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Israeli Air Force
The ISRAELI AIR FORCE (IAF; Hebrew : זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל‎, _Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal_, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as חֵיל הָאֲוִיר‎, _Kheil HaAvir_, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces . It was founded on May 28, 1948, shortly after the Israeli Declaration of Independence . As of May 2012 Aluf Amir Eshel serves as the Air Force Commander. The Israeli Air Force formed on May 28, 1948, using commandeered or donated civilian aircraft and obsolete and surplus World War II combat-aircraft. Eventually, more aircraft were procured, including Boeing B-17s , Bristol Beaufighters , de Havilland Mosquitoes and P-51D Mustangs . The Israeli Air Force played an important part in Operation _Kadesh_ , Israel's part in the 1956 Suez Crisis , dropping paratroopers at the Mitla Pass . On June 5, 1967, the first day of the Six-Day War , the Israeli Air Force executed Operation _Focus_ , crippling the opposing Arab air forces and attaining air supremacy for the remainder of the war. Shortly after the end of the Six-Day War, Egypt initiated the War of Attrition , and the Israeli Air Force undertook repeated bombings of strategic targets deep within enemy territory
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") Capital and largest city Jerusalem _(internationally unrecognized )_ 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew * Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS (2016) * 74.8% Jewish * 20.8% Arab * 4.4% other RELIGION * 74.8% Jewish * 17.6% Muslim * 2% Christian * 1.6% Druze * 4% other DEMONYM Israeli GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Reuven Rivlin • PRIME MINISTER
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Air Force
An AIR FORCE, also known in some countries as an AIR ARMY, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare . More specifically, it is the branch of a nation 's armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army , navy , or a marine corps . Typically, air forces are responsible for gaining control of the air , carrying out strategic and tactical bombing missions, and providing support to land and naval forces . The term "air force" may also refer to a tactical air force or numbered air force , which is an operational formation either within a national air force or comprising several air components from allied nations. Air forces typically consist of a combination of fighters , bombers , helicopters , transport planes and other aircraft. Many air forces are also responsible for operations of the military space , intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM), and communications equipment. Some air forces may command and control other air defence assets such as anti-aircraft artillery , surface-to-air missiles , or anti-ballistic missile warning networks and defensive systems
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Aerial Warfare
AERIAL WARFARE is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare . Aerial warfare includes bombers attacking enemy installations or a concentration of enemy troops or strategic targets ; fighter aircraft battling for control of airspace ; attack aircraft engaging in close air support against ground targets; naval aviation flying against sea and nearby land targets; gliders , helicopters and other aircraft to carry airborne forces such as paratroopers ; aerial refueling tankers to extend operation time or range; and military transport aircraft to move cargo and personnel. Historically, military aircraft have included lighter-than-air balloons carrying artillery observers ; lighter-than-air airships for bombing cities; various sorts of reconnaissance , surveillance and early warning aircraft carrying observers, cameras and radar equipment; torpedo bombers to attack enemy shipping; and military air-sea rescue aircraft for saving downed airmen . Modern aerial warfare includes missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles . Surface forces are likely to respond to enemy air activity with anti-aircraft warfare
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Israel Defense Forces
The ISRAEL DEFENSE FORCES (IDF; Hebrew : צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל‎ _ Tsva ha-Hagana le-Yisra\'el_ , _lit._ "The Army of Defense for Israel"; Arabic : جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي‎‎), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym _Tzahal_ (צה״ל‎), are the military forces of the State of Israel . They consist of the ground forces , air force , and navy . It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces , and has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel. The IDF is headed by its Chief of General Staff , the _Ramatkal_, subordinate to the Defense Minister of Israel ; Lieutenant general (_ Rav Aluf _) Gadi Eizenkot has served as Chief of Staff since 2015. An order from Defense Minister David Ben-Gurion on 26 May 1948 officially set up the Israel Defense Forces as a conscript army formed out of the paramilitary group Haganah , incorporating the militant groups Irgun and Lehi
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HaKirya
HAKIRYA, or THE KIRYA (Hebrew : הַקִּרְיָה‎, _lit._ The Campus), is an area in central Tel Aviv , containing the Tel-Aviv District government center and the major Israel Defense Forces base, CAMP RABIN (Hebrew : מַחֲנֶה רַבִּין‎, _Machaneh Rabin_), named for Yitzhak Rabin . It was one of the first IDF bases and has served as the IDF headquarters since its founding in 1948. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography and structures * 3 References * 3.1 Bibliography * 4 External links HISTORYMuch of the Kirya today is located on the lands of Sarona , a Templer settlement founded in the 19th Century. Sarona was an agricultural colony, and kept this nature despite the expansion of Tel Aviv and attempts by the city to buy some of Sarona's lands. In World War II , the British forces took control of Sarona and converted it into a prison camp for Germans. After the war, the German prisoners were deported, mostly to Australia , and Sarona became a British military and police base. The base was the site of the first ever unconcealed Haganah attack on a British installation. The base was taken over by the Haganah on December 16, 1947, and renamed to CAMP YEHOSHU\'A, after Yehoshu\'a Globerman , who was killed near Latrun while returning from a mission to Jerusalem
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Aluf
_ALUF_ (Hebrew : אלוף‎, lit. "champion") is the term used in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) for officers who in other countries would have the rank of general , air marshal , or admiral . In addition to the _aluf_ rank itself, there are four other ranks which are derivatives of the word. Together, they constitute the five highest ranks in the IDF. Aside from being a military rank, "Aluf" is used is a civilian context, particularly of sport , meaning "champion". ETYMOLOGYThe term _aluf_ comes from the Bible (אַלּוּף‎ _’allūp̄_): the Edomites used it as a rank of nobility, while the later books of the Tanakh use it to describe Israelite captains as well, e.g. Zachariah 9:7, 12:5-6, and later, for example Psalms 55:13, where it is used as a general term for teacher. It comes from a Semitic root meaning "thousand", making an _’allūp̄_ the one who commands a thousand people. Strong however connects the word used to describe the Dukes of Edom, to a different root "_alf_" denoting a teacher and the root for the animal 'ox' from which the letter Aleph itself is derived, rather than _eleph_ thousand, however they both comprise the same 3 letters. RANK ORDER OF _ALUF_ AND ITS DERIVATIVESThe Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is an integrated force, ranks are the same in all services
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Amir Eshel
Aluf AMIR ESHEL (Hebrew : אמיר אשל‎‎; born 1959) is a former Israeli general who served as commander of the Israeli Air Force . A Major General since 2008, Eshel is a former head of the IDF Planning Directorate . He succeeded Ido Nehoshtan as commander of the Israeli Air Force on May 10, 2012 and was succeeded by Amikam Norkin on August 10, 2017. BIOGRAPHYBorn in 1959, Eshel was drafted into the IDF in 1977. After graduating from the IAF Flight Academy as a fighter pilot in 1979, Eshel flew the A-4 Skyhawk , first out of Etzion and then from Ramon . He also flew the Skyhawk during the 1982 Lebanon War . After serving with the flight academy as a combat instructor, Eshel went on to fly the F-16 out of Ramat David Airbase . Between 1993 and 1995 Eshel commanded 201 Squadron at Tel Nof . Flying the Kurnass 2000 variant of the F-4 Phantom II
F-4 Phantom II
, Eshel led the squadron during Operation Grapes of Wrath . Between 1997 and 1999 Eshel headed the IAF's Operations Department. In 1999 Eshel was assigned command of Ramon Airbase. On December 16, 1999, while ferrying an AH-64 Apache
AH-64 Apache
from Ramon to northern Israel, Eshel carried out a routine weapons systems check on the supposedly unarmed helicopter, accidentally firing an AGM-114 Hellfire which narrowly missed a group of IAF reserve soldiers nearby
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Attack Aircraft
An ATTACK AIRCRAFT, STRIKE AIRCRAFT, or ATTACK BOMBER, is a tactical military aircraft that has a primary role of carrying out airstrikes with greater precision than bombers , and is prepared to encounter strong low-level air defenses while pressing the attack. This class of aircraft is designed mostly for close air support and naval air-to-surface missions, overlapping the tactical bomber mission. Designs dedicated to non-naval roles are often known as GROUND-ATTACK AIRCRAFT. Fighter aircraft often carry out the attack role, although they would not be considered attack aircraft _per se_, although fighter-bomber conversions of those same aircraft would be considered part of the class. Strike fighters , which have effectively replaced the fighter-bomber and light bomber concepts, also differ little from the broad concept of an attack aircraft. The dedicated attack aircraft as a separate class existed primarily during and after World War II . The precise implementation varied from country to country, and was handled by a wide variety of designs. In the US and UK, attack aircraft were generally based on light bombers , sometimes carrying heavier forward-firing weapons like the B-25G and Mosquito Tsetse
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Boeing F-15E Strike Eagle
The MCDONNELL DOUGLAS (now BOEING) F-15E STRIKE EAGLE is an American all-weather multirole strike fighter derived from the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle . The F-15E was designed in the 1980s for long-range, high speed interdiction without relying on escort or electronic-warfare aircraft . United States Air Force (USAF) F-15E Strike Eagles can be distinguished from other U.S. Eagle variants by darker aircraft camouflage and conformal fuel tanks mounted along the engine intake ramps . The Strike Eagle has been deployed for military operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria, and Libya, among others. During these operations the F-15E has carried out deep strikes against high-value targets , combat air patrols , and provided close air support for coalition troops. It has also been exported to several countries
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Fighter Aircraft
A FIGHTER AIRCRAFT is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft , whose main mission is to attack ground targets. The hallmarks of a fighter are its speed, maneuverability, and small size relative to other combat aircraft. Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities, and some are designed as dual-purpose fighter-bombers ; often aircraft that do not fulfill the standard definition are called fighters. This may be for political or national security reasons, for advertising purposes, or other reasons. A fighter's main purpose is to establish air superiority over a battlefield. Since World War I , achieving and maintaining air superiority has been considered essential for victory in conventional warfare . The success or failure of a belligerent's efforts to gain air supremacy hinges on several factors including the skill of its pilots, the tactical soundness of its doctrine for deploying its fighters, and the numbers and performance of those fighters. Because of the importance of air superiority, since the dawn of aerial combat armed forces have constantly competed to develop technologically superior fighters and to deploy these fighters in greater numbers, and fielding a viable fighter fleet consumes a substantial proportion of the defense budgets of modern armed forces
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McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle
The MCDONNELL DOUGLAS F-15 EAGLE is an American twin-engine , all-weather tactical fighter aircraft designed by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing ) to gain and maintain air supremacy in aerial combat. Following reviews of proposals, the United States Air Force selected McDonnell Douglas' design in 1967 to meet the service's need for a dedicated air superiority fighter. The Eagle first flew in July 1972, and entered service in 1976. It is among the most successful modern fighters, with over 100 victories and no losses in aerial combat, with the majority of the kills scored by the Israeli Air Force . The Eagle has been exported to Israel, Japan, and Saudi Arabia. The F-15 was originally envisioned as a pure air superiority aircraft. Its design included a secondary ground-attack capability that was largely unused. The aircraft design proved flexible enough that an all-weather strike derivative , the F-15E Strike Eagle , an improved and enhanced version, which was later developed entered service in 1989. As of 2017 the aircraft is being produced in different variants with production line set to end in 2022, 50 years after the type's first flight
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General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon
The GENERAL DYNAMICS F-16
F-16
FIGHTING FALCON is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
) for the United States
United States
Air Force (USAF). Designed as an air superiority day fighter , it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,500 aircraft have been built since production was approved in 1976. Although no longer being purchased by the U.S. Air Force, improved versions are still being built for export customers. In 1993, General Dynamics
General Dynamics
sold its aircraft manufacturing business to the Lockheed Corporation
Lockheed Corporation
, which in turn became part of Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
after a 1995 merger with Martin Marietta . The Fighting Falcon's key features include a frameless bubble canopy for better visibility, side-mounted control stick to ease control while maneuvering, a seat reclined 30 degrees to reduce the effect of g-forces on the pilot , and the first use of a relaxed static stability /fly-by-wire flight control system which helps to make it a nimble aircraft. The F-16
F-16
has an internal M61 Vulcan cannon and 11 locations for mounting weapons and other mission equipment
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Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II
The LOCKHEED MARTIN F-35 LIGHTNING II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters . The fifth-generation combat aircraft is designed to perform ground attack and air defense missions. It has three main models: the F-35A conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) variant, the F-35B short take-off and vertical-landing (STOVL) variant, and the F-35C carrier-based Catapult Assisted Take-Off But Arrested Recovery (CATOBAR) variant. On 31 July 2015, the United States Marines declared ready for deployment the first squadron of F-35B fighters after intensive testing. On 2 August 2016, the U.S. Air Force declared its first squadron of F-35A fighters combat-ready. The F-35 descends from the X-35 , the winning design of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. An aerospace industry team led by Lockheed Martin designed and manufactures it. Other major F-35 industry partners include Northrop Grumman , Pratt several additional countries have ordered, or are considering ordering, the F-35. The program is the most expensive military weapons system in history, and has been much criticized inside and outside government, in the U.S. and in allied countries
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Patrol Aircraft
A MARITIME PATROL AIRCRAFT (MPA), also known as a PATROL AIRCRAFT, MARI