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Israeli Legislative Election, 1988
ELECTIONS FOR THE 12TH KNESSET were held in Israel
Israel
on 1 November 1988. Voter turnout was 79.7%. CONTENTS* 1 Background * 1.1 Economy * 1.2 Operation Moses * 1.3 The ongoing South Lebanon conflict * 1.4 Jibril Agreement * 1.5 Peres–Hussein London Agreement * 1.6 First Intifada
First Intifada
* 2 Election campaign * 3 Results * 4 The 12th Knesset * 5 References * 6 External links BACKGROUND THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2012)ECONOMY See also: 1985 Israel
Israel
Economic Stabilization Plan and Kibbutz crisis By July 1985 Israel's inflation, buttressed by complex index linking of salaries, had reached 480% per annum and was the highest in the world. Peres introduced emergency control of prices and cut government expenditure successfully bringing inflation under control
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Prime Minister Of Israel
The PRIME MINISTER OF ISRAEL (Hebrew : רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה‎, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym : רה״מ‎; Arabic : رئيس الحكومة‎‎, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of the Israeli government and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics. Although the President of Israel
President of Israel
is the country's head of state, his powers are largely ceremonial; the prime minister holds most of the real power. The official residence of the prime minister, Beit Rosh Hamemshala is in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. The current prime minister is Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
of Likud
Likud
, the ninth person to hold the position (excluding caretakers). Following an election, the president nominates a member of the Knesset
Knesset
to become prime minister after asking party leaders whom they support for the position
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Elections In Israel
ELECTIONS IN ISRAEL are based on nationwide proportional representation . The electoral threshold is currently set at 3.25%, with the number of seats a party receives in the Knesset
Knesset
being proportional to the number of votes it receives. The Knesset
Knesset
is elected for a four-year term, although most governments have not served a full term and early elections are a frequent occurrence. Israel
Israel
has a multi-party system based on coalition governments as no party has ever won a majority of seats in a national election, although the Alignment briefly held a majority following its formation by an alliance of several different parties prior to the 1969 elections . The legal voting age for Israeli citizens is 18. Elections are overseen by the Central Elections Committee and are held according to the Knesset
Knesset
Elections Law
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1985 Israel Economic Stabilization Plan
The ECONOMIC STABILIZATION PLAN was implemented in Israel in 1985 in response to the dire domestic economic situation of the early 1980s. HISTORYThe years after the 1973 Yom Kippur War were a lost decade economically, as growth stalled, inflation soared and government expenditures rose significantly. Then, in 1983, Israel suffered what was known as "the Bank stock crisis" . By 1984 inflation was reaching an annual rate close to 450% and projected to reach over 1000% by the end of the following year. See Economy of Israel: History . In response, in 1985 the Knesset implemented an economic stabilization plan aimed at generating "sharp disinflation ". The plan was devised by Yitzhak Moda\'i and Michael Bruno . This was done after a series of smaller, so-called "package deals" that were negotiated with selected entities in the Israeli economy proved ineffective in stemming the rise of inflation
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Kibbutz Crisis
The KIBBUTZ CRISIS (Hebrew : משבר הקיבוצים‎) was an acute economic crisis many of the kibbutzim in Israel experienced during the 1980s and that many still experience today. The crisis began in the early 1980s and intensified after the Israeli economic stabilization program of 1985 during which the inflation stopped, and was characterized by the accumulating of large debts from the kibbutzim and in low return. The economic crisis in many of the kibbutzim was also accompanied by a social crisis and a demographic crisis. In 1989 and 1996 the Israeli government, the Israeli banks and the kibbutz movements agreed upon two debt arrangements to help resolve the economic crisis. The demographic crisis and the social crises were the major catalyst for the change processes many of the kibbutzim have experienced since the 1990s. Alongside the many kibbutzim who ended up experiencing an economic crisis, is a small group of kibbutzim the crisis skipped
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Abdulwahab Darawshe
ABDULWAHAB DARAWSHE (Arabic : عبد الوهاب دراوشة‎, Hebrew : עבד-אלוהאב דראושה‎‎; born 12 October 1943) is an Israeli Arab former politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the Alignment and the Arab Democratic Party between 1984 and 1999. BIOGRAPHYAbdulwahab Darawshe was born on 12 October 1943 in Iksal , Mandatory Palestine . He studied at Nazareth High School, before graduating from the University of Haifa with a degree in education and history. He worked as a teacher and headmaster, also serving as a national supervisor for the Ministry of Education , a member of the board of the Teachers' Union's central committee, a member of the Education Institute for Jewish-Arab Coexistence's board, and chairman of the Arab Association for Education and Grants in Nazareth. Darawshe was first elected to the Knesset on the Alignment's list in 1984
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Arab Democratic Party (Israel)
The ARAB DEMOCRATIC PARTY (Hebrew : מפלגה דמוקרטית ערבית‎, Miflaga Demokratit Aravit; Arabic : ألحزب الديمقراطي العربي‎, al-Hizb al-Dimuqrati al-Arabi) commonly known in Israel by its Hebrew acroynym MADA (Hebrew: מד"ע) is a political party in Israel . Between the mid-1990s and 2012 it was a faction within the United Arab List . BACKGROUNDThe party was formed on 15 February 1988, towards the end of the term of the eleventh Knesset , when Abdulwahab Darawshe broke away from the Alignment to create his own faction in protest at the party's policy on the First Intifada . At the time of its founding, the party was the only solely Israeli Arab faction in the Knesset (although the Progressive List for Peace 's only MK was an Israeli Arab, the party also had Jewish membership), and the first since the demise of the original United Arab List in the 1981 elections
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Degel HaTorah
DEGEL HATORAH (Hebrew : דגל התורה‎, lit. Banner of the Torah
Torah
) is an Ashkenazi Haredi political party in Israel
Israel
. For much of its existence, it has been allied with Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
under the name United Torah
Torah
Judaism . CONTENTS * 1 Ideology * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links IDEOLOGYDegel Ha Torah
Torah
represents the "Lithuanian wing" of the non-Hasidic Haredim (known by some as " Mitnagdim "), as opposed to the Hasidic -dominated Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
party. Sometimes, the parties compete against each other; at other times, they join forces within a political alliance called United Torah
Torah
Judaism (UTJ) (Yahadut HaTorah in Hebrew)
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Avraham Ravitz
AVRAHAM RAVITZ (Hebrew : אברהם רביץ‎, 13 January 1934 – 26 January 2009) was an Israeli politician and member of the Knesset for Degel HaTorah , which forms part of the United Torah Judaism alliance. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Political career * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYAvraham Ravitz was born in Tel Aviv during the Mandate era . He studied at Hebron Rabbinical College, served in the Lehi , and later in the IDF . Ravitz was married to Avigayil, with whom he had 12 children. He lived in the Bayit VeGan neighborhood of Jerusalem . In January 2009, he was hospitalized at Hadassah Ein Kerem Hospital in Jerusalem due to heart problems. He died on January 26, 2009
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Progressive List For Peace
The PROGRESSIVE LIST FOR PEACE (Hebrew : הרשימה המתקדמת לשלום‎, HaReshima HaMitkademet LeShalom, Arabic : قائمة التقدمية للسلام‎) was a left-wing political party in Israel . The party was formed from an alliance of both Arab and Jewish left-wing activists. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Attempted banning * 1.2 Adam Keller Court Martial * 1.3 Decline * 2 Historical Perspective * 3 References HISTORYThe party was formed in 1984 by a merger of the Jewish Alternativa movement, the Nazareth -based Progressive Movement, as well as other individuals. It contested the 1984 Knesset elections , winning two seats, taken by Mohammed Miari and Mattityahu Peled
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Mohammed Miari
MOHAMMED MIARI (Arabic : محمد ميعاري‎; Hebrew : מוחמד מיעארי‎, born 12 April 1939) is an Israeli Arab former politician who headed the Progressive List for Peace during the 1980s and early 1990s. BIOGRAPHYMiari was born during the Mandate era in al-Birwa , a village which was depopulated as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War . He grew up in Makr and attended high school in Kafr Yasif , and was also a member of the Arab Youth Pioneer movement. He later studied law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem , and was certified as a lawyer. Whilst at university, he became active in Arab student politics. He was amongst the founders of the al-Ard movement, was placed third on the Arab Socialist List for the 1965 Knesset elections , although the list was eventually prevented from running by the Central Elections Committee
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Index Linking
In statistics relating to national economies, the INDEXATION OF CONTRACTS also called "index linking" and "contract escalation" is a procedure when a contract includes a periodic adjustment to the prices paid for the contract provisions based on the level of a nominated price index. The purpose of indexation is to readjust contracts to account for inflation. In the United States , the consumer price index (CPI), producer price index (PPI), and, in the U.S., Employment Cost Index (ECI) are the most frequently used indexes. SEE ALSO * Indexation * Purchasing power * Bureau of Labor Statistics REFERENCES * ^ "INDEXATION OF CONTRACTS". Glossary of statistical terms. OECD. July 8, 2005. Retrieved 2009-05-07. * ^ "BLS Information". Glossary. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Division of Information Services. February 28, 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-05. * ^ "Contract Escalation". BLS Information. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. July 27, 2006
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Israeli Lira
The ISRAELI POUND (Hebrew : לירה ישראלית‎‎ Lira Yisr'elit, Arabic : ليرة إسرائيلية‎‎) or ISRAELI LIRA was the currency of the State of Israel
Israel
from June 1952 until 23 February 1980, when it was replaced with the shekel on 24 February 1980, which was again replaced with the New Shekel
Shekel
in 1985. Until 1952, the name used on the notes of the Anglo-Palestine Bank was Palestine pound , in Hebrew לירה א"י (lira E.Y. i.e. lira Eretz-Yisraelit). In Arabic , the name was given as junayh filisţīnī (جنيه فلسطيني). In 1952, the Anglo-Palestine Bank changed its name to Bank Leumi Le-Yisrael ( Israel
Israel
National Bank) and the currency name became: lira yisraelit (לירה ישראלית) in Hebrew, junayh isrāīlī in Arabic, and Israel
Israel
pound in English
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Israeli Occupation Of Southern Lebanon
The ISRAELI OCCUPATION OF SOUTHERN LEBANON took place after Israel invaded Lebanon during the 1982 Lebanon War and subsequently retained its forces to support the Christian South Lebanon Army in Southern Lebanon. In 1982, the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) and allied Free Lebanon Army Christian militias seized large sections of Lebanon, including the capital of Beirut , amid the hostilities of the wider Lebanese Civil War . Later, Israel withdrew from parts of the occupied area between 1983 and 1985, but remained in partial control of the border region known as the SOUTH LEBANON SECURITY BELT, initially in coordination with the self-proclaimed Free Lebanon State , which executed a limited authority over portions of southern Lebanon until 1984, and later with the South Lebanon Army (transformed from Free Lebanon Army), until the year 2000. Israel's stated purpose for the Security Belt was to create a space separating its northern border towns from terrorists residing in Lebanon
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South Lebanon Army
The SOUTH LEBANON ARMY or SOUTH LEBANESE ARMY (SLA) (Arabic : جيش لبنان الجنوبي‎, translit. Jayš Lubnān al-Janūbiyy‎) was a Lebanese Christian militia during the Lebanese Civil War
Lebanese Civil War
and its aftermath, until disbanded in the year 2000. It was originally named the FREE LEBANON ARMY, which split from the Army of Free Lebanon
Lebanon
. After 1979, the militia operated in southern Lebanon
Lebanon
under the authority of Saad Haddad
Saad Haddad
's Government of Free Lebanon
Lebanon
. It was supported by Israel
Israel
, and became its primary ally in Lebanon
Lebanon
during the 1985–2000 South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict to fight against Hezbollah
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