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Irene Of Athens
Irene of Athens
Athens
(Greek: Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία; c. 752 – 9 August 803 AD), also known as Irene Sarantapechaina (Greek: Εἰρήνη Σαρανταπήχαινα), was Byzantine empress consort by marriage to Leo IV from 775 to 780, Byzantine regent during the minority of her son Constantine VI
Constantine VI
from 780 until 790, and finally ruling Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress from 797 to 802
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Strategos
Strategos
Strategos
or Strategus, plural strategoi, (Greek: στρατηγός, pl. στρατηγοί; Doric Greek: στραταγός, stratagos; meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general. In the Hellenistic world
Hellenistic world
and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
the term was also used to describe a military governor. In the modern Hellenic Army
Hellenic Army
it is the highest officer rank.Contents1 Etymology 2 Classical Greece 3 Hellenistic and Roman use 4 Byzantine use 5 In Messina 6 Modern use 7 Fictional uses 8 References 9 Sources 10 External linksEtymology[edit] Strategos
Strategos
is a compound of two Greek words: stratos and agos. Stratos (στρατός) means army, literally "that which is spread out", coming from the proto-Indo-European root *stere- "to spread"
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Theme (Byzantine Administrative Unit)
The themes or themata (Greek: θέματα, thémata, singular: θέμα, théma) were the main administrative divisions of the middle Eastern Roman Empire. They were established in the mid-7th century in the aftermath of the Slavic invasion of the Balkans
Balkans
and Muslim conquests of parts of Byzantine territory, and replaced the earlier provincial system established by Diocletian
Diocletian
and Constantine the Great. In their origin, the first themes were created from the areas of encampment of the field armies of the East Roman army, and their names corresponded to the military units that had existed in those areas. The theme system reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th centuries, as older themes were split up and the conquest of territory resulted in the creation of new ones
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Empress Consort
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor). A queen consort usually shares her husband's social rank and status. She holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles, but historically, she does not share the king's political and military powers. A queen regnant is a queen in her own right with all the powers of a monarch, who (usually) has become queen by inheriting the throne upon the death of the previous monarch. In Brunei, the wife of the Sultan
Sultan
is known as a Raja Isteri with prefix Pengiran Anak, equivalent to queen consort in English, as were the consorts of tsars when Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was still a monarchy.[clarification needed]Contents1 Titles 2 Role 3 Examples of queens and empresses consort 4 See alsoTitles[edit] The title of king consort for the husband of a reigning queen is rare, but not unheard of
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Rotrude
Rotrude (or sometimes referred to as Hruodrud/Hruodhaid)[1] (775/778 – 6 June 810) was a Frankish princess, the second daughter of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
from his marriage to Hildegard.Contents1 Early life 2 Later life 3 Ancestry 4 References 5 External linksEarly life[edit] Few clear records remain of Rotrude's early life. She was educated in the Palace School by Alcuin, who affectionately calls her Columba in his letters to her.[2] When she was six, her father betrothed her to the Byzantine emperor Constantine VI, whose mother Irene was ruling as regent. The Greeks called her Erythro and sent a scholar monk called Elisaeus to educate her in Greek language and manners.[3] However, the alliance fell apart by 786 when she was eleven and Constantine's mother, Irene, broke the engagement in 788. She had a relationship with Rorgo of Rennes and had one son with him, Louis, Abbot of Saint-Denis (800 – 9 January 867)
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Iconoclasm
Iconoclasm[Note 1] is the social belief in the importance of the destruction of icons and other images or monuments, most frequently for religious or political reasons. Over time, the word, usually in the adjectival form, has also come to refer to aggressive statements or actions against any well-established status quo. It is a frequent component of major political or religious changes
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Greeks
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Patrician (ancient Rome)
The patricians (from Latin: patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome. The distinction was highly significant in the early Republic—but its relevance waned after the Conflict of the Orders
Conflict of the Orders
(494 BC to 287 BC), and by the time of the late Republic and Empire, membership in the patriciate was of only nominal significance. After the Western Empire fell, it remained a high honorary title in the Byzantine Empire. Medieval patrician classes were once again formally defined groups of leading burgess families in many medieval Italian republics, such as Venice and Genoa, and subsequently "patrician" became a vague term used for aristocrats and the higher bourgeoisie in many countries.Contents1 Origin 2 Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Empire2.1 Status 2.2 Patricians vs
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Solidus (coin)
The solidus ( Latin
Latin
for "solid"; pl. solidi), nomisma (Greek: νόμισμα, nómisma, lit. "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire. Under Constantine, who introduced it on a wide scale, it had a weight of about 4.5 grams. It was largely replaced in Western Europe by Pepin the Short's currency reform, which introduced the silver-based pound/shilling/penny system, under which the shilling (Latin: solidus) functioned as a unit of account equivalent to 12 pence, eventually developing into the French sou. In Eastern Europe, the nomisma was gradually debased by the Byzantine emperors until it was abolished by Alexius I
Alexius I
in 1092, who replaced it with the hyperpyron, which also came to be known as a "bezant"
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin)Map of ConstantinopleShown within Asia
Asia
MinorAlternate name Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavic), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City")Location Istanbul, Istanbul
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Carolingian Dynasty
Non-agnatic lines:Robertian dynastyHouse of Capet Bosonid dynastyCarolingian dynastyThe Carolingian cross.PippinidsPippin the Elder (c. 580–640) Grimoald (616–656) Childebert the Adopted
Childebert the Adopted
(d. 662)Arnulfings Arnulf of Metz
Arnulf of Metz
(582–640) Ansegisel (d. 662 or 679) Chlodulf of Metz (d. 696 or 697) Pepin of Herstal
Pepin of Herstal
(635-714) Grimoald II (d. 714) Drogo of Champagne
Drogo of Champagne
(670–708) Theudoald (d. 741)Carolingians Charles Martel
Charles Martel
(686–741) Carloman (d
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Telerig
Telerig (Bulgarian: Телериг) was the ruler of Bulgaria between 768–777. Although Telerig is first mentioned in the Byzantine sources in 774, he is considered the immediate successor of Pagan, who was murdered in 768. In May 774, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine V Kopronymos embarked on a major expedition against Bulgaria, leading his field army on land, and dispatching a fleet of two thousand ships carrying horsemen towards the Danube delta. The fleet disembarked in the vicinity of Varna, but the emperor did not press his potential advantage and inexplicably retreated. Shortly afterwards the two sides signed a truce promising the cessation of hostilities. However, in October 774 Telerig sent an army of twelve thousand men to raid Berzitia, Macedonia and to transfer its population to Bulgaria. Collecting a large army of eighty thousand troops, Constantine V surprised the Bulgarians and won a resounding victory
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Iconodule
An iconodule (from Neoclassical Greek εἰκονόδουλος eikonodoulos, "one who serves images"; also iconodulist or iconophile) is someone who espouses iconodulism, i.e., who supports or is in favor of religious images or icons and their veneration, and is in opposition to an iconoclast, someone against the use of religious images. The term is usually used in relation to the iconoclastic controversy in the Eastern Roman Empire; the most famous iconodules of that time being the Saints Theodore the Studite and John of Damascus. The controversy was instigated by Roman Emperor Leo III in 726, when he ordered the removal of the image of Christ above the Chalke Gate of the imperial palace in Constantinople.[1] A wider prohibition of icons followed in 730. St. John of Damascus argued successfully that to prohibit the use of icons was tantamount to denying the incarnation, the presence of the Word of God in the material world
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Regent
A regent (from the Latin
Latin
regens,[1] "[one] ruling"[2]) is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated."[3] The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent". If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent
Regent
ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out
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Caesar (title)
Caesar (English pl. Caesars; Latin
Latin
pl. Caesares) is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator
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Papacy
The pope (Latin: papa from Greek: πάππας pappas,[1] a child's word for "father"),[2] also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest bridge-builder"), is the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.[3] The primacy of the Roman bishop is largely derived from his role as the supposed apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom Jesus is said to have given the Keys of Heaven
Keys of Heaven
and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built. The pope is also head of state of Vatican City,[4] a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within Rome. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.[5] The office of the pope is the papacy
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