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Intro Crowd
A CROWD is a large group of people that are gathered or considered together. The term "the crowd" may sometimes refer to the lower orders of people in general (the mob ). A crowd may be definable through a common purpose or set of emotions, such as at a political rally , a sports event , or during looting (this is known as a psychological crowd), or may simply be made up of many people going about their business in a busy area. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Social aspects * 3 Psychological aspects * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links TERMINOLOGYThe term crowd is sometimes defined in contrast to other group nouns for collections of humans or animals, such as aggregation, audience, group, mass, mob, populous, public, rabble and throng
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Crowd Counting
CROWD COUNTING OR CROWD ESTIMATING is a technique used to count or estimate the number of people in a crowd . The most direct method is to actually count each person in the crowd, for example turnstiles are often used to precisely count the number of people entering an event. At events in streets or a park rather than an enclosed venue, crowd counting is more difficult and less precise. For many events, especially political rallies or protests , the number of people in a crowd carries political significance and count results are controversial . For example, the global protests against the Iraq war had many protests with widely differing counts offered by organizers on one side and the police on the other side
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Crowd Funding
CROWDFUNDING is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising monetary contributions from a large number of people. Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and of alternative finance . In 2015, it was estimated that worldwide over US$34 billion was raised this way. Although the concept can also be executed through mail-order subscriptions, benefit events, and other methods, it is now often performed via Internet
Internet
-mediated registries. This modern crowdfunding model is generally based on three types of actors: the project initiator who proposes the idea and/or project to be funded, individuals or groups who support the idea, and a moderating organization (the "platform") that brings the parties together to launch the idea
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Crowd Manipulation
CROWD MANIPULATION is the intentional use of techniques based on the principles of crowd psychology to engage, control, or influence the desires of a crowd in order to direct its behavior toward a specific action. This practice is common to politics and business and can facilitate the approval or disapproval or indifference to a person, policy, or product. The ethicality of crowd manipulation is commonly questioned. Crowd
Crowd
manipulation differs from propaganda although they may reinforce one another to produce a desired result. If propaganda is "the consistent, enduring effort to create or shape events to influence the relations of the public to an enterprise, idea or group", crowd manipulation is the relatively brief call to action once the seeds of propaganda (i.e. more specifically "pre-propaganda" ) are sown and the public is organized into a crowd
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Agent-based Social Simulation
AGENT-BASED SOCIAL SIMULATION (or ABSS) consists of social simulations that are based on agent-based modeling , and implemented using artificial agent technologies. Agent-based social simulation
Agent-based social simulation
is scientific discipline concerned with simulation of social phenomena , using computer-based multiagent models. In these simulations, persons or group of persons are represented by agents. MABSS is combination of social science , multiagent simulation and computer simulation . ABSS models the different elements of the social systems using artificial agents, (varying on scale) and placing them in a computer simulated society to observe the behaviors of the agents. From this data it is possible to learn about the reactions of the artificial agents and translate them into the results of non-artificial agents and simulations. Three main fields in ABSS are agent-based computing, social science, and computer simulation
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Portal
PORTAL may refer to: * Portal (architecture) , a monumental gate or door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel * Portals in fiction , magical or technological doorways that connect two locations, dimensions, or points in time * _ Portal _, a video game series developed by Valve Corporation CONTENTS* 1 Computing * 1.1 Gateways to information * 1.2 Other computing * 2 Art, entertainment, and media


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Agoraphobia
AGORAPHOBIA is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives the environment to be unsafe with no easy way to get away. These situations can include open spaces, public transit, shopping malls, or simply being outside the home. Being in these situations may result in a panic attack . The symptoms occur nearly every time the situation is encountered and last for more than six months. Those affected will go to great lengths to avoid these situations. In severe cases people may become unable to leave their homes. Agoraphobia
Agoraphobia
is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition often runs in families, and stressful events such as the death of a parent or being attacked may be a trigger. In the DSM-5 agoraphobia is classified as a phobia along with specific phobias and social phobia
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Social Anxiety
SOCIAL ANXIETY can be defined as nervousness in social situations. Some disorders associated with the social anxiety spectrum include anxiety disorders , mood disorders , autism , eating disorders , and substance use disorders . Individuals higher in social anxiety avert their gazes, show fewer facial expressions, and show difficulty with initiating and maintaining conversation. Trait social anxiety, the stable tendency to experience this nervousness, can be distinguished from state anxiety, the momentary response to a particular social stimulus. Nearly 90% of individuals report feeling a form of social anxiety (i.e., shyness) at some point in their lives. Half of the individuals with any social fears meet criteria for social anxiety disorder. The function of social anxiety is to increase arousal and attention to social interactions, inhibit unwanted social behavior, and motivate preparation for social situations such as performance situations
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Crowd Simulation
CROWD SIMULATION is the process of simulating the movement (or DYNAMICS) of a large number of entities or characters. It is commonly used to create virtual scenes for visual media like films and video games , and is also used in crisis training, architecture and urban planning, and evacuation simulation. Crowd simulation
Crowd simulation
may focus on aspects that target different applications. For realistic and fast rendering of a crowd for visual media or virtual cinematography , reduction of the complexity of the 3D scene and image-based rendering are used, while variations in appearance help present a realistic population. In games and applications intended to replicate real-life human crowd movement, like in evacuation simulations, simulated agents may need to navigate towards a goal, avoid collisions, and exhibit other human-like behavior
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Crowdsourcing
CROWDSOURCING is a specific sourcing model in which individuals or organizations use contributions from Internet
Internet
users to obtain needed services or ideas. Crowdsourcing was coined in 2005 as a portmanteau of crowd and outsourcing . This mode of sourcing, which is to divide work between participants to achieve a cumulative result, was already successful prior to the digital age (i.e., "offline "). Crowdsourcing is distinguished from outsourcing in that the work can come from an undefined public (instead of being commissioned from a specific, named group) and in that crowdsourcing includes a mix of bottom-up and top-down processes. Advantages of using crowdsourcing may include improved costs, speed, quality, flexibility, scalability, or diversity
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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Crowd
A CROWD is a large group of people that are gathered or considered together. The term "the crowd" may sometimes refer to the lower orders of people in general (the mob ). A crowd may be definable through a common purpose or set of emotions, such as at a political rally , a sports event , or during looting (this is known as a psychological crowd), or may simply be made up of many people going about their business in a busy area. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Social aspects * 3 Psychological aspects * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links TERMINOLOGYThe term crowd is sometimes defined in contrast to other group nouns for collections of humans or animals, such as aggregation, audience, group, mass, mob, populous, public, rabble and throng
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Main Page
The 1983 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON was the least active Atlantic hurricane season in 53 years. Although the season begins by convention on June 1, there were no tropical depressions until July 23, and only four of the season's seven depressions became tropical storms . Tropical Depression Three became Hurricane Alicia_(satellite image pictured)_ on August 17 and made landfall in Texas the next day, breaking thousands of glass windows in Houston's skyscrapers, killing 22 people and causing $1.7 billion in damage. The storm that became Hurricane Barry formed on August 25, crossed Florida, and made landfall near Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
, dissipating five days later. Hurricane Chantal stayed out at sea, and was absorbed by a front on September 15. Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19 and caused heavy rains in the Caribbean
Caribbean

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2015 Mina Stampede
On 24 September 2015 an event described as a "crush and stampede " caused deaths estimated at well over 2,000 pilgrims, suffocated or crushed during the annual Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage in Mina , Mecca
Mecca
, Saudi Arabia. The high number of deaths caused by the disaster make it the deadliest Hajj
Hajj
disaster in history. Estimates of the number of dead vary; the Associated Press reported 2,411 dead, while Agence France-Presse reported 2,236 killed. Based on the total of the individual national reports cited in the table below (nationalities of victims ), at least 2,431 people died. The government of Saudi Arabia officially reported two days after the event that there had been 769 deaths and 934 injured. These figures remained official at the time of the following year's hajj. The largest number of victims was from Iran, followed by Mali
Mali
and Nigeria
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