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Irish Diaspora
The Irish diaspora
Irish diaspora
(Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland. The phenomenon of migration from Ireland
Ireland
is recorded since early Medieval times,[1] but it is only possible to quantify it from around 1700: since then between 9 and 10 million people born in Ireland
Ireland
have emigrated. This is more than the population of Ireland
Ireland
at its historical peak in the 1840s of 8.5 million. The poorest of them went to Great Britain, especially Liverpool; those who could afford it went further, including almost 5 million to the United States.[2] After 1840, emigration from Ireland
Ireland
became a massive, relentless, and efficiently managed national enterprise.[3] In 1890 40% of Irish-born people were living abroad
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Plantations Of Ireland
Plantations in 16th- and 17th-century Ireland involved the confiscation of land by the English crown
English crown
and the colonisation of this land with settlers from the island of Great Britain. There had already been smaller-scale immigration to Ireland as far back as the 12th century, which had resulted in a distinct ethnicity in Ireland known as the Old English, or Hiberno-Normans. Unofficial plantations carried out privately by landlords also took place, such as those in County Antrim and County Down. The 16th-century plantations were established through large areas of the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman
Hiberno-Norman
dynasties, but principally in the provinces of Munster and Leinster. The Crown granted these lands to colonists ("planters") from England. This process began during the reign of Henry VIII and continued under Mary I and Elizabeth I
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Celtic Church
Celtic Christianity
Christianity
or Insular Christianity
Christianity
refers broadly to certain features of Christianity
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Holy See
The Holy See
Holy See
(Italian: Santa Sede; Latin: Sancta Sedes; Ecclesiastical Latin: [ˈsaŋkta ˈsedes]), also referred to as the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity. It serves as the central point of reference for the Catholic Church everywhere and the focal point of communion due to its position as the pre-eminent episcopal see of the universal church. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches, Patriarchates and religious institutes. As an independent sovereign entity, holding the Vatican City
Vatican City
enclave in Rome
Rome
as an independent state, it maintains diplomatic relations with other states
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Picts
The Picts
Picts
was the name given to an unidentified tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age
Iron Age
and Early Medieval periods. They are thought to have been ethnolinguistically Celtic. Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from the geographical distribution of brochs, Brittonic place name elements, and Pictish stones. The name Picts
Picts
appears in written records from Late Antiquity to the 10th century, when they are thought to have merged with the Gaels
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Hegemony
Hegemony
Hegemony
(UK: /hɪˈɡɛməni, hɪˈdʒɛməni/, US: /hɪˈdʒɛməni/ ( pronunciation (help·info)) or /ˈhɛdʒəˌmoʊni/) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.[1][2][3][4] In ancient Greece (8th century BC – 6th century AD), hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states.[5] The dominant state is known as the hegemon.[6] In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu"
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PICT
The Picts
Picts
were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland
Scotland
during the Late Iron Age
Iron Age
and Early Medieval periods. They are thought to have been ethnolinguistically Celtic. Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from the geographical distribution of brochs, Brittonic place name elements, and Pictish stones. The name Picts
Picts
appears in written records from Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
to the 10th century, when they are thought to have merged with the Gaels
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Earl Of Kildare
Duke of Leinster
Duke of Leinster
(/ˈlɪnstər/;[2][3] Irish: Diúc Laighean[4]) is a title in the Peerage of Ireland
Peerage of Ireland
and the premier dukedom in that peerage. The subsidiary titles of the Duke of Leinster
Duke of Leinster
are: Marquess of Kildare (1761), Earl of Kildare (1316), Earl of Offaly (1761), Viscount Leinster, of Taplow in the County of Buckingham (1747), Baron Offaly (1620) and Baron Kildare, of Kildare in the County of Kildare (1870). The viscounty of Leinster is in the Peerage of Great Britain, the barony of Kildare in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, and all other titles in the Peerage of Ireland
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Scottish Highlands
The Highlands (Scots: the Hielands; Scottish Gaelic: A’ Ghàidhealtachd pronounced [ə ɣɛːəl̪ˠt̪ʰəxk], "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.[1] Culturally, the Highlands and the Lowlands diverged from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands. The term is also used for the area north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, although the exact boundaries are not clearly defined, particularly to the east. The Great Glen divides the Grampian Mountains
Grampian Mountains
to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands
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Faroe Islands
Coordinates: 62°00′N 06°47′W / 62.000°N 6.783°W / 62.000; -6.783Faroe Islands Føroyar  (Faroese) Færøerne  (Danish)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Tú alfagra land mítt Thou, my most beauteous landLocation of the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
(circled) in Northern EuropeLocation of the Kingdom of Denmark
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Roman Army
The Roman army
Roman army
(Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395/476 AD), and its successor the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. It is thus a term that may span approximately 2,206 years (753 BC to 1453 AD), during which the Roman armed forces underwent numerous permutations in composition, organisation, equipment and tactics, while conserving a core of lasting traditions.[1][2][3]Contents1 Historical overview1.1 Early Roman army
Early Roman army
(c. 500 BC to c. 300 BC) 1.2 Roman army of the mid-Republic
Roman army of the mid-Republic
(c
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Iceland
Iceland
Iceland
(/ˈaɪslənd/ ( listen); Icelandic: Ísland, pronounced [ˈistlant])[7] is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 348,580 and an area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.[8] The capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík
Reykjavík
and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland
Iceland
is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains, and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland
Iceland
is warmed by the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic
Arctic
Circle
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Pope Adrian IV
Pope
Pope
Adrian IV (Latin: Adrianus IV; born Nicholas Breakspear; c. 1100 – 1 September 1159), also known as Hadrian IV,[1] was Pope
Pope
from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159. Adrian IV is the only Eng
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Papal Bull
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden seal (bulla) that was traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it.Contents1 History 2 Format 3 Seal 4 Content 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further readingHistory[edit]Printed text of Pope
Pope
Leo X's Bull against the errors of Martin Luther, also known as Exsurge Domine, issued in June 1520Papal bulls have been in use at least since the 6th century, but the phrase was not used until around the end of the 13th century, and then only internally for unofficial administrative purposes
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Laudabiliter
Laudabiliter
Laudabiliter
was a Papal Bull
Papal Bull
issued in 1155 by Pope
Pope
Adrian IV, the only Englishman to have served in that office. Existence of the bull has been disputed by scholars over the centuries; no copy is extant but scholars cite the many references to it as early as the 13th century to support the validity of its existence.[1] The bull purports to grant the right to the Angevin King Henry II of England
King Henry II of England
to invade and govern Ireland
Ireland
and to enforce the Gregorian Reforms on the semi-autonomous Christian Church in Ireland. Richard de Clare ("Strongbow") and the other leaders of the Norman invasion of Ireland (1169–71) claimed that Laudabiliter
Laudabiliter
authorised the invasion
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