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Israeli Legislative Election, 1988
ELECTIONS FOR THE 12TH KNESSET were held in Israel on 1 November 1988. Voter turnout was 79.7%. CONTENTS* 1 Background * 1.1 Economy * 1.2 Operation Moses * 1.3 The ongoing South Lebanon conflict * 1.4 Jibril Agreement * 1.5 Peres–Hussein London Agreement * 1.6 First Intifada * 2 Election campaign * 3 Results * 4 The 12th Knesset * 5 References * 6 External links BACKGROUND THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2012)ECONOMY See also: 1985 Israel Economic Stabilization Plan and Kibbutz crisis By July 1985 Israel's inflation, buttressed by complex index linking of salaries, had reached 480% per annum and was the highest in the world. Peres introduced emergency control of prices and cut government expenditure successfully bringing inflation under control. The currency (known as the Israeli lira until 1980) was replaced and renamed the Israeli new shekel . OPERATION MOSES Main article: Operation Moses The great famine of 1983–85 lead to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians from Northern Ethiopia to refugee camps in Northern Ethiopia and Sudan. Tens of thousands of Ethiopians were starving during that time. Among these victims, it is estimated that between 3,000 and 4,000 were members of the Beta Israel community
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") Capital and largest city Jerusalem _(internationally unrecognized )_ 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew * Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS (2016) * 74.8% Jewish * 20.8% Arab * 4.4% other RELIGION * 74.8% Jewish * 17.6% Muslim * 2% Christian * 1.6% Druze * 4% other DEMONYM Israeli GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Reuven Rivlin • PRIME MINISTER
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Israeli Legislative Election, 1984
ELECTIONS FOR THE ELEVENTH KNESSET were held in Israel on 23 July 1984. Voter turnout was 78.8%. The results saw the Alignment return to being the largest party in the Knesset, a status it had lost in 1977 . However, the party could not form a government with any of the smaller parties, resulting in a national unity government with Likud , with both party leaders, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Shamir , holding the post of Prime Minister for two years each. CONTENTS* 1 Background * 1.1 The ongoing South Lebanon conflict * 1.2 Bus 300 affair * 2 Election campaign * 3 Results * 4 The Eleventh Knesset * 5 References * 6 External links BACKGROUND THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (February 2012)THE ONGOING SOUTH LEBANON CONFLICT Main articles: South Lebanon conflict (1982–2000) , Sabra and Shatila massacre , and 1982 Tyre headquarters bombing BUS 300 AFFAIR Main article: Bus 300 affair ELECTION CAMPAIGN THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION
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Israeli Legislative Election, 1992
ELECTIONS FOR THE 13TH KNESSET were held in Israel on 23 June 1992. The election resulted in the formation of a Labor government, led by Yitzhak Rabin , helped by the failure of several small right wing parties to pass the electoral threshold . Voter turnout was 77.4%. CONTENTS * 1 Results * 2 Thirteenth Knesset * 3 References * 4 External links RESULTS The Labor Party chairman Yitzhak Rabin . After winning the 1992 elections, Rabin managed to form the first Labor-led government in 15 years, supported by a coalition with Meretz , a left-wing party, and Shas , a Mizrahi ultra-orthodox religious party
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Likud
LIKUD (Hebrew : הַלִּיכּוּד‎, translit. _HaLikud_, lit. _The Consolidation_), officially the LIKUD–NATIONAL LIBERAL MOVEMENT, is a center-right to right-wing political party in Israel . A secular party, it was founded in 1973 by Menachem Begin and Ariel Sharon in an alliance with several right-wing and liberal parties. Likud's landslide victory in the 1977 elections was a major turning point in the country's political history, marking the first time the left had lost power. In addition, it was the first time in Israel that a right-wing party won the plurality of the votes. However, after ruling the country for most of the 1980s, the party lost the Knesset election in 1992. Nevertheless, Likud's candidate Benjamin Netanyahu did win the vote for Prime Minister in 1996 and was given the task of forming a government after the 1996 elections . Netanyahu's government fell apart after a vote of no confidence, which led to elections being called in 1999 and Likud losing power to the One Israel coalition led by Ehud Barak . In 2001, Likud's Ariel Sharon , who replaced Netanyahu following the 1999 election, defeated Barak in an election called by the Prime Minister following his resignation. After the party recorded a convincing win in the 2003 elections , Likud saw a major split in 2005 when Sharon left to form the Kadima party
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Yitzhak Shamir
YITZHAK SHAMIR (Hebrew : יצחק שמיר‎‎, listen (help ·info ); born YITZHAK YEZERNITSKY; October 22, 1915 – June 30, 2012) was an Israeli politician and the seventh Prime Minister of Israel , serving two terms, 1983–84 and 1986–1992. Before the establishment of the State of Israel , Shamir was a leader of the Zionist paramilitary group Lehi . After the establishment of the State of Israel he served in the Mossad between 1955 and 1965, a Knesset Member, a Knesset Speaker and a Foreign Affairs Minister . Shamir was the country's third longest-serving prime minister after David Ben-Gurion and Benjamin Netanyahu . CONTENTS * 1 Early and personal life * 2 Zionist activism * 3 Anti-Polonism * 4 Mossad * 5 Political career * 5.1 Prime Minister * 5.2 Electoral defeat and retirement * 6 Illness and death * 6.1 Reactions * 7 Awards and recognition * 8 Published works * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 External links EARLY AND PERSONAL LIFEYitzhak Yezernitsky (later Yitzhak Shamir) was born in the predominantly Jewish village of Ruzhany , Grodno province, Russian Empire (now Belarus ), which after World War I became part of Poland , as the son of Perla and Shlomo, owner of a leather factory
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Alignment (political Party)
The ALIGNMENT (Hebrew : המערך‎, translit. HaMa'arakh) is the name of two political alliances in Israel . Each of these Alignment parties later merged into what is now the Israeli Labor Party . The first Alignment was a 1965 alliance of Mapai and Ahdut HaAvoda . The two parties continued to exist independently, but submitted joint electoral lists. Often called the Labor Alignment, the alliance lasted three years until a merger with Rafi in 1968 created the unitary Israeli Labor Party . The following year the Labor Party formed an alliance with Mapam , adopting the Alignment name. The two constituent parties remained separate, but with combined electoral campaigns and candidate lists. The second version of the Alignment lasted for more than two decades. At its formation in 1969, the second Alignment had 63 of 120 Knesset seats, the only time a parliamentary group in Israel has ever held a parliamentary majority. Although their majority was lost in the 1969 elections , the 56 seats won by the Alignment remains the highest seat total won in an Israeli election
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Shimon Peres
SHIMON PERES (/ʃɪˈmoʊn ˈpɛrɛz/ ; Hebrew : שמעון פרס‎‎, listen (help ·info ); born SZYMON PERSKI; August 2, 1923 – September 28, 2016) was an Israeli politician who served both as ninth President of Israel
President of Israel
, (2007 to 2014) and Prime Minister of Israel
Israel
, as well as Interim Prime Minister . He was a member of twelve cabinets in a political career spanning 70 years. Peres was elected to the Knesset in November 1959 and, except for a three-month-long hiatus in early 2006, was in office continuously until 2007, when he became President, being in that role for another seven years. At the time of his retirement in 2014, he was the world's oldest head of state. He was considered the last link to Israel's founding generation. From a young age, he was renowned for his oratorical brilliance, and was chosen as a protégé by David Ben Gurion
David Ben Gurion
, Israel's founding father. He began his political career in the late 1940s, holding several diplomatic and military positions during and directly after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
1948 Arab–Israeli War
. His first high-level government position was as Deputy Director-General of Defense in 1952 which he attained at the age of 28, and Director-General from 1953 until 1959
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Shas
SHAS (Hebrew : ש״ס‎, an acronym for שומרי ספרד‎ Shomrei Sfarad, lit., "(Religious) Guardians of the Sephardim") is an ultra-Orthodox religious political party in Israel. Founded in 1984 under the leadership of Rabbi Ovadia Yosef
Ovadia Yosef
, a former Israeli Sephardi chief rabbi , who remained its spiritual leader until his death in October 2013, it primarily represents the interests of Haredi Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews. Originally a small ethnic political group, Shas
Shas
is currently Israel's seventh-largest party in the Knesset . Since 1984, it has almost always formed a part of the governing coalition, whether the ruling party was Labor or Likud . As of 2015, Shas
Shas
members currently sit with Likud in the government. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Ideology * 3 Controversies * 4 Women\'s campaign * 5 Knesset members * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Aryeh Deri , chairman of Shas
Shas
Shas
Shas
was founded in 1984 prior to the elections to the eleventh Knesset in the same year, in protest over the small representation of Sephardim in the largely Ashkenazi Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
, through the merger of regional lists established in 1983
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Yitzhak Peretz (politician Born 1938)
Rabbi
Rabbi
YITZHAK HAIM PERETZ (Hebrew : יצחק חיים פרץ‎‎, born 26 March 1938) is a former Israeli politician who held several ministerial portfolios during the 1980s and early 1990s. BIOGRAPHYBorn in Casablanca
Casablanca
in Morocco, Peretz made aliyah to Israel
Israel
in 1950. He studied at the Yeshiva High School, "Noam", in Pardes Hana
Pardes Hana
, at the Hebron Yeshiva
Hebron Yeshiva
, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, and at the kollel in Petah Tikva ; he was ordained as a rabbi at Yeshivat Hazon Ovadia . He served as chief rabbi of Ra\'anana from 1962 until 1984. In 1984 Peretz became the leader of the new Sephardic Haredi Shas party, and in the elections that year he won a seat in the Knesset . The party joined the national unity government , and Peretz was appointed Minister without Portfolio . On 24 December 1984 he became Minister of Internal Affairs , a post he resigned two years later, in January 1987, in protest at the Supreme Court ordering him to recognise as Jewish a woman who underwent a conversion to Judaism with a Reform rabbi, a controversial procedure from the Haredi point of view, stating that "The High Court of Justice demanded that I list a non-Jew as a Jew". On 25 May he rejoined the government as a Minister without Portfolio
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Agudat Yisrael
AGUDAT YISRAEL (Hebrew : אגודת ישראל‎, lit. Union of Israel, also transliterated Agudath Israel, or Agudas Yisroel) began as a political party representing ultra-Orthodox Jews in Poland, originating in the Agudath Israel movement in Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
. It later became the Party of the Haredi population of Israel
Israel
. It was the umbrella party for many, though not all, Haredi Jews in Israel
Israel
until the 1980s, as it had been during the British Mandate of Palestine . Since the 1980s, it has become a predominately Hasidic party, though it often combines with the Degel Ha Torah
Torah
non-Hasidic Haredi party for elections and coalition-forming. When so combined, they are known together as United Torah
Torah
Judasim. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Religious and political leadership * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY cashrut BADATZ of Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
When political Zionism began to emerge in the 1890s, and recruit supporters in Europe and America, it was opposed by many Orthodox Jews, who believed the Jewish state would emerge from divine intervention
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Moshe Ze'ev Feldman
MOSHE ZE\'EV FELDMAN (Hebrew : משה זאב פלדמן‎‎, 14 November 1930 – 9 February 1997) was an Israeli rabbi and politician who served as a member of the Knesset for Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
between 1988 and 1992, and as Deputy Minister of Labor and Social Welfare from 1988 until 1989. BIOGRAPHYBorn in Eisenstadt
Eisenstadt
, Austria
Austria
in 1930, Feldman's family moved to England in 1936. He was educated at a high school for gifted children, before attending the HaRav Weingorten's yeshiva in Staines and the Shfat Emet yeshiva. He emigrated to Israel
Israel
in 1949, and was certified as a rabbi. He became headmaster of the Omar Emet yeshiva in Bnei Brak , and also headed the Beit Yisrael yeshiva in Ashdod
Ashdod
, the Aguda yeshiva in Kfar Saba and the Karlin yeshiva in Bnei Brak. He joined the Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
movement, becoming a member of its central committee, World Executive Committee and eventually chairman of the party in Israel. He was elected to the Knesset on its list in 1988 , and was appointed Deputy Minister of Labor and Social Welfare in Yitzhak Shamir
Yitzhak Shamir
's government , although he resigned on 31 October 1989. He lost his seat in the 1992 elections . He died in 1997 at the age of 66
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Ratz (political Party)
RATZ (Hebrew : רצ‎‎), officially the MOVEMENT FOR CIVIL RIGHTS AND PEACE (Hebrew: התנועה לזכויות האזרח ולשלום, HaTnua'a LeZkhuyot HaEzrah VeLaShalom) was a left-wing political party in Israel
Israel
that focused on human rights , civil rights , and women\'s rights . It was active from 1973 until its formal merger into Meretz
Meretz
in 1997. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Knesset Members * 3 References * 4 External links BACKGROUNDThe Movement for Civil Rights and Peace was formed in 1973 by Shulamit Aloni
Shulamit Aloni
, a former MK for the Alignment , 48 hours after she had left the party. As a member of the Israeli peace camp it opposed the occupation of the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza strip and called for a peace settlement with the Palestine Liberation Organization from its birth. The party advocated secularism , the separation of religion and state, and civil rights , most notably women's rights, a topic that was very close to Aloni. It was also a notable fighter against corruption and for a written constitution , and Aloni was the initiator of the Knesset sub-committee for basic laws (Israel's equivalent of a constitution). For a while it also supported electoral reform
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Shulamit Aloni
SHULAMIT ALONI (Hebrew : שולמית אלוני‎‎; 27 December 1928 – 24 January 2014) was an Israeli politician. She founded the Ratz party, was leader of the Meretz
Meretz
party and served as Minister of Education from 1992 to 1993. In 2000, she won the Israel
Israel
Prize . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Last years * 2 Political career * 3 Political activism * 4 Views and opinions * 5 Awards and recognition * 6 Published work * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links BIOGRAPHYSHULAMIT ADLER was born in Tel Aviv . Her mother was a seamstress and her father was a carpenter, both descended from Polish rabbinical families. She was sent to boarding school during World War II
World War II
while her parents served in the British Army . As a youth she was a member of the socialist Zionist Hashomer Hatzair
Hashomer Hatzair
youth movement and the Palmach
Palmach
. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War she was involved in military struggles for the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and was captured by Jordanian forces. Following the establishment of the state of Israel, she worked with child refugees and helped establish a school for immigrant children. She taught school while studying law
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National Religious Party
The NATIONAL RELIGIOUS PARTY (Hebrew : מִפְלָגָה דָּתִית לְאֻומִּית‎, _Miflaga Datit Leumit_, commonly known in Israel
Israel
by its Hebrew acronym _Mafdal_, (מפד"ל‎) was a political party in Israel
Israel
representing the religious Zionist movement. Formed in 1956, at the time of its dissolution in 2008, it was the second-oldest surviving party in the country after