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Irama
"Irama" is the term used for tempo in gamelan. It can be used with elaborating instruments. It is a concept used in Javanese gamelan music,[2] describing melodic tempo and relationships in density between the balungan, elaborating instruments, and gong structure.[3] It is distinct from tempo (Javanese: Laya), as each Irama
Irama
can be played in different tempi.[4][5] Irama
Irama
thus combines "the rate of temporal flow and temporal density"; and the temporal density is the primary factor.[6] One way to think of Irama
Irama
is to use the most consistently struck instrument in the gamelan, the saron panerus (or peking). In some pieces, it plays once per note in the balungan (such as played by the saron barung). In others, it may play twice as often, or four times, as the notes of the balungan are more spread out. This corresponds to a slower Irama
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Tempo
In musical terminology, tempo [ˈtɛmpo] ("time" in Italian; plural: tempi [ˈtɛmpi]) is the speed or pace of a given piece. In classical music, tempo is usually indicated with an instruction at the start of a piece (often using conventional Italian terms). Tempo is usually measured in beats per minute (BPM). In modern classical compositions a "metronome mark" in beats per minute may supplement or replace the normal tempo marking, while in modern genres like electronic dance music, tempo will typically simply be stated in BPM. Tempo
Tempo
may be separated from articulation and metre, or these aspects may be indicated along with tempo, all contributing to the overall texture. While the ability to hold a steady tempo is a vital skill for a musical performer, tempo is changeable. Depending on the genre of a piece of music and the performers' interpretation, a piece may be played with slight tempo rubato or drastic accelerando
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Java
Java
Java
(Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese: ᮏᮝ) is an island of Indonesia, bordered by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south and the Java Sea
Java Sea
on the north. With a population of over 141 million (Java only) or 145 million (including the inhabitants of its surrounding islands), Java
Java
is the home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the world's most populous island.[1] The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on its northwestern coast. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the centre of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java
Java
was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s
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Melody
A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"),[1] also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm, while more figuratively, the term can include successions of other musical elements such as tonal color. It may be considered the foreground to the background accompaniment. A line or part need not be a foreground melody. Melodies often consist of one or more musical phrases or motifs, and are usually repeated throughout a composition in various forms. Melodies may also be described by their melodic motion or the pitches or the intervals between pitches (predominantly conjunct or disjunct or with further restrictions), pitch range, tension and release, continuity and coherence, cadence, and shape.The true goal of music—its proper enterprise—is melody
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Javanese Language
Javanese (/dʒɑːvəˈniːz/;[3] ꦧꦱꦗꦮ, basa Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [bɔsɔ dʒɔwɔ]; colloquially known as ꦕꦫꦗꦮ, cara Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [t͡ʃɔrɔ dʒɔwɔ]) is the language of the Javanese people
Javanese people
from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia. There are also pockets of Javanese speakers on the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 98 million people[4] (more than 42% of the total population of Indonesia). Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages, but it is not particularly close to other languages and is difficult to classify. Its closest relatives are the neighbouring languages such as Sundanese, Madurese and Balinese
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Gamelan Siteran
Gamelan
Gamelan
siteran is a casual style of gamelan in Java, Indonesia, featuring portable, inexpensive instruments instead of the heavy bronze metallophones of a typical gamelan. A typical group consists of varieties of siter (small zither, which leads to the name), kendang (drum), and a large end-blown bamboo tube or a gong kemodhong, functioning as a gong ageng. A full group has a celempung, siter, siter panerus, siter slenthem, kendhang ciblon, and gong kemodhong.[1] It is typically accompanied by singing as well. The instruments are often homemade, something which is impossible with the more characteristic gamelan instruments. Performances are usually of pieces from the standard Javanese gamelan repertoire.References[edit]^ Sumarsam. Introduction to Javanese Gamelan
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Gamelan Gong Kebyar
Gamelan
Gamelan
gong kebyar is a style or genre of Balinese gamelan music
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Gamelan Jegog
Jegog is a form of gamelan music indigenous to Bali, Indonesia, played on instruments made of bamboo. The tradition of jegog is centered in Jembrana, a region in Western Bali. In recent years jegog has started to become popular in other regions of Bali
Bali
with a few groups being established in central Bali
Bali
to entertain tourists. International interest has been spread by tourists visiting Bali
Bali
and by recordings. There are virtually no ensembles outside of Bali
Bali
with the exception of at least two groups in Japan
Japan
(Sekar Sakura and Geinoh Yamashirogumi, the latter's having been used in 4 of the tracks in their score for the film Akira as well as on the final track of Ecophony Rinne ), one in the United States
United States
(Sekar Jaya)[1] and one in Germany. Jegog music is very fast, loud, rhythmic and precise
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Gamelan Joged Bumbung
Joged bumbung is a style of gamelan music from Bali, Indonesia
Indonesia
on instruments made primarily out of bamboo. The ensemble gets its name from joged, a flirtatious dance often performed at festivals and parties. This style of Gamelan
Gamelan
is especially popular in Northern and Western Bali, but is easily found all over the island. Unlike many styles of Balinese Gamelan
Gamelan
which have sacred roles in religious festivals, Joged music is much more secular, and in many ways has become the folk music of Bali. With the rapid rise of tourism in recent decades, Joged music is now often found being performed at hotels and restaurants. The bamboo instruments of the Joged, called Grantang or more commonly Tingklik, are marimba-like instruments made out of bamboo
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Munggang
Gamelan
Gamelan
Munggang
Munggang
are considered among the most ancient gamelans of the kraton (courts) of central Java. The ensemble of instruments consists of gong ageng, kempul, kendang and horizontal gong chimes tuned to three pitches
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Gamelan Salendro
The gamelan salendro is a form of gamelan music found in West Java, Indonesia. It is played as an accompaniment to wayang golek (rod puppet) performances and dances. It uses a similar ensemble as a small central Javanese gamelan, but has developed differently, and shows the more exuberant character.[1] References[edit]^ Broughton, Simon, et al., eds. World Music: The Rough Guide. London: The Rough Guides, 1994
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Gamelan Sekaten
The Gamelan
Gamelan
Sekaten
Sekaten
(or Sekati) is a ceremonial gamelan (musical ensemble) from central Java, Indonesia, played during the annual Sekaten
Sekaten
festival. The word "sekaten" itself is derived from syahadatain or shahada, the first requirement for converting into Islamic faith. Traditionally it is played once per year, on the occasion of Mawlid, Muhammad's birthday, for the week from the 6-12 of the month of Mulud (the third month of the Javanese calendar, corresponding to the Islamic Rabi' al-awwal). On this celebration it is brought from the palace at 11 pm to two pavilions before the Great Mosque. It is played every day during that week except the Thursday night/Friday morning. On the eve of the birthday proper, it is returned at 11 pm.[1] The ensemble is said to have been created by Java's first Muslim prince,[2] or one of the Wali Sanga, in order to convert reluctant Javanese to the Islamic faith
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Gamelan Selunding
Gamelan
Gamelan
selunding (also spelled selonding) is a sacred ensemble of gamelan music from Bali. The selunding ensemble is from Tenganan, a village in east Bali; the ensemble is rare. Selunding means "great" or "large." Selonding is also a musical instrument made of iron.[1] See also[edit]GamelanReferences[edit]^ Broughton, Simon, et al., eds. World Music: The Rough Guide. London: The Rough Guides, 1994. ISBN 1-85828-017-6
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Gamelan Semar Pegulingan
Gamelan
Gamelan
semar pegulingan is an old variety of the Balinese gamelan. Dating back from around the 17th century, the style is sweeter and more reserved than the more popular and progressive Gamelan
Gamelan
Gong Kebyar. Semar pegulingan is derived from the ancient flute ensemble gamelan gambuh which utilizes a 7 tone scale. Semar pegulingan also uses the 7 tone scale which enables several pathet (similar to modes or scales) to be played. Semar is the name of the Hindu God of love and pegulingan means roughly 'laying down'. It was originally played near the sleeping chambers of the palace to lull the king and his concubines to sleep. The ensemble includes suling, various small percussion instruments similar to sleigh bells and finger cymbals, and trompong - a row of small kettle gongs that play the melody
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