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Israeli Legislative Election, 2009
ELECTIONS FOR THE 18TH KNESSET were held in Israel
Israel
on 10 February 2009. These elections became necessary due to the resignation of Prime Minister Ehud Olmert
Ehud Olmert
as leader of the Kadima party, and the failure of his successor, Tzipi Livni
Tzipi Livni
, to form a coalition government . Had Olmert remained in office or had Livni formed a coalition government, the elections would have been scheduled for 2010 instead. Although the incumbent prime minister's party, Kadima, won the most seats in the parliament, the Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu was able to form a majority coalition government and become the new prime minister. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Procedures * 3 Parties * 3.1 Alliances * 3.2 New parties * 4 Opinion polls * 5 Results * 6 Government formation * 6.1 Unity Government 2012 * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links BACKGROUNDOn 17 September 2008, Kadima held a leadership election , which was won by Tzipi Livni. Following Livni's victory, former party leader Ehud Olmert
Ehud Olmert
(who did not run in the contest) resigned as Prime Minister. Livni was given six weeks to form a coalition, but set a deadline of 26 October for parties to agree to join the new government
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") Capital and largest city Jerusalem _(internationally unrecognized )_ 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew * Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS (2016) * 74.8% Jewish * 20.8% Arab * 4.4% other RELIGION * 74.8% Jewish * 17.6% Muslim * 2% Christian * 1.6% Druze * 4% other DEMONYM Israeli GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Reuven Rivlin • PRIME MINISTER
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Israeli Legislative Election, 2006
ELECTIONS FOR THE 17TH KNESSET were held in Israel
Israel
on 28 March 2006. The voting resulted in a plurality of seats for the then-new Kadima party, followed by the Labor Party , and a major loss for the Likud party. After the election, the government was formed by the Kadima, Labor, Shas
Shas
, and Gil parties, with the Yisrael Beiteinu party joining the government later. The Prime Minister was Ehud Olmert
Ehud Olmert
, leader of Kadima, who had been the acting prime minister going into the election. According to the Congressional Research Service
Congressional Research Service
: The March 28, 2006, Knesset election results were surprising in many respects. The voter turnout of 63.2% was the lowest ever. The contest was widely viewed as a referendum on Kadima’s plans to disengage from the West Bank, but it also proved to be a vote on economic policies that many believed had harmed the disadvantaged. Kadima came in first, but by a smaller margin than polls had predicted. Labor, emphasizing socioeconomic issues, came in a respectable second. Likud lost 75% of its votes from 2003 because Kadima drained off supporters. Its decline also was due to Netanyahu, whose policies as Finance Minister were blamed for social distress and whose opposition to unilateral disengagement was unpopular with an increasingly pragmatic, non-ideological electorate
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Israeli Legislative Election, 2013
Early ELECTIONS FOR THE NINETEENTH KNESSET were held in Israel
Israel
on 22 January 2013. Public debate over the Tal Law had nearly led to early elections in 2012, but they were aborted at the last moment after Kadima briefly joined the government. The elections were later called in early October 2012 after failure to agree on the budget for the 2013 fiscal year. The elections saw the Likud Yisrael Beiteinu alliance emerge as the largest faction in the Knesset, winning 31 of the 120 seats. Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu formed the country's thirty-third government after establishing a coalition with Yesh Atid
Yesh Atid
, the Jewish Home and Hatnuah , which between them held 68 seats
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Kadima
KADIMA (Hebrew : קדימה‎, lit. Forward) was a centrist and liberal political party in Israel
Israel
. It was established on 24 November 2005 by moderates from Likud largely to support the issue of Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon
's unilateral disengagement plan , and was soon joined by like-minded Labor politicians. With Ehud Olmert as party chairman following Sharon's stroke, it became the largest party in the Knesset after the 2006 elections , winning 29 of the 120 seats, and led a coalition government. Although Kadima
Kadima
also won the most seats in the 2009 elections under Tzipi Livni 's leadership, it became an opposition party for the first time after a Likud-led government was formed. Livni was defeated in the 2012 leadership election , losing out to the more conservative Shaul Mofaz . Following Livni's defeat, the party's progressive wing broke away at the end of 2012, to form a new centre-left party, Hatnuah , which Livni led from the outset. In the 2013 elections , Kadima
Kadima
became the smallest party in the Knesset, winning only 2 seats and barely passing the electoral threshold. It did not enter the 2015 elections
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Tzipi Livni
TZIPORAH MALKA "TZIPI" LIVNI ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: ציפורה מלכה "ציפי" לבני‎‎; pronounced born 8 July 1958) is a prominent Israeli politician and former Foreign Minister of Israel
Israel
. Widely considered the most powerful woman in Israel
Israel
since Golda Meir , Livni has served in eight different cabinet positions throughout her career, setting the record for most government roles held by an Israeli woman . Consequently, she has achieved a number of milestones in Israeli government, as the first female Vice Prime Minister , Justice Minister , Agriculture Minister , and Housing Minister . In 2011, she was named one of "150 Women Who Shake the World" by _ Newsweek _ and _ The Daily Beast _. From 2006 to 2008, _ Forbes _ magazine ranked Livni on its List of 100 Most Powerful Women three years in row, while _Time_ included her in its 2007 "Time 100," for which U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice penned an op-ed. In Israel, Livni has earned a reputation as an honest politician who sticks to her principles. Born to a prominent right-wing, revisionist Zionist family, Livni has become one of Israel's leading voices in support of a two-state solution —one that ensures Israel's security and identity as a Jewish and democratic state
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Likud
LIKUD (Hebrew : הַלִּיכּוּד‎, translit. _HaLikud_, lit. _The Consolidation_), officially the LIKUD–NATIONAL LIBERAL MOVEMENT, is a center-right to right-wing political party in Israel . A secular party, it was founded in 1973 by Menachem Begin and Ariel Sharon in an alliance with several right-wing and liberal parties. Likud's landslide victory in the 1977 elections was a major turning point in the country's political history, marking the first time the left had lost power. In addition, it was the first time in Israel that a right-wing party won the plurality of the votes. However, after ruling the country for most of the 1980s, the party lost the Knesset election in 1992. Nevertheless, Likud's candidate Benjamin Netanyahu did win the vote for Prime Minister in 1996 and was given the task of forming a government after the 1996 elections . Netanyahu's government fell apart after a vote of no confidence, which led to elections being called in 1999 and Likud losing power to the One Israel coalition led by Ehud Barak . In 2001, Likud's Ariel Sharon , who replaced Netanyahu following the 1999 election, defeated Barak in an election called by the Prime Minister following his resignation. After the party recorded a convincing win in the 2003 elections , Likud saw a major split in 2005 when Sharon left to form the Kadima party
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Benjamin Netanyahu
BENJAMIN "BIBI" NETANYAHU (Hebrew : בִּנְיָמִין "בִּיבִּי" נְתַנְיָהוּ‎ (help ·info ); born 21 October 1949) is the current Prime Minister of Israel
Prime Minister of Israel
. Netanyahu also currently serves as a member of the Knesset
Knesset
and Chairman of the Likud party. Born in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
to secular Jewish parents, Netanyahu is the first Israeli prime minister born in Israel
Israel
after the establishment of the state . Netanyahu joined the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces shortly after the Six-Day War in 1967, and became a team leader in the Sayeret Matkal special forces unit. Netanyahu took part in many missions, including Operation Inferno (1968), Operation Gift (1968) and Operation Isotope (1972), during which he was shot in the shoulder. Netanyahu fought on the front lines in the War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
in 1973, taking part in special forces raids along the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
, and then leading a commando assault deep into Syrian territory. Netanyahu achieved the rank of captain before being discharged. After graduating from MIT
MIT
with Bachelor of Science (SB) and Master of Science (SM) degrees, Netanyahu was recruited as an economic consultant for the Boston Consulting Group
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Yisrael Beiteinu
YISRAEL BEITEINU (Hebrew : יִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּיתֵנוּ‎, lit. _ Israel Our Home_) is a secularist and right-wing nationalist political party in Israel. The party's base has traditionally been secular, Russian -speaking Israelis. The party describes itself as "a national movement with the clear vision to follow in the bold path of Zev Jabotinsky ", the founder of Revisionist Zionism . It primarily represents immigrants from the former Soviet Union . Although it has attempted to expand its appeal to more established Israelis, it has not been successful, and most of its voters are Russian-speaking. It takes a strong line towards the peace process and the integration of Israeli Arabs , characterized by its 2009 election slogan "No loyalty, no citizenship". Its main platform includes a recognition of the two-state solution , the creation of a Palestinian state that would include an exchange of some largely Arab-inhabited parts of Israel for largely Jewish-inhabited parts of the West Bank . The party maintains an anti-clerical mantle and encourages socio-economic opportunities for new immigrants, in conjunction with efforts to increase Jewish immigration . In the 2009 election the party won 15 seats, its most to date, making it the third largest party in the previous Knesset . In the 2015 election , the party won six seats
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Avigdor Lieberman
AVIGDOR LIEBERMAN (Hebrew : אביגדור ליברמן‎‎, IPA: , (audio) (help ·info ); born EVET LVOVICH LIBERMAN, Russian : Эве́т Льво́вич Ли́берман, 5 July 1958) is a Soviet-born Israeli politician who serves as the Defense Minister of Israel
Israel
. He served as Israel's Minister of Foreign Affairs
Minister of Foreign Affairs
from 2009 to 2012, and again from 2013 to 2015. He has also served as member of the Knesset
Knesset
and as Deputy Prime Minister
Deputy Prime Minister
of Israel
Israel
. He is the founder and leader of the secular-nationalist Yisrael Beiteinu party, whose electoral base are overwhelmingly Russian-speaking immigrants from the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. As a result of the arrival in Israel
Israel
during the 1990s of more than one million Russian-speaking immigrants, Yisrael Beiteinu has regularly played the 'king-maker' role in Israel's coalition governments. Lieberman first entered the Knesset
Knesset
in 1999, and has since served in numerous roles in the government , including as Minister of National Infrastructure , Minister of Transportation , Minister of Strategic Affairs , Deputy Prime Minister
Deputy Prime Minister
, Foreign Affairs Minister , and Minister of Defense
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Israeli Labor Party
The ISRAELI LABOR PARTY (Hebrew : מִפְלֶגֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית‎, translit. Mifleget HaAvoda HaYisrelit (help ·info )), commonly known as HAAVODA (Hebrew : הָעֲבוֹדָה‎), is a social democratic and Zionist political party in Israel
Israel
. The Israeli Labor Party was established in 1968 by a merger of Mapai , Ahdut HaAvoda and Rafi . Until 1977, all Israeli Prime Ministers were affiliated with the Labor movement. The current party leader (since July 2017) is Avi Gabbay . The Labor Party is associated with supporting the Israeli–Palestinian peace process , pragmatic foreign affairs policies and social democratic economic policies. The party is a member of the Socialist International
Socialist International
and Progressive Alliance , and is an observer member of the Party of European Socialists
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Ehud Barak
EHUD BARAK (Hebrew : אֵהוּד בָּרָק‎ (help ·info ), born EHUD BROG; 12 February 1942) is an Israeli politician who served as the tenth Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001. He was leader of the Labor Party until January 2011. He previously held the posts of Minister of Defense and Deputy Prime Minister in Benjamin Netanyahu 's second government from 2009 to 2013. He is the joint most highly decorated soldier in Israel's history, having taken part in many battles and combat missions. He is a graduate in physics, mathematics, and economics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Stanford University
Stanford University
. He served as an officer in the Israel Defense Forces . Following a highly decorated career, he was appointed Chief of General Staff in 1991, serving until 1995. On 26 November 2012 he announced that he would retire from politics after the next election in January 2013
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Shas
SHAS (Hebrew : ש״ס‎, an acronym for שומרי ספרד‎ Shomrei Sfarad, lit., "(Religious) Guardians of the Sephardim") is an ultra-Orthodox religious political party in Israel. Founded in 1984 under the leadership of Rabbi Ovadia Yosef
Ovadia Yosef
, a former Israeli Sephardi chief rabbi , who remained its spiritual leader until his death in October 2013, it primarily represents the interests of Haredi Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews. Originally a small ethnic political group, Shas
Shas
is currently Israel's seventh-largest party in the Knesset . Since 1984, it has almost always formed a part of the governing coalition, whether the ruling party was Labor or Likud . As of 2015, Shas
Shas
members currently sit with Likud in the government. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Ideology * 3 Controversies * 4 Women\'s campaign * 5 Knesset members * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Aryeh Deri , chairman of Shas
Shas
Shas
Shas
was founded in 1984 prior to the elections to the eleventh Knesset in the same year, in protest over the small representation of Sephardim in the largely Ashkenazi Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
, through the merger of regional lists established in 1983
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Eli Yishai
ELIYAHU "ELI" YISHAI (Hebrew : אליהו "אלי" ישי‎‎, born 26 December 1962) is an Israeli politician. A former leader of Shas
Shas
, he represented the party in the Knesset from 1996 until 2015, also holding several ministerial posts, including being Deputy Prime Minister , Minister of Internal Affairs , and Minister of Industry, Trade Nine of Shas' eleven government ministers signed a statement indicating their support for Deri, and Shas' Council of Torah Sages ordered Deri to cancel a weekend meeting with Yishai during which the two planned to attempt a reconciliation. The new party was named Yachad and contested the 2015 elections in alliance with the far-right Otzma Yehudit
Otzma Yehudit
party. However, it received 2.97% of the vote, failing to cross the 3.25% electoral threshold , and did not win any seats. REFERENCES * ^ "Eliyahu Yishai". MFA. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2012. * ^ "Eliyahu Yishai". Israel
Israel
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. * ^ " Knesset Member, Eliyahu Yishai". Knesset. 23 May 2002. Retrieved 9 September 2012. * ^ "Israeli political leader goes to jail after emotional send-off". CNN. 3 September 2000. Retrieved 7 July 2013. * ^ " Eli Yishai
Eli Yishai
breaks away from Shas, announces new party". Haaretz. 15 December 2014. * ^ Hartman, Ben (18 January 2012). "Parents of fallen soldiers call". JPost
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United Torah Judaism
UNITED TORAH JUDAISM (Hebrew : יַהֲדוּת הַתּוֹרָה הַמְאוּחֶדֶת‎, Transliterated : Yahadut HaTora HaMeuhedet; UTJ) is an alliance of Degel HaTorah and Agudat Israel , two small Israeli Haredi (Ultra-Orthodox) political parties in the Knesset . It was first formed in 1992. The two parties have not always agreed with each other about policy matters. However, over the years, they have co-operated and united as a voting bloc in order to win the maximum number of seats in the Knesset , since many extra votes can be wasted if election thresholds are not attained under Israel's proportional representation parliamentary system. When UTJ joined Ariel Sharon 's coalition in 2004, it split into its two constituent factions of Degel HaTorah and Agudat Israel . Before the 2006 election , Degel HaTorah and Agudat Israel agreed to revive their alliance under the banner of United Torah Judaism to not waste votes , and to achieve maximum representation in the 17th Knesset . The party won 6 seats in the 20th Knesset elections in 2015, wh