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Ishiro Honda
Chamacoco is a Zamucoan language spoken in Paraguay
Paraguay
and maybe Brazil by the Chamacoco people. It is also known as Xamicoco or Xamacoco, although the tribe itself prefers the name Ishír, which is also spelled Ishiro or Jewyo.[3] When the term Ishiro (or yshyro or ɨshɨro) is used to refer to the language, it is an abbreviation for Ishir(o) ahwoso, literally meaning 'the words, the language of the Chamacoco people'.[4] It is spoken by a traditionally hunter-gatherer society that has now turned to agriculture
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Paraguay
Coordinates: 23°S 58°W / 23°S 58°W / -23; -58Republic of ParaguayRepública del Paraguay  (Spanish) Tetã Paraguái  (Guaraní)Flag (obverse)Seal [nb 1]Motto: "Paz y justicia" (Spanish) "Peace and justice"Anthem:  Paraguayos, República o Muerte  (Spanish) Paraguayans, Republic or DeathLocation of  Paraguay  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Asunción 25°16′S 57°40′W / 25.267°S 57.667°W / -25.267; -57.667Official languagesSpanish GuaraniEthnic groups (2016[1])95% Mestizo 5% otherDemonym Paraguayan Guaraní (colloquial)[2]Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic• PresidentHoracio Cartes• Vice PresidentJuan AfaraLegislature Congress• Upper houseSenate• Lowe
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Nivaclé Language
Nivaclé is a Matacoan language spoken in Paraguay
Paraguay
and by a couple hundred in Argentina. It is also known as Chulupí and Ashluslay, and in older sources has been called Ashluslé, Suhin, Sujín, Chunupí, Churupí, Choropí, and other variant spellings of these names. Nivaclé speakers are found in the Chaco, in Paraguay
Paraguay
in Presidente Hayes Department, and Boquerón Department, and in Argentina
Argentina
in Salta Province. Nivaclé is complex both in its phonology and morphology. Much of what is handled in syntactic constructions in many other languages is signalled in Nivaclé by its rich bound morphology and clitics. Nivaclé has several linguistic traits that are rare elsewhere in the world or even unique. Its phonemic inventory has 21 consonants and 6 vowels, including glottalized (ejective) stops and affricates, and a unique phoneme, /k͡l/
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Enlhet Language
Enlhet (Eenlhit), or Northern Lengua, is a language of the Paraguayan Chaco. It is also known as Vowak and Powok. See also[edit]Languages of ParaguayReferences[edit]^ a b ISO change request ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Northern Lengua". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0
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Enxet Language
Enxet, also known as "Lengua Ser," "Lengua," "Vowak," and "Enhlit" is one of twenty languages spoken by the Gran Chaco people
Gran Chaco people
of South America.[3] Enxet is isolated to Amerindians of Paraguay
Paraguay
and belongs to the Mascoian (Demonym "Mascoian") language family. Once a dialect of the broader language lengua, Enxet (Southern Lengua) and Enhlet (Northern Lengua) diverged as extensive differences between the two were realized.Contents1 Classification 2 History 3 Language contents and structure 4 Contemporary issues 5 References 6 Further readingClassification[edit] Enxet belongs to the Mascoian language family, spoken primarily by Native Americans in the Paraguayan region of the South American Gran Chaco. The South Amerindians living in this region are referred to as Guaycuru.[4] History[edit] Enxet and Enhlet were once considered dialects of Lengua
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Kaskihá Language
Kaskihá (Cashquiha) is a language of the Paraguayan Chaco. It is one of several that go by the generic name Guaná. References[edit]^ a b Kaskihá at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Guana (Paraguay)". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0
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Sanapaná Language
Sanapana (sanapana payvoma[3]) is a language of the Paraguayan Chaco. Use is vigorous, and it is a language of instruction in primary schools.[this may be Angaite, not Sanapana]. Sanapaná people call themselves nenlhet;[4] Enxet people call Sanapaná people saapa'ang; Guaná people call them kasnapan; and Enlhet people, kelya'mok. References[edit]^ a b ISO change request ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Nuclear Sanapana". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0
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Toba-Maskoy Language
Maskoy, or Toba-Maskoy, is one of several languages of the Paraguayan Chaco (Particularly in the northern region of Paraguay) called Toba. It is spoken on a reservation near Puerto Victoria
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Matacoan Languages
Matacoan (also Mataguayan, Matákoan, Mataguayo, Mataco–Mataguayo, Matacoano, Matacoana) is a language family of northern Argentina, western Paraguay, and southeastern Bolivia.Contents1 Family division 2 References 3 Bibliography 4 External linksFamily division[edit] Matacoan consists of four clusters of languages. Gordon (2005) divides Wichí into three separate languages, and Chorote into two languages.Wichí (also known as Mataco, Wichi, Wichí Lhamtés, Weenhayek, Noctenes, Matahuayo, Matako, Weʃwo
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Iyo'wujwa Chorote Language
Iyo'wujwa (Chorote) is a Matacoan language spoken by about 2,000 people, mostly in Argentina
Argentina
where it is spoken by about 1,500 people; 50% of whom are monolingual. Alternate names include: Choroti, Manjuy, and Manjui. There are about 650 speakers in Paraguay
Paraguay
and 8 in Bolivia. Of the 650 in Paraguay, approximately 480 are considered monolingual. These speakers in Paraguay
Paraguay
only refer to themselves as Manjui or Inkijwas. They refer to the ones residing in Argentina
Argentina
as the Iyo'wujwas, though some who reside with these people in Argentina
Argentina
have migrated from Paraguay. Most of the Manjui under 40 years old can read and write in their own language and were taught in their own schools. The principal location of these people is a settlement called Santa Rosa, in the province of Boquerón. Other locations include Mcal
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Maka Language
Maká is a Matacoan language spoken in Paraguay by the Maká people. Its 1,500 speakers live primarily in Presidente Hayes Department near the Río Negro, as well as in and around Asunción.Contents1 Phonology 2 Morphology2.1 Nouns2.1.1 Gender 2.1.2 Number 2.1.3 Case 2.1.4 Agreement with the possessor2.2 Verbs2.2.1 Agreement with subject and object 2.2.2 Applicatives3 Syntax3.1 Noun phrases 3.2 Sentences3.2.1 Affirmative 3.2.2 Interrogative4 External links 5 Works citedPhonology[edit]Consonant phonemes of Maká[3]Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal/Velar Uvular GlottalNasal m nPlosive p t ts k q ʔEjective pʼ tʼ tsʼ kʼ qʼFricative f ɬ s x χ hApproximant w ljVelar consonants alternate with palatal consonants before /e/ and sometimes before /a/. Examples include /keɬejkup/ ~ [ceɬejkup] "autumn" and /exeʔ/ ~ [eçeʔ] "stork"
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Tupi–Guarani Languages
Tupi–Guarani ( pronunciation (help·info)) is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages
Tupian languages
of South America
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Mascoian Languages
The Mascoian also known as Enlhet–Enenlhet, Lengua–Mascoy, or Chaco languages are a small, closely related language family of Paraguay. The languages are:[2]Maskoy (Toba-Maskoy) Enxet (Southern Lengua) Enlhet (Northern Lengua) Kaskihá (Guaná) Sanapaná AngaitéTwo spurious languages have been claimed in the literature, Emok and Maskoy Pidgin. References[edit]^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Lengua–Mascoy". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Unruh, Ernesto; Kalisch, Hannes. 2003. "Enlhet-Enenlhet
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Aché Language
Aché, also known as Guayaki, is a Guarani language of Paraguay. The six Aché dialects are distinct enough to cause some problems with communication. References[edit]^ Aché at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Aché". Glottolog 3.0
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Ava Guarani Language
Chiripá Guarani (Tsiripá, Txiripá), also known as Ava Guarani and Nhandéva (Ñandeva), is a Guaraní language spoken in Paraguay, Brazil, and also Argentina. It is closely related to Paraguayan Guaraní, a language which speakers are increasingly switching to. There are 4,900 speakers in Brazil
Brazil
and 7,000 in Paraguay. Nhandéva is also known as Chiripá. The Spanish spelling, Ñandeva, is used in the Paraguayan Chaco to refer to the local variety of Eastern Bolivian, a subdialect of Avá. Chiripá is one of a number of "Guaraní dialects" often classified as distinct languages. Of these, Paraguayan Guaraní
Paraguayan Guaraní
is by far the largest variety and it is often referred to simply as Guaraní. References[edit]^ Chiripá at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chiripá". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0
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Pai Tavytera Language
Pai Tavytera is a Guarani language spoken by about 600 Pai Tavytera people in eastern Paraguay, in Amambay, eastern Concepción, eastern San Pedro, and northern Canindeyú Departments. The language has 70% lexical similarity with the Kaiwá language, spoken in Brazil. Among Pai Tavyetera people, language use is shifting towards Guaraní.[1] The language is written in the Latin script.[3] Notes[edit]^ a b c Pai Tavytera at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pai Tavytera". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "Pai Tavytera." Script Source. 2011
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