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Israeli Legislative Election, 1992
ELECTIONS FOR THE 13TH KNESSET were held in Israel on 23 June 1992. The election resulted in the formation of a Labor government, led by Yitzhak Rabin , helped by the failure of several small right wing parties to pass the electoral threshold . Voter turnout was 77.4%. CONTENTS * 1 Results * 2 Thirteenth Knesset * 3 References * 4 External links RESULTS The Labor Party chairman Yitzhak Rabin . After winning the 1992 elections, Rabin managed to form the first Labor-led government in 15 years, supported by a coalition with Meretz , a left-wing party, and Shas , a Mizrahi ultra-orthodox religious party
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") Capital and largest city Jerusalem _(internationally unrecognized )_ 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew * Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS (2016) * 74.8% Jewish * 20.8% Arab * 4.4% other RELIGION * 74.8% Jewish * 17.6% Muslim * 2% Christian * 1.6% Druze * 4% other DEMONYM Israeli GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Reuven Rivlin • PRIME MINISTER
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Israeli Legislative Election, 1988
ELECTIONS FOR THE 12TH KNESSET were held in Israel on 1 November 1988. Voter turnout was 79.7%. CONTENTS* 1 Background * 1.1 Economy * 1.2 Operation Moses * 1.3 The ongoing South Lebanon conflict * 1.4 Jibril Agreement * 1.5 Peres–Hussein London Agreement * 1.6 First Intifada * 2 Election campaign * 3 Results * 4 The 12th Knesset * 5 References * 6 External links BACKGROUND THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2012)ECONOMY See also: 1985 Israel Economic Stabilization Plan and Kibbutz crisis By July 1985 Israel's inflation, buttressed by complex index linking of salaries, had reached 480% per annum and was the highest in the world. Peres introduced emergency control of prices and cut government expenditure successfully bringing inflation under control. The currency (known as the Israeli lira until 1980) was replaced and renamed the Israeli new shekel . OPERATION MOSES Main article: Operation Moses The great famine of 1983–85 lead to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians from Northern Ethiopia to refugee camps in Northern Ethiopia and Sudan. Tens of thousands of Ethiopians were starving during that time. Among these victims, it is estimated that between 3,000 and 4,000 were members of the Beta Israel community
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Israeli General Election, 1996
Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
Labor Party ELECTED PRIME MINISTER Benjamin Netanyahu Likud GENERAL ELECTIONS were held in Israel
Israel
on 29 May 1996. For the first time the Prime Minister was elected on a separate ballot from the remaining members of the Knesset . The 1996 elections resulted in a surprise victory for Netanyahu by a margin of 29,457 votes, less than 1% of the total number of votes cast, and much smaller than the number of spoiled votes. This came after the initial exit polls had predicted a Peres win, spawning the phrase "went to sleep with Peres, woke up with Netanyahu." This election was Peres's fourth and last election defeat. CONTENTS* 1 Background * 1.1 Peace process * 1.2 Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
* 1.3 Palestinian terror campaign between February–March 1996 * 1.4 The ongoing South Lebanon conflict * 2 Campaign * 3 Results * 3.1 Prime Minister * 3.2 Knesset * 4 Reactions * 5 Political aftermath * 5.1 The 14th Knesset * 6 References * 7 External links BACKGROUND THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION
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Israeli Labor Party
The ISRAELI LABOR PARTY (Hebrew : מִפְלֶגֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית‎, translit. Mifleget HaAvoda HaYisrelit (help ·info )), commonly known as HAAVODA (Hebrew : הָעֲבוֹדָה‎), is a social democratic and Zionist political party in Israel
Israel
. The Israeli Labor Party was established in 1968 by a merger of Mapai , Ahdut HaAvoda and Rafi . Until 1977, all Israeli Prime Ministers were affiliated with the Labor movement. The current party leader (since July 2017) is Avi Gabbay . The Labor Party is associated with supporting the Israeli–Palestinian peace process , pragmatic foreign affairs policies and social democratic economic policies. The party is a member of the Socialist International
Socialist International
and Progressive Alliance , and is an observer member of the Party of European Socialists
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Yitzhak Rabin
YITZHAK RABIN ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: יצחק רבין‎‎; IPA: ( listen ); 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel
Prime Minister of Israel
, serving two terms in office, 1974–77 and 1992 until his assassination in 1995. Rabin was born in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Ukrainian-Jewish immigrants and was raised in a Labor Zionist household. He learned agriculture in school and excelled as a student. He led a 27-year career as a soldier. As a teenager he joined the Palmach , the commando force of the Yishuv
Yishuv
. He eventually rose through its ranks to become its chief of operations during Israel\'s War of Independence . He joined the newly formed Israel
Israel
Defense Forces in late 1948 and continued to rise as a promising officer. He helped shape the training doctrine of the IDF in the early 1950s, and led the IDF's Operations Directorate from 1959 to 1963. He was appointed Chief of the General Staff in 1964 and oversaw Israel's victory in the 1967 Six-Day War . Rabin served as Israel's ambassador to the United States
United States
from 1968 to 1973, during a period of deepening U.S.– Israel
Israel
ties
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Likud
LIKUD (Hebrew : הַלִּיכּוּד‎, translit. _HaLikud_, lit. _The Consolidation_), officially the LIKUD–NATIONAL LIBERAL MOVEMENT, is a center-right to right-wing political party in Israel . A secular party, it was founded in 1973 by Menachem Begin and Ariel Sharon in an alliance with several right-wing and liberal parties. Likud's landslide victory in the 1977 elections was a major turning point in the country's political history, marking the first time the left had lost power. In addition, it was the first time in Israel that a right-wing party won the plurality of the votes. However, after ruling the country for most of the 1980s, the party lost the Knesset election in 1992. Nevertheless, Likud's candidate Benjamin Netanyahu did win the vote for Prime Minister in 1996 and was given the task of forming a government after the 1996 elections . Netanyahu's government fell apart after a vote of no confidence, which led to elections being called in 1999 and Likud losing power to the One Israel coalition led by Ehud Barak . In 2001, Likud's Ariel Sharon , who replaced Netanyahu following the 1999 election, defeated Barak in an election called by the Prime Minister following his resignation. After the party recorded a convincing win in the 2003 elections , Likud saw a major split in 2005 when Sharon left to form the Kadima party
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Yitzhak Shamir
YITZHAK SHAMIR (Hebrew : יצחק שמיר‎‎, listen (help ·info ); born YITZHAK YEZERNITSKY; October 22, 1915 – June 30, 2012) was an Israeli politician and the seventh Prime Minister of Israel , serving two terms, 1983–84 and 1986–1992. Before the establishment of the State of Israel , Shamir was a leader of the Zionist paramilitary group Lehi . After the establishment of the State of Israel he served in the Mossad between 1955 and 1965, a Knesset Member, a Knesset Speaker and a Foreign Affairs Minister . Shamir was the country's third longest-serving prime minister after David Ben-Gurion and Benjamin Netanyahu . CONTENTS * 1 Early and personal life * 2 Zionist activism * 3 Anti-Polonism * 4 Mossad * 5 Political career * 5.1 Prime Minister * 5.2 Electoral defeat and retirement * 6 Illness and death * 6.1 Reactions * 7 Awards and recognition * 8 Published works * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 External links EARLY AND PERSONAL LIFEYitzhak Yezernitsky (later Yitzhak Shamir) was born in the predominantly Jewish village of Ruzhany , Grodno province, Russian Empire (now Belarus ), which after World War I became part of Poland , as the son of Perla and Shlomo, owner of a leather factory
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Meretz
MERETZ (Hebrew : מֶרֶצ‎, lit. "Vigour") is a left-wing , social-democratic , green , and Zionist political party in Israel . The party was originally formed in 1992 with the union of Ratz , Mapam , and Shinui and was at its peak in the 13th Knesset between 1992 and 1996, during which it held 12 seats. At the 2015 legislative elections the party won five seats. Meretz
Meretz
is a secular party emphasising a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict , social justice , human rights (especially for ethnic and sexual minorities ), religious freedom , and environmentalism . The party is a member of the Progressive Alliance and Socialist International , and is an observer member of the Party of European Socialists . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 1999–2009 * 1.2 2009–present * 2 Ideology * 2.1 Stated principles * 3 Chairpersons (leaders) * 4 Knesset Members * 5 Meretz
Meretz
supporters abroad * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY Meretz
Meretz
was formed in 1992 prior to the 1992 legislative elections by an alliance of three left-wing political parties; Ratz , Mapam and Shinui , and was initially led by Ratz's chairwoman and long-time Knesset member Shulamit Aloni
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Shulamit Aloni
SHULAMIT ALONI (Hebrew : שולמית אלוני‎‎; 27 December 1928 – 24 January 2014) was an Israeli politician. She founded the Ratz party, was leader of the Meretz
Meretz
party and served as Minister of Education from 1992 to 1993. In 2000, she won the Israel
Israel
Prize . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Last years * 2 Political career * 3 Political activism * 4 Views and opinions * 5 Awards and recognition * 6 Published work * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links BIOGRAPHYSHULAMIT ADLER was born in Tel Aviv . Her mother was a seamstress and her father was a carpenter, both descended from Polish rabbinical families. She was sent to boarding school during World War II
World War II
while her parents served in the British Army . As a youth she was a member of the socialist Zionist Hashomer Hatzair
Hashomer Hatzair
youth movement and the Palmach
Palmach
. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War she was involved in military struggles for the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and was captured by Jordanian forces. Following the establishment of the state of Israel, she worked with child refugees and helped establish a school for immigrant children. She taught school while studying law
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Tzomet
TZOMET (Hebrew : צומת‎‎, lit Crossroads) was a small secular , right-wing political party in Israel
Israel
. Tzomet צומת‎ LEADER Rafael Eitan (1983-1999) Moshe Gerin(2003-2008) IDEOLOGY Separation of church and state Presidential system Free market POLITICAL POSITION Right-wing MOST MKS 8(1992) ELECTION SYMBOL צ‎ (2003) כץ‎ (2006) ץ‎ (1984, 1992, 1999, 2009) * Politics of Israel
Israel
* Political parties * Elections CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Ideology * 3 Knesset members * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe party was founded by General Rafael Eitan in 1983 after his retirement from the position of chief-of-staff in 1982. He headed it throughout its existence and modeled it in his spirit as a secular, right-wing party with a strong agricultural side. Many of Tzomet's members and MKs were neighbors of Eitan in Tel Adashim (a small agricultural community). Tzomet ran for the 1984 elections in a joint list with the Tehiya party and Eitan was its only member of the Knesset . Tzomet and the Tehiya parted way in 1987 and Tzomet ran independently in the 1988 elections , winning two seats
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Rafael Eitan
RAFAEL "RAFUL" EITAN ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: רפאל "רפול" איתן‎, born 11 January 1929 – 23 November 2004) was an Israeli general, former Chief of Staff of the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces and later a politician, a Knesset
Knesset
member government minister . He was born in Tel Adashim during the Mandate era . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Military career * 2.1 Early battles * 2.2 Chief of Staff * 2.3 Lebanon
Lebanon
War * 2.3.1 Kahan Commission * 3 Political career * 4 Death * 5 Bibliography * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFE Rafael Eitan
Rafael Eitan
was born in Afula , a city in the North District of Israel, in 1929. His father, Eliyahu Eitan, was one of the founders of the Jewish defense organization Hashomer
Hashomer
. Rafael was raised in the community of Tel Adashim . Zvi Nishri (Orloff), a pioneer in modern physical education in Israel, was his uncle. His mother was descended from a Subbotnik family, who had arrived as part of the First Aliyah . His father gave Rafael and his brothers and sisters a strict education. Rafael married Miriam, an ethnic Jewish woman. They had five children together. They later divorced and he married Ofra Meirson
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National Religious Party
The NATIONAL RELIGIOUS PARTY (Hebrew : מִפְלָגָה דָּתִית לְאֻומִּית‎, _Miflaga Datit Leumit_, commonly known in Israel
Israel
by its Hebrew acronym _Mafdal_, (מפד"ל‎) was a political party in Israel
Israel
representing the religious Zionist movement. Formed in 1956, at the time of its dissolution in 2008, it was the second-oldest surviving party in the country after Agudat Yisrael , and was part of every government coalition until 1992. Traditionally a practical centrist party, in its later years, it drifted to the right, becoming increasingly associated with Israeli settlers , and towards the end of its existence, it was part of a political alliance with the strongly right-wing National Union . The 2006 elections saw the party slump to just three seats, the worst electoral performance in its history. In November 2008, party members voted to disband the party in order to join the new Jewish Home party created by a merger of the NRP and most of the National Union factions. However, most of the National Union left the merger shortly after its implementation
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Zvulun Hammer
ZEVULUN HAMMER (Hebrew : זבולון המר‎‎, 31 May 1936 – 20 January 1998) was an Israeli politician, minister and Deputy Prime Minister . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Political career * 3 Death * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYHammer was born in Haifa
Haifa
during the Mandate era . He was an active member of the Bnei Akiva youth movement (which he led), and served in the Israeli Armored Corps in a Nahal
Nahal
programme. He graduated from Bar-Ilan University with a BA in Judaism and Bible, as well as a teaching certificate and worked as a teacher. At the university, he headed the Student Union and was a member of the Presidium of the Israeli Students Association and the World Union of Jewish Students. POLITICAL CAREERHammer was first elected to the Knesset in 1969 as a member of the National Religious Party . He became Deputy Minister of Education and Culture in January 1973. In November 1975 he was appointed Minister of Welfare, but in December 1976 his party resigned from the cabinet After the 1977 elections he was appointed Minister of Education , a role he retained until September 1984. For a brief period during the 10th Knesset , Hammer and Yehuda Ben-Meir broke away from the NRP and formed a new faction, Gesher – Zionist Religious Centre ; however, they returned to the NRP after two weeks
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Shas
SHAS (Hebrew : ש״ס‎, an acronym for שומרי ספרד‎ Shomrei Sfarad, lit., "(Religious) Guardians of the Sephardim") is an ultra-Orthodox religious political party in Israel. Founded in 1984 under the leadership of Rabbi Ovadia Yosef
Ovadia Yosef
, a former Israeli Sephardi chief rabbi , who remained its spiritual leader until his death in October 2013, it primarily represents the interests of Haredi Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews. Originally a small ethnic political group, Shas
Shas
is currently Israel's seventh-largest party in the Knesset . Since 1984, it has almost always formed a part of the governing coalition, whether the ruling party was Labor or Likud . As of 2015, Shas
Shas
members currently sit with Likud in the government. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Ideology * 3 Controversies * 4 Women\'s campaign * 5 Knesset members * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Aryeh Deri , chairman of Shas
Shas
Shas
Shas
was founded in 1984 prior to the elections to the eleventh Knesset in the same year, in protest over the small representation of Sephardim in the largely Ashkenazi Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
, through the merger of regional lists established in 1983
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Aryeh Deri
ARIE MAKHLOUF DERI (Hebrew : אריה מכלוף דרעי‎) (also ARYEH DERI or ARIEH DERI; born 17 February 1959 in Meknes
Meknes
) is an Israeli politician. He is one of Shas founders, and acts on its behalf as Minister of the Interior , Minister of the Development of the Negev and Galilee , and a member in the Security Cabinet of Israel . He previously served as Minister of the Economy . In 1999, Deri was convicted of bribery , fraud and breach of trust and given a three-year jail sentence. At the end of 2012, ahead of the elections for the nineteenth Knesset , he returned to lead Shas party. He was placed in the 2nd position, and was re-elected to the Knesset. In May 2013, he was re-appointed to the role of Shas chairman. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Political career * 2.1 Establishment of Shas and Interior Minister role * 2.2 Conviction * 2.3 Return to public life * 2.4 Personal life * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHY Arie Deri was born on February 17, 1959, in Meknes
Meknes
, Morocco
Morocco
, to Esther (née Azougi) and Eliyahu. His parents lived in one of the new wealthy districts of the city, and were influenced by the French culture . His father owned a successful business of tailoring , and his family were traditional Jews, but not religious
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