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Iron Age
Iron
Iron
Age metallurgy Ancient iron production↓ Ancient historyMediterranean, Greater Persia, South Asia, ChinaHistoriographyGreek, Roman, Chinese, MedievalThe Iron
Iron
Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age
Stone Age
(Neolithic) and the Bronze
Bronze
Age. It is an archaeological era in the prehistory and protohistory of Europe
Europe
and the Ancient Near East, and by analogy also used of other parts of the Old World
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Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus
(/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek
Attic Greek
pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides
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Historiographical Record
Historiography
Historiography
is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic – such as the "historiography of the United Kingdom", the "historiography of Canada", "historiography of the British Empire", the "historiography of early Islam", the "historiography of China" – and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the ascent of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature
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Wrought Iron
Wrought iron
Wrought iron
is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%). It is a semi-fused mass of iron with fibrous slag inclusions (up to 2% by weight), which gives it a "grain" resembling wood that is visible when it is etched or bent to the point of failure. Wrought iron
Wrought iron
is tough, malleable, ductile, corrosion-resistant and easily welded. Before the development of effective methods of steelmaking and the availability of large quantities of steel, wrought iron was the most common form of malleable iron. It was given the name wrought because it was hammered, rolled or otherwise worked while hot enough to expel molten slag. The modern functional equivalent of wrought iron is mild or low carbon steel
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Cast Iron
Cast iron
Cast iron
is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.[1] Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon
Carbon
(C) ranging from 1.8–4 wt%, and silicon (Si) 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content (~0.8%) are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram
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Carbon Steel
Carbon
Carbon
steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight
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Medieval Historiography
This is a list of historians. The names are grouped by order of the historical period in which they were living and producing works, which is not necessarily the same as the period in which they specialize.[1] Chroniclers and annalists, though they are not historians in the true sense, are also listed here for convenience
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Chinese Historiography
Chinese historiography
Chinese historiography
is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.Contents1 Overview of Chinese history 2 Key organizing concepts2.1 Dynastic cycle 2.2 Multi-ethnic history 2.3 Marxism 2.4 Modernization 2.5 Hydraulic despotism 2.6 Convergence 2.7 Anti-imperialism 2.8 Republican 2.9 Postmodernism3 Recent trends 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References and further reading 7 External linksOverview of Chinese history[edit] The recording of Chinese history
Chinese history
dates back to the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(c. 1600–1046 BC). Although they are not literature as such, many written examples survive of ceremonial inscriptions, divinations and records of family names, which were carved or painted onto tortoise shell or bones.[1][2] The oldest surviving history texts of China were compiled in the Shujing (Book of Documents, 書經)
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Roman Historiography
Roman historiography is indebted to the Greeks, who invented the form. The Romans had great models to base their works upon, such as Herodotus
Herodotus
(c. 484 – 425 BC) and Thucydides
Thucydides
(c. 460 – c. 395 BC). Roman historiographical forms are different from the Greek ones however, and voice very Roman concerns. Unlike the Greeks, Roman historiography did not start out with an oral historical tradition. The Roman style of history was based on the way that the Annals
Annals
of the Pontifex Maximus, or the Annales Maximi, were recorded. The Annales Maximi include a wide array of information, including religious documents, names of consuls, deaths of priests, and various disasters throughout history
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Greek Historiography
Greek historiography refers to Hellenic efforts to track and record history. By the 5th century BC, it became an integral part of ancient Greek literature and held a prestigious place in later Byzantine literature. The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals, chronicles, king lists, and pragmatic epigraphy. Herodotus
Herodotus
is widely known as the "father of history", his Histories being eponymous of the entire field
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Historiography
Historiography
Historiography
is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic – such as the "historiography of the United Kingdom", the "historiography of Canada", "historiography of the British Empire", the "historiography of early Islam", the "historiography of China" – and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the ascent of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature
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Iron Age China
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom (/dʒoʊ/;[4] Chinese: 周朝; pinyin: Zhōu cháo [ʈʂóu ʈʂʰǎu]) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history. The military control of China by the royal house, surnamed Ji (Chinese: 姬; pinyin: Jī [tɕí]), lasted initially from 1046 until 771 BC for a period known as the Western Zhou and the political sphere of influence it created continued well into Eastern Zhou for another 500 years. During the Zhou Dynasty, centralized power decreased throughout the Spring and Autumn period until the Warring States period in the last two centuries of the Zhou Dynasty. In this period, the Zhou court had little control over its constituent states that were at war with each other until the Qin state consolidated power and formed the Qin dynasty in 221 BC
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Protohistory
Protohistory is a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings. For example, in Europe, the Celts and the Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
are considered to have been protohistoric when they began appearing in Greek and Roman sources. Protohistoric may also refer to the transition period between the advent of literacy in a society and the writings of the first historians. The preservation of oral traditions may complicate matters as these can provide a secondary historical source for even earlier events. Colonial sites involving a literate group and a non-literate group are also studied as protohistoric situations. It can also refer to a period in which fragmentary or external historical documents, not necessarily including a developed writing system, have been found
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Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Neolithic
Neolithic
(/ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen)[1]) was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world[2] and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
or The New Stone Age, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the " Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution"
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Ancient Iron Production
Ancient iron production refers to iron working in times from prehistory to the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
where knowledge of production processes is derived from archaeological investigation. Slag, the byproduct of iron-working processes such as smelting or smithing, is left at the iron-working site rather than being moved away with the product. It also weathers well and hence it is readily available for study
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Aegean Civilizations
Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze
Bronze
Age civilizations of Greece
Greece
around the Aegean Sea. There are three distinct but communicating and interacting geographic regions covered by this term: Crete, the Cyclades
Cyclades
and the Greek mainland. Crete
Crete
is associated with the Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
from the Early Bronze
Bronze
Age. The Cyclades converge with the mainland during the Early Helladic
Early Helladic
("Minyan") period and with Crete
Crete
in the Middle Minoan period. From ca
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