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Irish Step Dance
IRISH STEPDANCE is a style of performance dance with its roots in traditional Irish dance
Irish dance
. It is generally characterized by a stiff upper body and quick and precise movements of the feet. It can be performed solo or in groups. Aside from public dance performances, there are also stepdance competitions all over the world. These competitions are often called Feiseanna (singular Feis ). In Irish dance culture, a Feis is a traditional Gaelic arts and culture festival. Costumes are considered important for stage presence in competition and performance Irish stepdance. In many cases, costumes are sold at high prices and can even be custom made. Males and females can both perform Irish stepdance but for the most part in today's society, the dance remains predominantly female. This means that the costumes are mainly dresses
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Velvet
VELVET is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile , giving it a distinctive soft feel. By extension, the word velvety means "smooth like velvet." Velvet
Velvet
can be made from either synthetic or natural fibers. CONTENTS * 1 Construction and composition * 2 History * 3 Entry from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
(1911) * 4 Types * 4.1 Gallery * 5 Fibres * 6 See also * 7 References CONSTRUCTION AND COMPOSITION Illustration depicting the manufacture of velvet fabric Velvet
Velvet
is woven on a special loom that weaves two thicknesses of the material at the same time. The two pieces are then cut apart to create the pile effect, and the two lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls
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Swarovski
SWAROVSKI (/swɒˈrɒfski/ sworr-OFF-skee , German pronunciation: ) is an Austrian producer of crystal headquartered in Wattens
Wattens
, Austria. The company is split into three major industry areas: the Swarovski Crystal Business, that primarily produces crystal jewelry and accessories; Swarovski Optik , which produces optical instruments such as telescopes and binoculars ; Tyrolit
Tyrolit
, a manufacturer of grinding, sawing, drilling, and dressing tools, as well as a supplier of tools and machines. Today, Swarovski
Swarovski
Crystal Business is the highest grossing business unit with a global reach of approximately 2,800 stores in around 170 countries, more than 27,000 employees, and a revenue of about 2.6 billion euros (in 2016)
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Tiaras
A TIARA (from Latin : tiara, from Ancient Greek : τιάρα) is a jeweled, ornamental crown traditionally worn by women. It is worn during formal occasions, particularly if the dress code is white tie . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Late 18th century-present * 3 Costume jewellery tiaras * 3.1 Stage and screen * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY This Fayum mummy portrait shows a woman wearing a golden wreath, c. AD 100-110. Today, the word "tiara" is often used interchangeably with the word "diadem ", and tiara is often translated to a word similar to diadem in other languages. Both words come from head ornaments worn by ancient men and women to denote high status. As Geoffrey Munn notes, "The word 'tiara' is actually Persian in origin — the name first denoted the high-peaked head-dresses of Persian kings, which were encircled by 'diadems' (bands of purple and white decoration)
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Sunless Tanning
SUNLESS TANNING, also known as UV-FREE TANNING, SELF TANNING, SPRAY TANNING (when applied topically ), or FAKE TANNING, refers to the application of chemicals to the skin to produce an effect similar in appearance to a suntan . The popularity of sunless tanning has risen since the 1960s after health authorities confirmed links between UV exposure (from sunlight or tanning beds ) and the incidence of skin cancer . Since sunscreen absorbs ultraviolet light and prevents it from reaching the skin, it will prevent tanning. It has been reported that sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 8 based on the UVB spectrum can decrease vitamin D synthetic capacity by 95 percent, whereas sunscreen with an SPF of 15 can reduce synthetic capacity by 98 percent
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Kilts
A KILT ( Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: fèileadh ) is a knee-length non-bifurcated skirt -type garment with pleats at the rear, originating in the traditional dress of men and boys in the Scottish Highlands of the 16th century. Since the 19th century, it has become associated with the wider culture of Scotland
Scotland
, or with Celtic (and more specifically Gaelic ) heritage even more broadly. It is most often made of woollen cloth in a tartan pattern. Although the kilt is most often worn on formal occasions and at Highland games
Highland games
and sports events, it has also been adapted as an item of informal male clothing in recent years, returning to its roots as an everyday garment. Particularly in North America kilts are now made for casual wear in a variety of materials. Alternative fastenings may be used and pockets inserted to avoid the need for a sporran
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Organza
ORGANZA is a thin, plain weave , sheer fabric traditionally made from silk . Many modern organzas are woven with synthetic filament fibers such as polyester or nylon . Silk
Silk
organza is woven by a number of mills along the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and in the province of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
in China . A coarser silk organza is woven in the Bangalore
Bangalore
area of India
India
. Deluxe silk organzas are woven in France
France
and Italy
Italy
. Organza
Organza
is used for bridalwear and eveningwear . In the interiors market it is used for effects in bedrooms and between rooms. Double-width organzas in viscose and acetate are used as sheer curtains . SEE ALSO * Organdy
Organdy
REFERENCES * ^ Angela Cartwright (1 November 2007). Mixed Emulsions: Altered Art Techniques for Photographic Imagery
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Sequins
A SEQUIN /ˈsikwɪn/ is a disk-shaped bead used for decorative purposes. In earlier centuries, they were made from shiny metals. Today, sequins are most often made from plastic. They are available in a wide variety of colors and geometrical shapes. Sequins are commonly used on clothing , jewelry , bags , shoes and many other accessories. Sequins are sometimes also referred to as spangles, paillettes, or diamantes, but technically differ. In costuming, sequins have a center hole, while spangles have the hole located at the top. Paillettes themselves are commonly very large and flat. Sequins may be stitched flat to the fabric, so that they do not move, and are less likely to fall off; or they may be stitched at only one point, so that they dangle and move easily, to catch more light. Some sequins are made with multiple facets , to increase their reflective ability
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Slip Jig
SLIP JIG refers to both a style within Irish music
Irish music
, and the Irish dance to music in slip-jig time. The slip jig is in 9 8 time , traditionally with accents on 5 of the 9 beats — two pairs of crotchet /quaver (quarter note/eighth note) followed by a dotted crotchet note . The slip jig is one of the four most common Irish stepdances , the others being the reel , the jig and the hornpipe . It is danced in soft shoes. At one time only men danced it, then for several decades only women, and today slip jigs can be danced by any dancer, though at a competitive level they are almost exclusively danced by women. This dance is graceful and controlled, with heels very high, often called "the ballet of Irish dance". There are also traditional Irish céilí dances which are slip jigs, though these are much less common than reels and double jigs. Because of its timing, the slip jig is longer than the reel for the same number of bars of music
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Jig
The JIG (Irish : port) is a form of lively folk dance in compound metre , as well as the accompanying dance tune . It developed in 16th-century England, and was quickly adopted on the Continent where it eventually became the final movement of the mature Baroque
Baroque
dance suite (the French gigue ; Italian and Spanish giga ). Today it is most associated with Irish dance music, Scottish country dance and the Métis people in Canada. Jigs were originally in duple compound metre, (e.g., 12 8 time), but have been adapted to a variety of time signatures , by which they are often classified into groups, including light jigs, slip jigs, single jigs, double jigs, and treble jigs
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Crooked Tune
A CROOKED TUNE is a musical piece, generally in the American, Canadian, or Irish tradition, which deviates for the standard number of beats for that style of tune (reel , hornpipe , polka ). That is, the tune may add or drop notes, disrupting the usual rhythm. Banjo player Tony Trischka described crooked tunes as: Things aren't all foursquare. They're quirky around the edges. Just the way players of yore felt it. Instinctively correct rather than technically correct. REFERENCES * ^ April Verch; Brian Wicklund (14 February 2011). The American Fiddle Method - Canadian Fiddle Styles. Mel Bay Publications. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-1-61065-126-4 . Retrieved 30 April 2013. * ^ Christiansen, Corey; Tony Trischka (18 August 2011). Tony Trischka Master Collection of Fiddle Tunes for Banjo. Mel Bay Publications. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-1-61065-900-0
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Lace
LACE is a delicate fabric made of yarn or thread in an open weblike pattern, made by machine or by hand. Originally linen , silk , gold, or silver threads were used. Now lace is often made with cotton thread, although linen and silk threads are still available. Manufactured lace may be made of synthetic fiber . A few modern artists make lace with a fine copper or silver wire instead of thread. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Types * 3 History * 4 Patrons and lace makers * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word lace is from Middle English
Middle English
, from Old French
Old French
las, noose, strin, from Vulgar Latin
Latin
*laceum, from Latin
Latin
laqueus, noose; probably akin to lacere, to entice or ensnare. TYPESThere are many types of lace, classified by how they are made
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Leather
LEATHER is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide. It can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry . People use leather to make various goods—including clothing (e.g., shoes, hats, jackets, skirts, trousers, and belts), bookbinding , leather wallpaper , and as a furniture covering. It is produced in a wide variety of types and styles, decorated by a wide range of techniques
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Oxford Shoe
An OXFORD SHOE is characterized by shoelace eyelets tabs that are attached under the vamp , a feature termed "closed lacing". This contrasts with Derbys , or Blüchers , which have shoelace eyelets attached to the top of the vamp. Originally, Oxfords were plain, formal shoes, made of leather but they evolved into a range of styles suitable for both formal, uniform, and casual wear. Based on function and the dictates of fashion, Oxfords are now made from a variety of materials, including calf leather, faux and genuine patent leather , suede, and canvas. They are normally black or brown, and may be plain or patterned (Brogue ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Terminology * 3 Women\'s wear * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORYOxfords first appeared in Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
, where they are occasionally called BALMORALS after Balmoral Castle
Balmoral Castle

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Dublin
DUBLIN (/ˈdʌblᵻn/ , Irish : Baile Átha Cliath ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland . Dublin
Dublin
is in the province of Leinster on Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey . The city has an urban area population of 1,345,402. The population of the Greater Dublin Area , as of 2016 , was 1,904,806 people. Founded as a Viking
Viking
settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin
Dublin
became Ireland's principal city following the Norman invasion . The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire
British Empire
before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin
Dublin
became the capital of the Irish Free State , later renamed Ireland. Dublin
Dublin
is administered by a City Council
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United States Dollar
UNITED STATES East Timor Ecuador
Ecuador
El Salvador
El Salvador
Marshall Islands Federated States of Micronesia Palau
Palau
Panama
Panama
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
3 non-U.S
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