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Iranian Plateau
The PERSIAN PLATEAU, or IRANIAN PLATEAU, is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia . It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros Mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Armenian Highlands and the Caucasus Mountains in the northwest, the Strait of Hormuz and Persian Gulf to the south and the Indus River to the east in Pakistan . As a historical region, it includes Parthia , Media , Persis , the heartlands of Iran and some of its recently lost territories . The Zagros Mountains form the plateau's western boundary, and its eastern slopes may be included in the term
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Anatolia
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 The traditional definition of Anatolia within modern Turkey ANATOLIA (from Greek Ἀνατολή, _Anatolḗ_ – "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern Turkish : _Anadolu_), in geography known as ASIA MINOR (from Greek : Μικρὰ Ἀσία _Mīkrá Asía_ – "small Asia"; in modern Turkish : _Küçük Asya_), ASIAN TURKEY, ANATOLIAN PENINSULA, or ANATOLIAN PLATEAU, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia , which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey . The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland
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Hindu Kush
Coordinates : 35°N 71°E / 35°N 71°E / 35; 71 HINDU KUSH Hindu
Hindu
Kush range HIGHEST POINT PEAK Tirich Mir
Tirich Mir
ELEVATION 7,708 m (25,289 ft) COORDINATES 36°14′45″N 71°50′38″E / 36.24583°N 71.84389°E / 36.24583; 71.84389   GEOGRAPHY Topography of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range COUNTRIES List * Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Pakistan
Pakistan
* China
China
* Tajikistan
Tajikistan
REGION Central Asia
Central Asia
-South PARENT RANGE Himalayas
Himalayas
Hindu
Hindu
Kush and its extending mountain ranges to the west
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Himalaya
The HIMALAYAS, or HIMALAYA, (/ˌhɪməˈleɪ.ə/ or /hɪˈmɑːləjə/ ) form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau . The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest . The Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 metres (23,600 ft) in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8000m peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia Aconcagua , in the Andes – is 6,961 metres (22,838 ft) tall. The Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, on the north by the Tibetan Plateau, and on the south by the Indo-Gangetic Plain
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Iranian Plate
The IRANIAN PLATE is thought to underlie Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and parts of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iraq
Iraq
. It is compressed between the Arabian Plate to the south and the Eurasian Plate to the north. This compression is likely a cause for the very mountainous terrain of the area including the Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
. REFERENCES * William Bayne Fisher: The Middle East: a Physical, Social, and Regional Geography
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Geology
GEOLOGY (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, _gē_, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, _-logia_, i.e. "study of, discourse" ) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth , the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer generally to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet (such as the geology of the Moon or Mars ). Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth by providing the primary evidence for plate tectonics , the evolutionary history of life , and past climates . Geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources , understanding of natural hazards , the remediation of environmental problems, and for providing insights into past climate change . Geology also plays a role in geotechnical engineering and is a major academic discipline
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Western Asia
WESTERN ASIA, WEST ASIA, SOUTHWESTERN ASIA or SOUTHWEST ASIA is the westernmost subregion of Asia
Asia
. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East
Middle East
(or the Near East
Near East
), the main difference usually being the exclusion of Egypt
Egypt
(which would be counted as part of North Africa
North Africa
). The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics . The total population of Western Asia
Asia
is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt
Egypt

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Central Asia
CENTRAL ASIA stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as "the -stans " as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of". Central Asia's five former Soviet republics are Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(pop. 18 million), Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(5.7 million), Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(8.0 million), Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(5.2 million), and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(30 million), giving the region a total population of about 66 million. Although not a former Soviet republic, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(pop. 29 million) is also sometimes included
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Eurasian Plate
The EURASIAN PLATE is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia
Eurasia
(a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent , the Arabian subcontinent , and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia
Siberia
. It also includes oceanic crust extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and northward to the Gakkel Ridge . The eastern side is a boundary with the North American Plate to the north and a boundary with the Philippine Sea Plate
Philippine Sea Plate
to the south, and possibly with the Okhotsk Plate
Okhotsk Plate
and the Amurian Plate
Amurian Plate

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Arabian Plate
The ARABIAN PLATE is a minor tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres. It is one of three continental plates (the African , Arabian, and Indian Plates ) that have been moving northward in recent geological history and colliding with the Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
. This is resulting in a mingling of plate pieces and mountain ranges extending in the west from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
, crossing Southern Europe to Iran
Iran
, forming the Alborz
Alborz
and Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
, to the Himalayas
Himalayas
and ranges of southeast Asia. CONTENTS * 1 Lexicology * 2 Borders * 3 History * 4 Countries * 5 References LEXICOLOGYThe Arabian Plate
Arabian Plate
is the most common designation of the region, although it is also sometimes referred to as the Arab Plate
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Indian Plate
The INDIAN PLATE or INDIA PLATE is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere . Originally a part of the ancient continent of Gondwana , India
India
broke away from the other fragments of Gondwana 100 million years ago and began moving north. Once fused with the adjacent Australia to form a single Indo- Australian Plate , recent studies suggest that India
India
and Australia have been separate plates for at least 3 million years and likely longer. The Indian plate includes most of South Asia
South Asia
—i.e. the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
—and a portion of the basin under the Indian Ocean , including parts of South China and western Indonesia
Indonesia
, and extending up to but not including Ladakh
Ladakh
, Kohistan and Balochistan
Balochistan

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Zagros Mountains
The ZAGROS MOUNTAINS (Persian : رشته كوه زاگرس‎‎, Kurdish : زنجیره‌چیای زاگرۆس‎; _Çiyayên Zagrosê_, Luri : کو یه لی زاگروس, Syriac : ܛܘ̣ܪܵܢܹܐ ܕܙܵܓܪܘ̇ܣ‎, Arabic : جبال زغروس ‎‎ Aramaic : ܛܘܪ ܙܪܓܣ,) form the largest mountain range in Iran , Iraq and southeastern Turkey . This mountain range has a total length of 1,500 km (932 mi). The Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran and roughly corresponds to Iran's western border, and it spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau , ending at the Strait of Hormuz . The highest point in the Zagros Mountains is Dena
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Caspian Sea
The CASPIAN SEA is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world\'s largest lake or a full-fledged sea . It is in an endorheic basin (a basin without outflows) located between Europe and Asia . It is bounded by Kazakhstan to the northeast, Russia to the northwest, Azerbaijan to the west, Iran to the south, and Turkmenistan to the southeast. The Caspian Sea presently lies about 28 m (92 ft) below sea level in the Caspian Depression , to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the west of the vast steppe of Central Asia
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Kopet Dag
The KOPET DAG, KOPET DAGH, or KOPPEH DAGH (Persian : کپه‌داغ‎‎; Turkmen : Köpetdag), also known as the Turkmen-Khorasan Mountain Range is a mountain range on the frontier between Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and Iran
Iran
that extends about 650 kilometres (400 mi) along the border southeast of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
, stretching northwest-southeast from near the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the northwest to the Harirud River in the southeast. The highest peak of the range in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
is southwest of the capital Ashgabat and stands at 2,940 metres (9,646 ft). The highest Iranian summit is Mount Quchan (Kuh-e Quchan) with 3,191 metres (10,469 ft)
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Armenian Highlands
The ARMENIAN HIGHLANDS (Armenian : Հայկական լեռնաշխարհ, translit. Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as the ARMENIAN UPLAND, ARMENIAN PLATEAU, ARMENIAN TABLELAND, or simply ARMENIA) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East
Middle East
. To its west is the Anatolian plateau which rises slowly from the lowland coast of the Aegean Sea and converges with the Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands
to the east of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
. To its southeast is the Iranian plateau , where the elevation drops rapidly by about 600 metres (2,000 ft) to 1,500 metres (5,000 ft) above sea level. The Caucasus extends to the northeast of the Armenian Highlands. To the southwest of the Armenian Highlands is Upper Mesopotamia
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Caucasus Mountains
The CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS are a mountain system in West Asia
West Asia
between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region. The Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains include the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
in the north and Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus
in the south. The Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
runs west-northwest to east-southeast, from the Caucasian Natural Reserve in the vicinity of Sochi
Sochi
on the northeastern shore of the B