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Israeli Air Force
The ISRAELI AIR FORCE (IAF; Hebrew : זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל‎, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as חֵיל הָאֲוִיר‎, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces . It was founded on May 28, 1948, shortly after the Israeli Declaration of Independence . As of August 2017 Aluf Amikam Norkin serves as the Air Force Commander. The Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force
formed on May 28, 1948, using commandeered or donated civilian aircraft and obsolete and surplus World War II combat-aircraft. Eventually, more aircraft were procured, including Boeing B-17s , Bristol Beaufighters , de Havilland Mosquitoes and P-51D Mustangs
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‬, Ivrit ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel
Israel
, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants
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Israeli Declaration Of Independence
The ISRAELI DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, formally the DECLARATION OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL, was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
, the Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization and the chairman of the Jewish Agency for Palestine . It declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz- Israel
Israel
, to be known as the State of Israel
State of Israel
, which would come into effect on termination of the British Mandate at midnight that day. The event is celebrated annually in Israel
Israel
with a national holiday Yom Ha\'atzmaut (Hebrew : יום העצמאות‎‎, lit. Independence Day) on 5 Iyar of every year according to the Hebrew calendar
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Fighter Aircraft
A FIGHTER AIRCRAFT is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft , whose main mission is to attack ground targets. The hallmarks of a fighter are its speed, maneuverability, and small size relative to other combat aircraft. Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities, and some are designed as dual-purpose fighter-bombers ; often aircraft that do not fulfill the standard definition are called fighters. This may be for political or national security reasons, for advertising purposes, or other reasons. A fighter's main purpose is to establish air superiority over a battlefield. Since World War I
World War I
, achieving and maintaining air superiority has been considered essential for victory in conventional warfare
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Sikorsky S-70
The SIKORSKY S-70 is an American medium transport/utility helicopter family manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft
Sikorsky Aircraft
. It was developed for the U.S. Army in the 1970s, winning a competition to be designated the UH-60 Black Hawk and spawning a large family in U.S. military service. New and improved versions of the UH-60 have been developed since. Civilian versions, and some military versions are produced under various S-70 model designations. CONTENTS * 1 Development * 2 Variants * 2.1 H-60 * 2.2 S-70 * 2.3 Derivatives * 3 Operators * 3.1 Former operators * 4 Specifications (S-70i) * 5 See also * 6 In Fiction * 7 References * 8 External links DEVELOPMENTThe S-70 family was developed to meet a US Army
US Army
requirement to replace the UH-1 Iroquois family of utility medium-lift helicopters in 1972
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Patrol Aircraft
A MARITIME PATROL AIRCRAFT (MPA), also known as a PATROL AIRCRAFT, MARITIME RECONNAISSANCE AIRCRAFT , or by the older American term PATROL BOMBER, is a fixed-wing aircraft designed to operate for long durations over water in maritime patrol roles — in particular anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-ship warfare (AShW), and search and rescue (SAR)
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Surveillance Aircraft
A SURVEILLANCE AIRCRAFT is an aircraft used for surveillance —collecting information over time. They are operated by military forces and other government agencies in roles such as intelligence gathering , battlefield surveillance , airspace surveillance , observation (e.g. artillery spotting ), border patrol and fishery protection. This article concentrates on aircraft used in those roles, rather than for traffic monitoring, law enforcement and similar activities. Surveillance
Surveillance
aircraft usually carry no armament, or only limited defensive armament. A surveillance aircraft does not necessarily require high-performance capability or stealth characteristics. It may be a modified civilian aircraft. Surveillance
Surveillance
aircraft have also included moored balloons (e.g. TARS ) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)
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Cargo Aircraft
A CARGO AIRCRAFT (also known as FREIGHT AIRCRAFT, FREIGHTER, AIRLIFTER or CARGO JET) is a fixed-wing aircraft that is designed or converted for the carriage of cargo rather than passengers. Such aircraft usually do not incorporate passenger amenities and generally feature one or more large doors for loading cargo. Freighters may be operated by civil passenger or cargo airlines , by private individuals or by the armed forces of individual countries (for the last see military transport aircraft ). Volga-Dnepr An-124 ready for loading Aircraft designed for cargo flight usually have features that distinguish them from conventional passenger aircraft: a wide/tall fuselage cross-section, a high-wing to allow the cargo area to sit near the ground, a large number of wheels to allow it to land at unprepared locations, and a high-mounted tail to allow cargo to be driven directly into and off the aircraft
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Trainer (aircraft)
A TRAINER is a class of aircraft designed specifically to facilitate flight training of pilots and aircrews. The use of a dedicated trainer aircraft with additional safety features—such as tandem flight controls, forgiving flight characteristics and a simplified cockpit arrangement—allows pilots-in-training to safely advance their real-time piloting, navigation and warfighting skills without the danger of overextending their abilities alone in a fully featured aircraft. Civilian pilots are normally trained in a light aircraft, with two or more seats to allow for a student and instructor. The aircraft may be modified to withstand the flight conditions imposed by training flights
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B-17 Flying Fortress
The BOEING B-17 FLYING FORTRESS is a four-engine heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC). Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, the Boeing
Boeing
entry outperformed both competitors and exceeded the air corps' performance specifications. Although Boeing
Boeing
lost the contract because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances . The B-17 was primarily employed by the United States
United States
Army Air Forces (USAAF) in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets
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Mitla Pass
The MITLA PASS (Arabic : ممر متلة‎‎, Hebrew : מיתלה‎‎) is a 480 meter-high, 32 km-long snaky pass in the Sinai of Egypt
Egypt
, wedged between mountain ranges to the north and south, located about 50 km east of Suez
Suez
. It is the monotonous ride through here and Nekhel , a wilderness that provides the shortest route between Nuweiba
Nuweiba
and Cairo
Cairo
. Buses carrying tourist to Mount Sinai , St. Catherine\'s Monastery , and Feiran Oasis travel through here. Mitla Pass is a site of major battles between the militaries of Egypt and Israel
Israel
during the wars of 1956 , 1967 , and 1973 . During the last of these, on October 14, 1973, the Egyptians tried to reach the pass with elements of their Fourth Armored Division, but their offensive was halted by IDF armor and air power
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Aerial Warfare
AERIAL WARFARE is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare . Aerial warfare includes bombers attacking enemy installations or a concentration of enemy troops or strategic targets ; fighter aircraft battling for control of airspace ; attack aircraft engaging in close air support against ground targets; naval aviation flying against sea and nearby land targets; gliders , helicopters and other aircraft to carry airborne forces such as paratroopers ; aerial refueling tankers to extend operation time or range; and military transport aircraft to move cargo and personnel
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Attack Aircraft
An ATTACK AIRCRAFT, STRIKE AIRCRAFT, or ATTACK BOMBER, is a tactical military aircraft that has a primary role of carrying out airstrikes with greater precision than bombers , and is prepared to encounter strong low-level air defenses while pressing the attack. This class of aircraft is designed mostly for close air support and naval air-to-surface missions, overlapping the tactical bomber mission. Designs dedicated to non-naval roles are often known as GROUND-ATTACK AIRCRAFT. Fighter aircraft
Fighter aircraft
often carry out the attack role, although they would not be considered attack aircraft per se, although fighter-bomber conversions of those same aircraft would be considered part of the class. Strike fighters , which have effectively replaced the fighter-bomber and light bomber concepts, also differ little from the broad concept of an attack aircraft
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De Havilland Mosquito
The DE HAVILLAND DH.98 MOSQUITO is a British multi-role combat aircraft with a two-man crew. It served during and after the Second World War . It was one of few operational front-line aircraft of the era constructed almost entirely of wood and was nicknamed The Wooden Wonder. The Mosquito was also known affectionately as the "Mossie" to its crews. Originally conceived as an unarmed fast bomber , the Mosquito was adapted to roles including low to medium-altitude daytime tactical bomber , high-altitude night bomber , pathfinder , day or night fighter , fighter-bomber , intruder , maritime strike aircraft , and fast photo-reconnaissance aircraft. It was also used by the British Overseas Airways Corporation
British Overseas Airways Corporation
(BOAC) as a fast transport to carry small high-value cargoes to, and from, neutral countries , through enemy-controlled airspace
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Aluf
ALUF (Hebrew : אלוף‎, lit. "champion") is the term used in the Israel Defense Forces
Israel Defense Forces
(IDF) for officers who in other countries would have the rank of general , air marshal , or admiral . In addition to the aluf rank itself, there are four other ranks which are derivatives of the word. Together, they constitute the five highest ranks in the IDF. Aside from being a military rank, "Aluf" is used is a civilian context, particularly of sport , meaning "champion". ETYMOLOGYThe term aluf comes from the Bible (אַלּוּף‎ ’allūp̄): the Edomites used it as a rank of nobility, while the later books of the Tanakh use it to describe Israelite captains as well, e.g. Zachariah 9:7, 12:5-6, and later, for example Psalms 55:13, where it is used as a general term for teacher. It comes from a Semitic root meaning "thousand", making an ’allūp̄ the one who commands a thousand people
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Bell 206
The BELL 206 is a family of two-bladed, single- or twin-engined helicopters , manufactured by Bell Helicopter
Bell Helicopter
at its Mirabel, Quebec plant. Originally developed as the Bell YOH-4 for the United States Army 's Light Observation Helicopter
Helicopter
program, it was not selected by the Army. Bell redesigned the airframe and successfully marketed the aircraft commercially as the five-place BELL 206A JETRANGER. The new design was eventually selected by the Army as the OH-58 Kiowa . Bell also developed a seven-place LONGRANGER, which was later offered with a twin-engined option as the TWINRANGER, while Tridair Helicopters offers a similar conversion of the LongRanger called the GEMINI ST. The ICAO
ICAO
-assigned model designation "B06" is used on flight plans for the JetRanger and LongRanger, and the designation "B06T" is used for the twin-engined TwinRangers
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