Voznesensk. After graduating from Moscow State University in 1938, he served in the army during World War II. He earned a doctorate in physical-mathematical sciences in 1951, also at MSU, and briefly taught at Kiev University until returning as a professor at MSU in 1954. There, he supervised over 40 graduate students, including Mikhail Agranovich, Valentina Borok, Gregory Eskin, and Arkadi Nemirovski. Shilov often collaborated with colleague Israel Gelfand on research that included generalized functions and partial differential equations.[1] References[edit](in Russian) BiographyNotes[edit]^ "Georgii Evgen'evich Shilov" (PDF). Functional Analysis and Its Applications. 9: 93. 1975
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Endre Szemerédi
Endre Szemerédi
Endre Szemerédi
(Hungarian: [ˈɛndrɛ ˈsɛmɛreːdi]; born August 21, 1940) is a Hungarian-American[1] mathematician, working in the field of combinatorics and theoretical computer science. He has been the State of New Jersey Professor of computer science at Rutgers University since 1986. He also holds a professor emeritus status at the Alfréd Rényi Institute of Mathematics
Mathematics
of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Szemerédi has won prizes in mathematics and science, including the Abel Prize
Abel Prize
in 2012
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Andrei Zelevinsky
Andrei Vladlenovich Zelevinsky (Андрей Владленович Зелевинский; 30 January 1953 – 10 April 2013)[1] was a Russian-American mathematician who made important contributions to algebra, combinatorics, and representation theory, among other areas.Contents1 Biography 2 Research 3 Awards and recognition 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Zelevinsky graduated in 1969 from the Moscow Mathematical School No. 2.[2] After winning a silver medal as a member of the USSR team at the International Mathematical Olympiad[3] he was admitted without examination to the mathematics department of Moscow State University where he obtained his PhD in 1978 under the mentorship of Joseph Bernstein, Alexandre Kirillov and Israel Gelfand.[4] He worked[5] in the mathematical laboratory of Vladimir Keilis-Borok at the Institute of Earth Science (1977–85), and at the Council for Cybernetics of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1985–90)
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Vitalii Ditkin
Vitalii Arsenievich Ditkin (2 May 1910, Bogorodsk (now Noginsk), Russia – 17 October 1987, Moscow) was a Russian mathematician who introduced Ditkin sets. Biography[edit] Studied at the Moscow State University
Moscow State University
in 1932—1935; in 1938 got Ph.D. degree (advisor — Abraham Plessner). From 1943 to 1948 he was with the Steklov Institute of Mathematics; from 1948 to 1955, with the Lebedev Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering. In 1949, got the Doctor of Sciences degree. In 1955, he became a deputy director of newly formed Computing Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He remained with the Computing Centre till his death. In 1978 was awarded the USSR State Prize
USSR State Prize
in sciences. References[edit]Kerimov, M. K. (2001), "On the 90th anniversary of the birth of Professor Vitalii Arsen'evich Ditkin (1910--1987)", Zhurnal Vychislitel'noi Matematiki i Matematicheskoi Fiziki
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Eastern Slavic Naming Customs
Eastern Slavic naming customs
Eastern Slavic naming customs
are the traditional ways of identifying a person by name in countries influenced by East Slavic languages (Russian, Ukrainian and Belorussian: in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine
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Old Style And New Style Dates
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day
Lady Day
(25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar.[2][3][4] Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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USSR
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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