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Iran-Contra
The IRAN–CONTRA AFFAIR (Persian : ماجراي ایران-کنترا‎‎, Spanish : caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as IRANGATE, CONTRAGATE or the IRAN–CONTRA SCANDAL, was a political scandal in the United States
United States
that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration
Reagan Administration
. Senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran
Iran
, which was the subject of an arms embargo . They hoped, thereby, to fund the Contras
Contras
in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
while at the same time negotiating the release of several U.S. hostages . Under the Boland Amendment , further funding of the Contras
Contras
by the government had been prohibited by Congress
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Caspar Weinberger
CASPAR WILLARD "CAP" WEINBERGER (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006) was an American politician and businessman. As a prominent Republican, he served in a variety of state and federal positions for three decades, including Chairman of the California
California
Republican Party, 1962–68. Most notably he was Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
from 1981 to 1987. Weinberger was born in San Francisco, California
California
. He served in the 41st Infantry Division in the Pacific theater of World War II
World War II

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George Shultz
GEORGE PRATT SHULTZ (born December 13, 1920) is an American economist , statesman, and businessman. He served in various positions under three different Republican presidents. Along with Elliot Richardson , he is one of two individuals to serve in four different Cabinet positions. Born in New York City
New York City
, he graduated from Princeton University before serving in the United States Marine Corps during World War II
World War II
. After the war, Shultz earned a PhD in industrial economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He taught at MIT
MIT
from 1948 to 1957, taking a leave of absence to take a position on President Dwight D. Eisenhower 's Council of Economic Advisers
Council of Economic Advisers

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Ed Meese
EDWIN MEESE III (born December 2, 1931) is an American attorney, law professor, author and member of the Republican Party who served in official capacities within the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Gubernatorial Administration (1967–1974), the Reagan Presidential Transition Team (1980) and the Reagan White House (1981–1985), eventually rising to hold the position of the 75th Attorney General of the United States (1985–1988). He currently holds fellowships and chairmanships with several public policy councils and think-tanks, including the Constitution Project and the Heritage Foundation . He is also a Distinguished Visiting Fellow with the Hoover Institution at Stanford University . He currently sits on the National Advisory Board of Center for Urban Renewal and Education . He is on the board of directors of The Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies
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Donald Regan
DONALD THOMAS "DON" REGAN (December 21, 1918 – June 10, 2003) was the 66th United States Secretary of the Treasury
United States Secretary of the Treasury
from 1981 to 1985 and the White House Chief of Staff
White House Chief of Staff
from 1985 to 1987 in the Ronald Reagan Administration . He advocated " Reaganomics
Reaganomics
" and tax cuts to create jobs and stimulate production. Before serving in the Reagan administration, Regan served as chairman and CEO of Merrill Lynch
Merrill Lynch
from 1971 to 1980. He had worked at Merrill Lynch
Merrill Lynch
since 1946, and before this he had studied at Harvard University
Harvard University
and served in the United States Marine Corps , achieving the rank of lieutenant colonel
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Oval Office
The OVAL OFFICE is the official office of the President of the United States . It is located in the West Wing
West Wing
of the White House
White House
Complex. The room features three large south-facing windows behind the president's desk, and a fireplace at the north end. It has four doors: the east door opens to the Rose Garden ; the west door leads to a private study and dining room; the northwest door opens onto the main corridor of the West Wing
West Wing
; and the northeast door opens to the office of the president's secretary. Presidents generally decorate the office to suit their personal taste, choosing new furniture, new drapery, and designing their own oval-shaped carpet to take up most of the floor. Artwork is selected from the White House's own collection, or borrowed from museums for the president's term in office
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Ronald Reagan
40TH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES * Presidency * Timeline -------------------------POLICIES * Domestic * Reaganomics * Foreign * Reagan Doctrine * International trips APPOINTMENTS * Cabinet * Judicial appointments -------------------------FIRST TERM * Campaign for the Presidency * 1980 general election * Primaries * Convention * 1st inauguration * Assassination attempt * Invasion of Grenada *
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Robert McFarlane
ROBERT CARL "BUD" MCFARLANE (born July 12, 1937) is a retired Marine Corps officer who served as National Security Advisor to President of the United States
United States
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
from 1983 through 1985. After a career in the Marines, McFarlane became part of the Reagan administration and was a leading architect of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) for defending the United States
United States
against missile attack. Subsequently, he was involved in, and pleaded guilty to charges for actions related to, the Iran-Contra affair , but received a pardon from President George H.W. Bush
George H.W. Bush

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Hezbollah
HEZBOLLAH (pronounced /ˌhɛzbəˈlɑː/ ; Arabic : حزب الله‎‎ Ḥizbu 'llāh, literally "Party of Allah
Allah
" or "Party of God ")—also transliterated HIZBULLAH, HIZBALLAH, etc. —is a Shi\'a Islamist
Islamist
militant group and political party based in Lebanon
Lebanon
. Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council, and its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament . After the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah
Hassan Nasrallah
, its Secretary-General
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Contras
The CONTRAS were the various U.S. -backed and funded right-wing rebel groups that were active from 1979 to the early 1990s in opposition to the left-wing , democratic socialist Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction government in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
. Among the separate contra groups, the Nicaraguan Democratic Force (FDN) emerged as the largest by far. In 1987, virtually all contra organizations were united, at least nominally, into the Nicaraguan Resistance . From an early stage, the rebels received financial and military support from the United States
United States
government , and their military significance decisively depended on it. After US support was banned by Congress , the Reagan administration
Reagan administration
covertly continued it. These covert activities culminated in the Iran–Contra affair
Iran–Contra affair

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Oliver North
OLIVER LAURENCE NORTH (born October 7, 1943) is an American political commentator and television host, military historian, New York Times best-selling author, and former United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
Lieutenant Colonel . He was convicted in the Iran-Contra affair of the late 1980s but his convictions were vacated and reversed, and all charges against him dismissed in 1991. North is primarily remembered for his term as a National Security Council staff member during the Iran–Contra affair
Iran–Contra affair
, a political scandal of the late 1980s. The scandal involved the illegal sale of weapons to Iran
Iran
to encourage the release of U.S. hostages then held in Lebanon
Lebanon

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Manucher Ghorbanifar
MANUCHER GHORBANIFAR (Persian : منوچهر قربانیفر‎‎; nickname "Gorba")(born May 9, 1945 ) is an expatriate Iranian arms dealer . He is best known as a middleman in the Iran–Contra Affair during the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
presidency. He re-emerged in American politics during the lead-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq during the first term of President George W. Bush as a back-channel intelligence source to certain Pentagon officials who desired regime change in Iran . CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Iran–Contra Affair * 3 French– Lebanese hostage crisis * 4 War on terrorism * 5 References * 6 External links CAREERPrior to the 1979 Iranian Revolution Ghorbanifar was an agent of Iran's SAVAK intelligence service, and a partner in an Israeli-Iranian shipping company, Starline Iran, which shipped oil from Iran
Iran
to Israel
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John Poindexter
JOHN MARLAN POINDEXTER (born August 12, 1936) is a retired United States naval officer and Department of Defense official. He was Deputy National Security Advisor and National Security Advisor for the Reagan administration . He was convicted in April 1990 of multiple felonies as a result of his actions in the Iran–Contra affair , but his convictions were reversed on appeal in 1991. More recently, he served a brief stint as the director of the DARPA Information Awareness Office for the George W. Bush administration
George W. Bush administration
. He is the father of NASA
NASA
astronaut and U.S. Navy Captain Alan G. Poindexter
Alan G. Poindexter
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and career * 2 Senior naval career * 3 U.S
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Manuel Antonio Noriega
MANUEL ANTONIO NORIEGA MORENO (Spanish pronunciation: ; February 11, 1934 – May 29, 2017) was a Panamanian politician and military officer, and longtime CIA informant. He was military dictator of Panama
Panama
from 1983 to 1989, when he was removed from power by the United States invasion of Panama
Panama
. Born in Panama City
Panama City
, Noriega
Noriega
studied at a military school in Lima and at the School of the Americas . He became an officer in the Panamanian army, and rose through the ranks in alliance with Omar Torrijos , becoming chief of military intelligence after Torrijos led a coup in 1968. After Torrijos' death in 1981, Noriega
Noriega
consolidated his power until he became the de facto ruler of Panama
Panama
in 1983. From the 1950s until shortly before the U.S. invasion, Noriega
Noriega
worked closely with the U.S. CIA
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Persian Language
PERSIAN (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/ ), also known by its endonym FARSI (فارسی _fārsi_ ( listen )), is one of the Western Iranian languageswithin the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family . It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan(officially known as DARI since 1958), and Tajikistan (officially known as TAJIKI since the Soviet era), and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script. The Persian languageis classified as a continuation of Middle Persian , the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire , itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenid Empire. Its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages
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Spanish Language
(see many more ) REGULATED BY Association of Spanish Language Academies ( Real Academia Española and 22 other national Spanish language academies) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 es ISO 639-2 spa