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Israeli Legislative Election, 2009
ELECTIONS FOR THE 18TH KNESSET were held in Israel
Israel
on 10 February 2009. These elections became necessary due to the resignation of Prime Minister Ehud Olmert as leader of the Kadima party, and the failure of his successor, Tzipi Livni
Tzipi Livni
, to form a coalition government . Had Olmert remained in office or had Livni formed a coalition government, the elections would have been scheduled for 2010 instead. Although the incumbent prime minister's party, Kadima, won the most seats in the parliament, the Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu was able to form a majority coalition government and become the new prime minister
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Israeli New Sheqel
The ISRAELI NEW SHEKEL (Hebrew : שֶׁקֶל חָדָשׁ‎ Sheqel H̱adash ; Arabic : شيقل جديد‎ shēqel jadīd; sign :
; code : ILS), also known as simply the ISRAELI SHEKEL and formerly known as the NEW ISRAELI SHEQEL (NIS), is the currency of Israel
Israel
and is also used as a legal tender in the Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
of the West Bank
West Bank
and the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
. The new shekel is divided into 100 agora . The new shekel has been in use since 1 January 1986, when it replaced the hyperinflated old shekel at a ratio of 1000:1. The currency sign for the new shekel ⟨ 
 ⟩ is a combination of the first Hebrew letters of the words shekel ( ש ) and ẖadash ( ח ) (new)
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United Torah Judaism
UNITED TORAH JUDAISM (Hebrew : יַהֲדוּת הַתּוֹרָה הַמְאוּחֶדֶת‎, Transliterated : Yahadut HaTora HaMeuhedet; UTJ) is an alliance of Degel HaTorah and Agudat Israel
Israel
, two small Israeli Haredi
Haredi
(Ultra-Orthodox) political parties in the Knesset
Knesset
. It was first formed in 1992. The two parties have not always agreed with each other about policy matters. However, over the years, they have co-operated and united as a voting bloc in order to win the maximum number of seats in the Knesset
Knesset
, since many extra votes can be wasted if election thresholds are not attained under Israel's proportional representation parliamentary system. When UTJ joined Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon
's coalition in 2004, it split into its two constituent factions of Degel HaTorah and Agudat Israel
Israel

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President Of Israel
Coordinates : 31°46′11″N 35°12′51″E / 31.76972°N 35.21417°E / 31.76972; 35.21417 President of the State of Israel נשיא מדינת ישראל Presidential Standard Incumbent Reuven Rivlin
Reuven Rivlin
since 24 July 2014 STYLE His Excellency RESIDENCE Beit HaNassi APPOINTER
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Shimon Peres
SHIMON PERES (/ʃɪˈmoʊn ˈpɛrɛz/ ; Hebrew : שמעון פרס‎‎, listen (help ·info ); born SZYMON PERSKI; August 2, 1923 – September 28, 2016) was an Israeli politician who served both as ninth President of Israel
President of Israel
, (2007 to 2014) and Prime Minister of Israel
Israel
, as well as Interim Prime Minister . He was a member of twelve cabinets in a political career spanning 70 years. Peres was elected to the Knesset in November 1959 and, except for a three-month-long hiatus in early 2006, was in office continuously until 2007, when he became President, being in that role for another seven years. At the time of his retirement in 2014, he was the world's oldest head of state. He was considered the last link to Israel's founding generation
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Palestinian People
The PALESTINIAN PEOPLE ( Arabic : الشعب الفلسطيني‎‎, _ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī_), also referred to as PALESTINIANS ( Arabic : الفلسطينيون‎‎, _al-Filasṭīniyyūn_, Hebrew : פָלַסְטִינִים‎) or PALESTINIAN ARABS ( Arabic : العربي الفلسطيني‎‎, _al-'arabi il-filastini_), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab . Despite various wars and exoduses (such as that in 1948 ), roughly one half of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in historic Palestine , the area encompassing the West Bank , the Gaza Strip and Israel
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National Union (Israel)
The NATIONAL UNION (Hebrew : האיחוד הלאומי‎‎, HaIhud HaLeumi) was an alliance of right-wing and nationalist political parties in Israel
Israel
. In its final full form, the alliance consisted of four parties; Moledet , Hatikva , Eretz Yisrael Shelanu , and Tkuma . Leading up to the 2013 Knesset elections , only Tkuma remained and joined The Jewish Home . During its existence it had also included Ahi , Herut – The National Movement and Yisrael Beiteinu . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Controversy * 3 Knesset members * 4 References * 5 External links BACKGROUNDThe National Union was formed in 1999 to contest the elections of that year as an alliance between Moledet, Tkuma and Herut – The National Movement , winning four seats. In 2001 the party's support was almost doubled by the addition of the predominantly Russian-immigrant party, Yisrael Beiteinu
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Coalition Government
A COALITION GOVERNMENT is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that coalition. The usual reason for this arrangement is that no party on its own can achieve a majority in the parliament . A coalition government might also be created in a time of national difficulty or crisis (for example, during wartime or economic crisis) to give a government the high degree of perceived political legitimacy or collective identity it desires while also playing a role in diminishing internal political strife. In such times, parties have formed ALL-PARTY COALITIONS (national unity governments , grand coalitions ). If a coalition collapses, a confidence vote is held or a motion of no confidence is taken
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Jerusalem
JERUSALEM (/dʒəˈruːsələm/ ; Hebrew : יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‎ _ Yerushalayim _ ; Arabic : القُدس‎‎ _ al-Quds _ ) is a city in the Middle East , located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea . Israelis and Palestinians both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as the State of Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there while the State of Palestine ultimately foresees the city as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally. One of the oldest cities in the world , Jerusalem was named as _"Urusalima"_ on ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets, probably meaning "City of Shalem " after a Canaanite deity, during the early Canaanite period (approximately 2400 BCE)
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Party-list Proportional Representation
PARTY-LIST PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament ) through allocations to an electoral list . They can also be used as part of mixed additional member systems . In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, and seats get allocated to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives. Voters may vote directly for the party, as in Albania , Argentina , Turkey , and Israel ; or for candidates whose vote total will pool to the party, as in Finland , Brazil and the Netherlands ; or for a list of candidates, as in Hong Kong
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Two-state Solution
The TWO-STATE SOLUTION refers to a solution of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
which calls for "two states for two groups of people." The two-state solution envisages an independent State of Palestine
State of Palestine
alongside the State of Israel
Israel
, west of the Jordan River . The boundary between the two states is still subject to dispute and negotiation, with Palestinian and Arab leadership insisting on the "1967 borders", which is not accepted by Israel. The territory of the former Mandate Palestine which shall not form part of the Palestinian State, shall be part of Israeli territory. The framework of the solution is set out in UN resolutions on the "Peaceful settlement of the question of Palestine", going back to 1974
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Supreme Court Of Israel
The SUPREME COURT (Hebrew : בית המשפט העליון‎‎, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon) is the highest court in Israel
Israel
. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all other courts and, in some cases, original jurisdiction . The Supreme Court consists of 15 justices who are appointed by the Judicial Selection Committee . Once appointed, justices serve until retirement at the age of 70, unless they resign, or are removed from office. The current President (Chief Justice) of the Supreme Court is Miriam Naor
Miriam Naor
. The Supreme Court is situated in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
's Givat Ram
Givat Ram
governmental campus. Its jurisdiction applies to all of Israel
Israel
and the Israeli-occupied territories
Israeli-occupied territories

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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") Capital and largest city Jerusalem _(internationally unrecognized )_ 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew * Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS (2016) * 74.8% Jewish * 20.8% Arab * 4.4% other RELIGION * 74.8% Jewish * 17.6% Muslim * 2% Christian * 1.6%
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Motion Of Confidence
A MOTION OF NO CONFIDENCE (alternatively VOTE OF NO CONFIDENCE, NO-CONFIDENCE MOTION, or (UNSUCCESSFUL) CONFIDENCE MOTION) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental. As a parliamentary motion , it demonstrates to the head of state that the elected parliament no longer has confidence in (one or more members of) the appointed government . A censure motion is different from a no-confidence motion. Depending on the constitution of the body concerned, "No Confidence" may lead to compulsory resignation of the council of ministers or other position-holder(s), whereas "Censure" is meant to show disapproval and does not result in the resignation of ministers
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