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Ion-exchange Chromatography
Ion
Ion
chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion exchanger. It works on almost any kind of charged molecule—including large proteins, small nucleotides, and amino acids. The two types of ion chromatography are anion-exchange and cation-exchange. It is often used in protein purification, water analysis,[1][2] and quality control. The water-soluble and charged molecules such as proteins, amino acids, and peptides bind to moieties which are oppositely charged by forming ionic bonds to the insoluble stationary phase.[3] The equilibrated stationary phase consists of an ionizable functional group where the targeted molecules of a mixture to be separated and quantified can bind while passing through the column—a cationic stationary phase is used to separate anions and an anionic stationary phase is used to separate cations
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Chromatography
Chromatography
Chromatography
is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the mobile phase, which carries it through a structure holding another material called the stationary phase. The various constituents of the mixture travel at different speeds, causing them to separate. The separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases. Subtle differences in a compound's partition coefficient result in differential retention on the stationary phase and thus affect the separation.[1] Chromatography
Chromatography
may be preparative or analytical. The purpose of preparative chromatography is to separate the components of a mixture for later use, and is thus a form of purification. Analytical chromatography is done normally with smaller amounts of material and is for establishing the presence or measuring the relative proportions of analytes in a mixture
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Amperometry
Amperometry in chemistry is detection of ions in a solution based on electric current or changes in electric current. Amperometry is used in electrophysiology to study vesicle release events using a carbon fiber electrode. Unlike patch clamp techniques, the electrode used for amperometry is not inserted into or attached to the cell, but brought in close proximity of the cell. The measurements from the electrode originate from an oxidizing reaction of a vesicle cargo released into the medium. Another technique used to measure vesicle release is capacitive measurements.Contents1 History 2 Detection methods 3 Principle 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Electrochemical or amperometric detection as it was first used in ion chromatography was single-potential or DC amperometry, useful for certain electrochemically active ions such as cyanide, sulfite, and iodide
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Gas Chromatography
Gas
Gas
chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined). In some situations, GC may help in identifying a compound. In preparative chromatography, GC can be used to prepare pure compounds from a mixture.[1][2] In gas chromatography, the mobile phase (or "moving phase") is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen
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Protein Purification
Protein
Protein
purification is a series of processes intended to isolate one or a few proteins from a complex mixture, usually cells, tissues or whole organisms. Protein
Protein
purification is vital for the characterization of the function, structure and interactions of the protein of interest. The purification process may separate the protein and non-protein parts of the mixture, and finally separate the desired protein from all other proteins
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Chromatofocusing
Chromatofocusing is a protein-separation technique that allows resolution of single proteins and other ampholytes from a complex mixture according to differences in their isoelectric point. Chromatofocusing utilizes ion exchange resins and is typically performed on fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) or similar equipment capable of producing continuous buffer gradients though this is not a requirement. In contrast to typical ion exchange chromatography, where bound molecules are eluted from the resin by increasing the ionic strength of the buffer environment, chromatofocusing elutes bound species by altering the pH of the buffer. This changes the net surface charge of bound molecules, altering their avidity for the resin
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Gibbs–Donnan Effect
The Gibbs–Donnan effect
Gibbs–Donnan effect
(also known as the Donnan's effect, Donnan law, Donnan equilibrium, or Gibbs–Donnan equilibrium) is a name for the behaviour of charged particles near a semi-permeable membrane that sometimes fail to distribute evenly across the two sides of the membrane.[1] The usual cause is the presence of a different charged substance that is unable to pass through the membrane and thus creates an uneven electrical charge.[2] For example, the large anionic proteins in blood plasma are not permeable to capillary walls
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Porphyrin
Porphyrins (/phɔɹfɚɪn/ POUR-fer-in) are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (=CH−). The parent porphyrin is porphine, a rare chemical compound of exclusively theoretical interest. Substituted porphines are called porphyrins. With a total of 26 π-electrons, of which 18 π-electrons form a planar, continuous cycle, the porphyrin ring structure is often described as aromatic.[1][2] One result of the large conjugated system is that porphyrins typically absorb strongly in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. they are deeply colored. The name "porphyrin" derives from the Greek word πορφύρα (porphyra), meaning purple.[3] Metal complexes derived from porphyrins occur naturally
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Water Purification
Water purification
Water purification
is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human consumption (drinking water), but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including fulfilling the requirements of medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications
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Electroplating
Electroplating
Electroplating
is a process that uses electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode. The term is also used for electrical oxidation of anions on to a solid substrate, as in the formation of silver chloride on silver wire to make silver/silver-chloride electrodes. Electroplating
Electroplating
is primarily used to change the surface properties of an object (such as abrasion and wear resistance, corrosion protection, lubricity, aesthetic qualities), but may also be used to build up thickness on undersized parts or to form objects by electroforming. The process used in electroplating is called electrodeposition. It is analogous to a concentration cell acting in reverse. The part to be plated is the cathode of the circuit. In one technique, the anode is made of the metal to be plated on the part
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Hull Cell
Electroplating
Electroplating
is a process that uses electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode. The term is also used for electrical oxidation of anions on to a solid substrate, as in the formation of silver chloride on silver wire to make silver/silver-chloride electrodes. Electroplating
Electroplating
is primarily used to change the surface properties of an object (such as abrasion and wear resistance, corrosion protection, lubricity, aesthetic qualities), but may also be used to build up thickness on undersized parts or to form objects by electroforming. The process used in electroplating is called electrodeposition. It is analogous to a concentration cell acting in reverse. The part to be plated is the cathode of the circuit. In one technique, the anode is made of the metal to be plated on the part
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United States Pharmacopeia
The United States
United States
Pharmacopeia
Pharmacopeia
(USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States
United States
published annually by the United States
United States
Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright. The USP is published in a combined volume with the National Formulary (a formulary) as the USP-NF.[2] If a drug ingredient or drug product has an applicable USP quality standard (in the form of a USP-NF monograph), it must conform in order to use the designation "USP" or "NF." Drugs subject to USP standards include both human drugs (prescription, over-the-counter, or otherwise), as well as animal drugs. USP-NF standards also have a role in U.S
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Isoelectric Point
The isoelectric point (pI, pH(I), IEP), is the pH at which a particular molecule carries no net electrical charge in the statistical mean. The standard nomenclature to represent the isoelectric point is pH(I),[1] although pI is also commonly seen,[2] and is used in this article for brevity. The net charge on the molecule is affected by pH of its surrounding environment and can become more positively or negatively charged due to the gain or loss, respectively, of protons (H+). Surfaces naturally charge to form a double layer. In the common case when the surface charge-determining ions are H+/OH−, the net surface charge is affected by the pH of the liquid in which the solid is submerged. The pI value can affect the solubility of a molecule at a given pH. Such molecules have minimum solubility in water or salt solutions at the pH that corresponds to their pI and often precipitate out of solution
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Conductivity (electrolytic)
Conductivity (or specific conductance) of an electrolyte solution is a measure of its ability to conduct electricity. The SI unit of conductivity is siemens per meter (S/m). Conductivity measurements are used in routinely in many industrial and environmental applications as a fast, inexpensive and reliable way of measuring the ionic content in a solution.[1] For example, the measurement of product conductivity is a typical way to monitor and continuously trend the performance of water purification systems.Electrolytic conductivity of ultra-high purity water as a function of temperature.In many cases, conductivity is linked directly to the total dissolved solids (T.D.S.)
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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