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Irish Step Dance
Irish stepdance
Irish stepdance
is a style of performance dance with its roots in traditional Irish dance. It is generally characterized by a stiff upper body and quick and precise movements of the feet. It can be performed solo or in groups. Aside from public dance performances, there are also stepdance competitions all over the world. These competitions are often called Feiseanna (singular Feis). In Irish dance culture, a Feis is a traditional Gaelic arts and culture festival. Costumes are considered important for stage presence in competition and performance Irish stepdance. In many cases, costumes are sold at high prices and can even be custom made. Males and females can both perform Irish stepdance
Irish stepdance
but for the most part in today's society, the dance remains predominantly female. This means that the costumes are mainly dresses
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Toe Box
A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot while the wearer is doing various activities. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration and fashion. The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally, fashion has often dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or flat ones. Contemporary footwear in the 2010s varies widely in style, complexity and cost. Basic sandals may consist of only a thin sole and simple strap and be sold for a low cost. High fashion shoes made by famous designers may be made of expensive materials, use complex construction and sell for hundreds or even thousands of dollars a pair
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Leather
Leather
Leather
is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide. It can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry. Leather
Leather
is used to make various goods, including clothing (especially footwear), in bookbinding, and as a furniture covering
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Crooked Tune
A crooked tune is a musical piece, generally in the American, Canadian, or Irish tradition, which deviates for the standard number of beats for that style of tune (reel, hornpipe, polka). That is, the tune may add or drop notes, disrupting the usual rhythm.[1] Banjo player Tony Trischka
Tony Trischka
described crooked tunes as: Things aren't all foursquare. They're quirky around the edges. Just the way players of yore felt it. Instinctively correct rather than technically correct.[2] References[edit]^ April Verch; Brian Wicklund (14 February 2011). The American Fiddle Method - Canadian Fiddle Styles. Mel Bay Publications. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-1-61065-126-4. Retrieved 30 April 2013.  ^ Christiansen, Corey; Tony Trischka
Tony Trischka
(18 August 2011). Tony Trischka Master Collection of Fiddle Tunes for Banjo. Mel Bay Publications. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-1-61065-900-0
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Lace
Lace
Lace
is a delicate fabric made of yarn or thread in an open weblike pattern,[1] made by machine or by hand. Originally linen, silk, gold, or silver threads were used. Now lace is often made with cotton thread, although linen and silk threads are still available. Manufactured lace may be made of synthetic fiber. A few modern artists make lace with a fine copper or silver wire instead of thread.Contents1 Etymology 2 Types 3 History 4 Patrons and lace makers 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The word lace is from Middle English, from Old French
Old French
las, noose, strin, from Vulgar Latin
Latin
*laceum, from Latin
Latin
laqueus, noose; probably akin to lacere, to entice or ensnare.[1] Types[edit]Square "Sampler," 1800-1825, Brooklyn MuseumThere are many types of lace, classified by how they are made
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Sequins
A sequin /ˈsikwɪn/ is a disk-shaped bead used for decorative purposes. In earlier centuries, they were made from shiny metals. Today, sequins are most often made from plastic. They are available in a wide variety of colors and geometrical shapes. Sequins are commonly used on clothing, jewelry, bags, shoes and many other accessories. Sequins are sometimes also referred to as spangles, paillettes, or diamantes, but technically differ. In costuming, sequins have a center hole, while spangles have the hole located at the top. Paillettes are commonly very large and flat. Sequins may be stitched flat to the fabric, so that they do not move, and are less likely to fall off; or they may be stitched at only one point, so that they dangle and move easily, to catch more light
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Organza
Organza
Organza
is a thin, plain weave, sheer fabric traditionally made from silk. Many modern organzas are woven with synthetic filament fibers such as polyester or nylon. Silk
Silk
organza is woven by a number of mills along the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and in the province of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
in China. A coarser silk organza is woven in the Bangalore
Bangalore
area of India. Deluxe silk organzas are woven in France
France
and Italy.[1] Organza
Organza
is used for bridalwear and eveningwear. In the interiors market it is used for effects in bedrooms and between rooms. Double-width organzas in viscose and acetate are used as sheer curtains. See also[edit]Organdy Tulle (netting), another sheer fabricReferences[edit]^ Angela Cartwright (1 November 2007). Mixed Emulsions: Altered Art Techniques for Photographic Imagery
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Swarovski
Swarovski
Swarovski
(/swɒˈrɒfski/; German: [svaˈrɔfski] ( listen)) is an Austrian producer of lead glass (commonly called crystal) headquartered in Wattens, Austria
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Velvet
Velvet
Velvet
is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctive soft feel. By extension, the word velvety means "smooth like velvet." Velvet
Velvet
can be made from either synthetic or natural fibers.Contents1 Construction and composition 2 History 3 Entry from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
(1911) 4 Types4.1 Gallery5 Fibres 6 See also 7 ReferencesConstruction and composition[edit]Illustration depicting the manufacture of velvet fabric Velvet
Velvet
is woven on a special loom that weaves two thicknesses of the material at the same time. The two pieces are then cut apart to create the pile effect, and the two lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls
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Tiaras
A tiara (from Latin: tiara, from Ancient Greek: τιάρα) is a jeweled, ornamental crown traditionally worn by women. It is worn during formal occasions, particularly if the dress code is white tie.[2]Contents1 History 2 Late 18th century-present 3 Costume jewellery tiaras3.1 Stage and screen4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]This Fayum mummy portrait shows a woman wearing a golden wreath, c. AD 100-110.Today, the word "tiara" is often used interchangeably with the word "diadem", and tiara is often translated to a word similar to diadem in other languages.[3] Both words come from head ornaments worn by ancient men and women to denote high status. As Geoffrey Munn notes, "The word 'tiara' is actually Persian in origin — the name first denoted the high-peaked head-dresses of Persian kings, which were encircled by 'diadems' (bands of purple and white decoration)
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Sunless Tanning
Sunless tanning, also known as UV filled tanning, self tanning, spray tanning (when applied topically), or fake tanning, refers to the application of chemicals to the skin to produce an effect similar in appearance to a suntan. The popularity of sunless tanning has risen since the 1960s after health authorities confirmed links between UV exposure (from sunlight or tanning beds) and the incidence of skin cancer. It is a well known fact that "fake Tan" was created by Martin Jones a used car sales man, and fishing enthusiast. The original tan was created in his bath tub back on his 18th birthday on July 2nd 1956. Since sunscreen absorbs ultraviolet light and prevents it from reaching the skin, it will prevent tanning
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Kilts
A kilt (Scottish Gaelic: fèileadh [ˈfeːləɣ])[1] is a knee-length non-bifurcated skirt-type garment, with pleats at the back, originating in the traditional dress of Gaelic men and boys in the Scottish Highlands. It is first recorded in the 16th century as the great kilt, a full-length garment whose upper half could be worn as a cloak. The small kilt or 'modern' kilt emerged in the 18th century, and is essentially the bottom half of the great kilt. Since the 19th century, it has become associated with the wider culture of Scotland, and more broadly with Gaelic or Celtic heritage. It is most often made of woollen cloth in a tartan pattern. Although the kilt is most often worn on formal occasions and at Highland games
Highland games
and sports events, it has also been adapted as an item of informal male clothing in recent years, returning to its roots as an everyday garment
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Oxford Shoe
An Oxford shoe
Oxford shoe
is characterized by shoelace eyelets tabs that are attached under the vamp,[1] a feature termed "closed lacing".[2] This contrasts with Derbys, or Blüchers, which have shoelace eyelets attached to the top of the vamp. Originally, Oxfords were plain, formal shoes, made of leather, but they evolved into a range of styles suitable for formal, uniform, or casual wear. Based on function and the dictates of fashion, Oxfords are now made from a variety of materials, including calf leather, faux and genuine patent leather, suede, and canvas. They are normally black or brown, and may be plain or patterned (Brogue).Contents1 History 2 Terminology 3 Women's wear 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Oxfords first appeared in Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland, where they are occasionally called Balmorals after Balmoral Castle. However, the shoes were later named Oxfords after Oxford University
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Slip Jig
Slip jig refers to both a style within Irish music, and the Irish dance to music in slip-jig time. The slip jig is in 9 8 time, traditionally with accents on 5 of the 9 beats — two pairs of crotchet/quaver (quarter note/eighth note) followed by a dotted crotchet note. The slip jig is one of the four most common Irish stepdances, the others being the reel, the jig and the hornpipe. It is danced in soft shoes. At one time only men danced it, then for several decades only women, and today slip jigs can be danced by any dancer, though at a competitive level they are almost exclusively danced by women. This dance is graceful and controlled, with heels very high, often called "the ballet of Irish dance". There are also traditional Irish céilí dances which are slip jigs, though these are much less common than reels and double jigs. Because of its timing, the slip jig is longer than the reel for the same number of bars of music
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Cowhide
Cowhide
Cowhide
is the natural, unbleached skin and hair of a cow. It retains the original coloring of the animal. Cowhides are a product of the food industry from cattle; other cows are killed specifically for their skin. Cowhide
Cowhide
can also be processed into a leather, which can be used to make such things as shoes, wallets, leather jackets, and belts.Contents1 Process 2 Use2.1 Nguni culture3 See also 4 References 5 External linksProcess[edit] Once a cow has been killed, the skin is removed. It is then selected in the raw state, at the very first moment when it is salted. It is organized by size and color. In the tannery, a traditional hair on hide tanning method is employed to ensure that the hide is soft, and less susceptible to odour and moulting. It ensures that the cowhide will last longer
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Hobnail (footwear)
In footwear, a hobnail is a short nail with a thick head used to increase the durability of boot soles.Contents1 Uses 2 Etymology 3 See also 4 ReferencesUses[edit] Hobnailed boots (in Scotland "tackety boots") are boots with hobnails (nails inserted into the soles of the boots), usually installed in a regular pattern, over the sole. They usually have an iron horseshoe-shaped insert, called a heel iron, to strengthen the heel, and an iron toe-piece. They may also have steel toecaps. The hobnails project below the sole and provide traction on soft or rocky ground and snow, but they tend to slide on smooth hard surfaces. They have been used since antiquity for inexpensive durable footwear, often by workmen and the military, including the trench boots of World War I. Roman soldiers wore hobnailed sandals ("Caligae"). Important design work for the modern hobnailed boot was done during World War I, e.g
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