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Investor
An investor is a person that allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return.[1] Types of investments include: equity, debt securities, real estate, currency, commodity, token, derivatives such as put and call options, futures, forwards, etc. This definition makes no distinction between those in the primary and secondary markets. That is, someone who provides a business with capital and someone who buys a stock are both investors
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Modern Monetary Theory
Modern Monetary Theory (MMT or Modern Money
Money
Theory, also known as Neo-Chartalism) is a macroeconomic theory that describes and analyses modern economies in which the national currency is fiat money, established and created by the government. The key insight of MMT is that governments that are the sole supplier of national currency can issue currency of any denomination, and in physical or non-physical forms. Consequently, the government has an unlimited ability to pay for the things it wishes to purchase and to fulfill promised future payments. The government also has an unlimited ability to provide funds to other sectors. Because of this, it is not possible for a government that issues its own currency to be bankrupt.[1] In sovereign financial systems, banks can create money but these "horizontal" transactions do not increase net financial assets as assets are offset by liabilities
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Nordic Model
The Nordic model
Nordic model
(also called Nordic capitalism[1] or Nordic social democracy)[2][3] refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
(Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Sweden). This includes a combination of free market capitalism with a comprehensive welfare state and collective bargaining at the national level with a high percentage of workers belonging to a labour union;[4] and state provision of free education and free healthcare as well as generous, guaranteed pension payments for retirees funded by taxation.[5][6] The Nordic model
Nordic model
began to earn attention after World War II.[7][8] Although there are significant differences among the Nordic countries, they all share some common traits
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Private Property
Private property
Private property
is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.[1] Private property
Private property
is distinguishable from public property, which is owned by a state entity; and from collective (or cooperative) property, which is owned by a group of non-governmental entities.[2][3] Private property
Private property
can be either personal property (consumption goods) or capital goods. Private property is a legal concept defined and enforced by a country's political system.[4]Contents1 History 2 Economics 3 Criticism 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]Gate with a private property sign.Prior to the 18th century, English-speakers generally used the word "property" in reference to land ownership
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Rent Seeking
In economics and in public-choice theory, rent-seeking involves seeking to increase one's share of existing wealth without creating new wealth. Rent-seeking results in reduced economic efficiency through poor allocation of resources, reduced actual wealth-creation, lost government revenue, increased income inequality,[1] and (potentially) national decline. Attempts at capture of regulatory agencies to gain a coercive monopoly can result in advantages for the rent seeker in a market while imposing disadvantages on (incorrupt) competitors
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Surplus Value
Surplus value
Surplus value
is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy. "Surplus value" is a translation of the German word "Mehrwert", which simply means value added (sales revenue less the cost of materials used up). Conventionally, value-added is equal to the sum of gross wage income and gross profit income. However, Marx uses the term Mehrwert to describe the yield, profit or return on production capital invested, i.e. the amount of the increase in the value of capital
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Anglo-Saxon Model
The Anglo-Saxon model or Anglo-Saxon capitalism (so called because it is practiced in English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Australia[1] and Ireland[2]) is a capitalist model that emerged in the 1970s, based on the Chicago school of economics. However, its origins date to the 18th century in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
under the ideas of the classical economist Adam Smith. Characteristics of this model include low levels of regulation and taxes, and the public sector providing very few services
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Mercantilism
Mercantilism
Mercantilism
is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver.[citation needed] Mercantilism
Mercantilism
was dominant in modernized parts of Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries[1] before falling into decline, although some commentators argue[2] that it is still practised in the economies of industrializing countries in the form of neomercantilism. It promotes governmental regulation of a nation's economy for the purpose of augmenting state power at the expense of rival national powers. Mercantilism
Mercantilism
includes a national economic policy aimed at accumulating monetary reserves through a positive balance of trade, especially of finished goods
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Mixed Economy
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.[1] There is not only one definition of a mixed economy,[2] but two major definitions are recognized. The first of these definitions is a mixture of markets with state interventionism, referring to capitalist market economies with strong regulatory oversight, interventionist policies and governmental provision of public services. The second definition is apolitical in nature and strictly refers to an economy containing a mixture of private enterprise with public enterprise.[3] In most cases and particularly with reference to Western economies, a mixed economy refers to a capitalist economy characterized by the predominance of private ownership of the means of production with profit-seeking enterprise and the accumulation of capital as its fundamental driving force
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Regulated Market
A regulated market (RM) or controlled market is an idealized system where the government controls the forces of supply and demand, such as who is allowed to enter the market and/or what prices may be charged.[1] It is common for some markets to be regulated under the claim that they are natural monopolies. For example, telecommunications, water, gas or electricity supply. Often, regulated markets are established during the partial privatisation of government controlled utility assets
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Liberalization
Liberalization (or liberalisation) is a general term for any process whereby a state lifts restrictions on some private individual activities. Liberalization occurs when something which used to be banned is no longer banned, or when government regulations are relaxed. Liberalisation means the removal of rules and regulations at various levels of the economy. It prefers free and competitive market and reduce the role of the state in economic affairs. It refers free trade and the removal of government control over economy, for example external trade, foreign investment, loans and aid, technological progress, etc
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State-sponsored Capitalism
The East Asian model (sometimes known as state-sponsored capitalism [1]) is an economic system where the government invests in certain sectors of the economy in order to stimulate the growth of new (or specific) industries in the private sector. It generally refers to the model of development pursued in East Asian economies such as Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan.[2] It has also been used to classify the contemporary economic system in Mainland China
China
since the Deng Xiaoping economic reforms during the late 1970s.[3] Key aspects of the East Asian model include state control of finance, direct support for state-owned enterprises in "strategic sectors" of the economy or the creation of privately owned "national champions", high dependence on the export market for growth, and a high rate of savings
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American School (economics)
The American School, also known as the "National System", represents three different yet related constructs in politics, policy and philosophy. It was the American policy from the 1860s to the 1970s, waxing and waning in actual degrees and details of implementation. Historian Michael Lind
Michael Lind
describes it as a coherent applied economic philosophy with logical and conceptual relationships with other economic ideas.[1] It is the macroeconomic philosophy that dominated United States national policies from the time of the American Civil War
American Civil War
until the mid-twentieth century.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Closely related to mercantilism, it can be seen as contrary to classical economics
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Austrian School
The Austrian School
Austrian School
is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism – the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.[1][2][3] It originated in late-19th and early-20th century Vienna
Vienna
with the work of Carl Menger, Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, Friedrich von Wieser, and others.[4] It was methodologically opposed to the Prussian Historical School (in a dispute known as Methodenstreit)
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Chicago School Of Economics
The Chicago school of economics
Chicago school of economics
is a neoclassical school of economic thought associated with the work of the faculty at the University of Chicago, some of whom have constructed and popularized its principles. In the context of macroeconomics, it is connected to the "freshwater school" of macroeconomics, in contrast to the saltwater school based in coastal universities (notably Harvard University, MIT, and UC Berkeley)
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Classical Economics
Classical economics
Classical economics
or classical political economy (also known as liberal economics) is a school of thought in economics that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century. Its main thinkers are held to be Adam Smith, Jean-Baptiste Say, David Ricardo, Thomas Robert Malthus, and John Stuart Mill. These economists produced a theory of market economies as largely self-regulating systems, governed by natural laws of production and exchange (famously captured by Adam Smith's metaphor of the invisible hand). Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations
The Wealth of Nations
in 1776 is usually considered to mark the beginning of classical economics.[1] The fundamental message in Smith's book was that the wealth of any nation was determined not by the gold in the monarch's coffers, but by its national income
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