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Iran-Contra
The Iran–Contra affair
Iran–Contra affair
(Persian: ماجرای ایران-کنترا‎, Spanish: caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate,[1] Contragate[2] or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States
United States
that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration. Senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, which was the subject of an arms embargo.[3] They hoped, thereby, to fund the Contras
Contras
in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
while at the same time negotiating the release of several U.S. hostages
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Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
/ʃɪˈmoʊn ˈpɛrɪs/;[1] (Hebrew: שמעון פרס‎,  listen (help·info); born Szymon Perski; August 2, 1923 – September 28, 2016) was an Israeli politician who served both as ninth President of Israel
President of Israel
(2007–2014), and twice Prime Minister of Israel, as well as Interim Prime Minister, in the 1970s to the 1990s. He was a member of twelve cabinets and represented five political parties in a political career spanning 70 years.[2] Peres was elected to the Knesset
Knesset
in November 1959 and, except for a three-month-long hiatus in early 2006, was in office continuously until he was elected President in 2007
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United States Secretary Of Defense
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.[5][6][7] The Secretary of Defense's power and authority over the United States' military is second only to that of the President and Congress.[8] This position corresponds to what is generally known as a Defense Minister in many other countries.[9] The Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council.[10] Secretary of Defense is a statutory office, and the general provision in 10 U.S.C. § 113 provides that the Secretary of Defense has "authority, direction and control over th
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Lebanon
Coordinates: 33°50′N 35°50′E / 33.833°N 35.833°E / 33.833; 35.833Lebanese Republic الجمهورية اللبنانية (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah al-LubnānīyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: كلّنا للوطن Kulluna lil-watan All Of Us, For the Country!Capital and largest city Beirut 33°54′N 35°32′E / 33.900°N 35.533°E / 33.900; 35.533Official languages Arabic[nb 1]Recognised languages FrenchDemonym LebaneseGovernment Unitary parliamentary multi-confessionalist republic[1]• PresidentMichel Aoun[2]• Prime MinisterSaad Hariri• Speaker of the ParliamentNabih BerriLegislature ParliamentEstablishment• Greater Lebanon1 September 1920• Constitution23 May 1926• Independence declared22 November 1943• Independence (Joined U
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Israel
Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35State of Israelמְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew) دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic)FlagEmblemAnthem: "Hatikvah" (Hebrew for "The Hope")(pre-) 1967 border (Green Line)Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition)[fn 1] 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217Official languagesHebrew ArabicEthnic groups (2017)74.7% Jewish 20.8% Arab 4.5% other[5]Religion (2016
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United States National Security Council
The White House
White House
National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States
President of the United States
for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the executive office of the president of the United States. Since its inception under Harry S. Truman, the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the president on national security and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the president's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies
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Socialist
Socialism
Socialism
is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production[10] as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.[11] Social ownership
Social ownership
may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity.[12] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them,[13] though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms.[5][14][15] Socialist
Socialist
economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms.[16] Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money, with engineering and technical criteria, based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism
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BGM-71 TOW
The BGM-71 TOW
BGM-71 TOW
("Tube-launched, Optically tracked, Wire-guided")[7] is an American anti-tank missile. TOW replaced much smaller missiles like the SS.10
SS.10
and ENTAC, offering roughly twice the effective range, a more powerful warhead, and a greatly improved semi-automatic guidance system that could also be equipped with infrared cameras for night time use. First produced in 1970, the TOW is one of the most widely used anti-tank guided missiles.[8] It can be found in a wide variety of manually carried and vehicle mounted forms, as well as widespread use on helicopters
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U.S. Congress
535 voting members100 senators 435 representatives6 non-voting membersSenate political groups     Republican (51)      Democratic (47)      Independent (2) (caucusing with Democrats)House of Representatives political groups     Republican (238)      Democratic (193)      Vacant (4)ElectionsSenate last electionNovember 8, 2016House of Representatives last electionNovember 8, 2016Meeting place United States
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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
(Persian: محمدرضا پهلوی‎, translit. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, pronounced [mohæmˈmæd reˈzɒː ˈʃɒːh pæhlæˈviː]; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980),[3] known as Mohammad Reza Shah
Reza Shah
(Persian: محمدرضا شاه‎, translit. Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah
Shah
of Iran
Iran
from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah
Reza Shah
took the title Shahanshah ("King of Kings")[4] on 26 October 1967. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Shah
Reza Shah
Pahlavi held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr
Aryamehr
("Light of the Aryans") and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief")
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Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
(/ˌnɪkəˈrɑːɡwə, -ˈræɡ-, -ɡjuə/ ( listen); Spanish: [nikaˈɾaɣwa]), officially the Republic of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
(Spanish:  República de Nicaragua (help·info)), is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras
Honduras
to the north, the Caribbean
Caribbean
to the east, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Managua
Managua
is the country's capital and largest city and is also the third-largest city in Central America, behind Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa
and Guatemala
Guatemala
City. The multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, European, African, and Asian heritage. The main language is Spanish
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History Of The Islamic Republic Of Iran
One of the most dramatic changes in government in Iran's history was seen with the 1979 Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
where Shah
Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown and replaced by Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini. Patriotic monarchy was replaced by an Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
based on the principle of rule by Islamic jurists, (or "Velayat-e faqih"), where clerics serve as head of state and in many powerful governmental roles
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Jimmy Carter
Governor of Georgia1970 Georgia gubernatorial campaign1972 presidential campaignConvention1976 Presidential Race1976 presidential campaignElectionPresident of the United StatesPresidencyTimelineInaugurationCamp David AccordsEgypt- Israel
Israel
Peace TreatyTorrijos-Carter Treaties Iran
Iran
Hostage CrisisOperation Eagle ClawMoral Equivalent of War speech 1979 Energy Crisis Carter Doctrine Diplomatic Relations with ChinaAppointmentsCabinet JudiciaryPost-PresidencyPresidential Library Activities Carter Center One America Appealv t eJames Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States
President of the United States
from 1977 to 1981
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Soviet Sphere Of Influence
The informal term "Soviet Empire" is used by critics of the Soviet Union and Russian nationalists[1] to refer to that country's perceived imperialist foreign policy during the Cold War. The nations said to be part of the "Soviet Empire" were officially independent countries with separate governments that set their own policies (to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the country), but those policies had to remain within certain limits decided by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and enforced by threat of intervention by the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
( Hungary
Hungary
1956, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
1968, Poland
Poland
1980)
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Operation Staunch
Operation Staunch was created in spring 1983 by the United States State Department
State Department
to stop the flow of U.S. arms to Iran. Background[edit] The Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979 and the hostage crisis in Tehran
Tehran
frustrated American policy makers whose response came as an embargo on the new government of Iran. On January 20, 1981, the day Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
was inaugurated, the hostages in Tehran
Tehran
were released. In turn, the embargo was relaxed, but relations with Iran
Iran
did not improve diplomatically. In fact, the newly elected Reagan refused to sell arms directly to Iran. Even so, arms manufactured in the US that were sold to foreign nations continued to find their way to the Iranian military arsenal
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William Casey
William Joseph "Bill" Casey (March 13, 1913 – May 6, 1987) was the Director of Central Intelligence
Director of Central Intelligence
from 1981 to 1987. In this capacity he oversaw the entire United States
United States
Intelligence Community and personally directed the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA).Contents1 Life and career1.1 Director of Central Intelligence1.1.1 Iran–Contra affair2 Personal life 3 Death 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksLife and career[edit] A native of Elmhurst, Queens, New York, Casey graduated from Fordham University in 1934. He did graduate work at the Catholic University of America before earning an LL.B.
LL.B.
from St. John's University School of Law in 1937
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