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Ion (dialogue)
In Plato's Ion (/ˈaɪɒn/; Greek: Ἴων) Socrates
Socrates
discusses with the titular character, a professional rhapsode who also lectures on Homer, the question of whether the rhapsode, a performer of poetry, gives his performance on account of his skill and knowledge or by virtue of divine possession. It is one of the shortest of Plato's dialogues.[1]Contents1 Dialogue summary1.1 Ion's skill: Is it genuine? (530a–533c) 1.2 The nature of poetic inspiration (533d–536d) 1.3 Ion's choice: To be skilled or inspired (536e–542a)2 Commentary 3 See also 4 Notes 5 External linksDialogue summary[edit] Ion's skill: Is it genuine? (530a–533c)[edit] Ion has just come from a festival of Asclepius
Asclepius
at the city of Epidaurus, after having won first prize in the competition. Socrates engages Ion in a philosophical discussion
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Republic (Plato)
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Plato's Tripartite Theory Of Soul
Plato's tripartite theory of soul
Plato's tripartite theory of soul
is a theory of psyche proposed by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato
Plato
in his treatise the Republic, and also with the chariot allegory in Phaedrus. In Republic, Plato asserted that the ψυχή (psyche) is composed of three parts; the λογιστικόν (logistykon, logical), the θυμοειδές (thymoeides, spirited) and the ἐπιθυμητικόν (epithymetikon, appetitive). These three parts of the ψυχή also correspond to the three classes of a society.[1] Whether in a city or an individual, δικαιοσύνη (dikaiosyne, justice) is declared to be the state of the whole in which each part fulfills its function without attempting to interfere in the functions of others.[2] The function of the ἐπιθυμητικόν is to produce and seek pleasure. The function of the λογιστικός is to gently rule through the love of learning
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The School Of Athens
The School of Athens
The School of Athens
(Italian: Scuola di Atene) is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
artist Raphael. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace
Apostolic Palace
in the Vatican
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Raphael
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino[2] (Italian: [raffaˈɛllo ˈsantsjo da urˈbiːno]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520),[3] known as Raphael
Raphael
(/ˈræfeɪəl/, US: /ˈræfiəl, ˌrɑːfaɪˈɛl/), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.[4] Together with Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[5] Raphael
Raphael
was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career
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Plato's Five Regimes
The Classical Greek philosopher Plato
Plato
discusses five types of regimes (Republic, Book VIII). They are Aristocracy, Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy, and Tyranny. Plato
Plato
also assigns a man to each of these regimes to illustrate what they stand for. The tyrannical man would represent Tyranny, for example. These five regimes progressively degenerate starting with Aristocracy at the top and Tyranny
Tyranny
at the bottom.Contents1 Aristocracy 2 Timocracy 3 Oligarchy 4 Democracy 5 Tyranny 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesAristocracy[edit] Aristocracy is the form of government (politeia) advocated in Plato's Republic. This regime is ruled by a philosopher king, and thus is grounded on wisdom and reason
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Plato's Political Philosophy
Plato's political philosophy
Plato's political philosophy
has been the subject of much criticism. In Plato's Republic, Socrates is highly critical of democracy and proposes an aristocracy ruled by philosopher-kings. Plato's political philosophy has thus often been considered totalitarian.[1]Contents1 Critique of democracy1.1 Ship of State2 The ideal form of governance2.1 Classes in ideal society 2.2 Philosopher-kings/Guardians3 Criticism 4 References 5 External linksCritique of democracy[edit] See also: Anti-democratic thought In the Republic, Plato's Socrates raises a number of objections to democracy. He claims that democracy is a danger due to excessive freedom. He also argues that in a system in which everyone has a right to rule, all sorts of selfish people who care nothing for the people but are only motivated by their own personal desires are able to attain power
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Third Man Argument
The third man argument (commonly referred to as TMA; Greek: τρίτος ἄνθρωπος), first offered by Plato
Plato
in his dialogue Parmenides (132a–b), is a philosophical criticism of Plato's own theory of Forms
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Transcendentals
The transcendentals (Latin: transcendentalia) are the properties of being that correspond to three aspects of the human field of interest and are their ideals; science (truth), the arts (beauty) and religion (goodness).[citation needed] Philosophical disciplines that study them are logic, aesthetics and ethics.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 Bibliography 5 External linksHistory[edit] See also: Proto-Indo-European religion, Asha, and Satya Parmenides
Parmenides
first inquired of the properties co-extensive with being.[1] Socrates, spoken through Plato, then followed (see Form of the Good). Aristotle's substanc
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Philosopher King
According to Plato, a philosopher king is a ruler who possesses both a love of knowledge, as well as intelligence, reliability, and a willingness to live a simple life. Such are the rulers of his utopian city Kallipolis
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Theory Of Forms
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas[1][2][3] is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.[4] When used in this sense, the word form or idea is often capitalized.[5] Plato
Plato
speaks of these entities only through the characters (primarily Socrates) of his dialogues who sometimes suggest that these Forms are the only objects of study that can provide knowledge; thus even apart from the very controversial status of the theory, Plato's own views are much in doubt.[6] However, the theory is considered a classical solution to the problem of universals. The early Greek concept of form precedes attested philosophical usage and is represented by a number of words mainly having to do with vision, sight, and appearance
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Plato's Unwritten Doctrines
Plato's so-called unwritten doctrines are metaphysical theories ascribed to him by his students and other ancient philosophers but not clearly formulated in his writings. In recent research, they are sometimes known as Plato's 'principle theory' (German: Prinzipienlehre) because they involve two fundamental principles from which the rest of the system derives. Plato
Plato
is thought to have orally expounded these doctrines to Aristotle
Aristotle
and the other students in the Academy and they were afterwards transmitted to later generations. The credibility of the sources that ascribe these doctrines to Plato is controversial. They indicate that Plato
Plato
believed certain parts of his teachings were not suitable for open publication. Since these doctrines could not be explained in writing in a way that would be accessible to general readers, their dissemination would lead to misunderstandings
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Platonic Realism
Platonic realism
Platonic realism
is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals or abstract objects after the Greek philosopher Plato
Plato
(c. 427–c. 347 BC), a student of Socrates. As universals were considered by Plato
Plato
to be ideal forms, this stance is ambiguously also called Platonic idealism. This should not be confused with idealism as presented by philosophers such as George Berkeley: as Platonic abstractions are not spatial, temporal, or mental, they are not compatible with the later idealism's emphasis on mental existence
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Platonic Idealism
Platonic idealism
Platonic idealism
usually refers to Plato's theory of forms or doctrine of ideas.Contents1 Overview 2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] Some commentators hold that Plato
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Platonic Epistemology
Plato's epistemology holds that knowledge of Platonic Ideas is innate, so that learning is the development of ideas buried deep in the soul, often under the midwife-like guidance of an interrogator. In several dialogues by Plato, the character Socrates
Socrates
presents the view that each soul existed before birth with the Form of the Good
Form of the Good
and a perfect knowledge of Ideas. Thus, when an Idea is "learned" it is actually just "recalled".[1] Plato
Plato
drew a sharp distinction between knowledge, which is certain, and mere true opinion, which is not certain. Opinions derive from the shifting world of sensation; knowledge derives from the world of timeless Forms, or essences
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Platonism
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato
Plato
or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it. In narrower usage, platonism, rendered as a common noun, refers to the philosophy that affirms the existence of abstract objects, which are asserted to "exist" in a "third realm" distinct both from the sensible external world and from the internal world of consciousness, and is the opposite of nominalism.[1] Lower case "platonists" need not accept any of the doctrines of Plato.[1] In a narrower sense, the term might indicate the doctrine of Platonic realism. The central concept of Platonism, a distinction essential to the Theory of Forms, is the distinction between the reality which is perceptible but unintelligible, and the reality which is imperceptible but intelligible
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