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International System Of Units
The International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units (ampere, kelvin, second, metre, kilogram, candela, mole) and a set of twenty decimal prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units
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Atom
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element. Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms. Atoms are extremely small; typical sizes are around 100 picometers (a ten-billionth of a meter, in the short scale). Atoms are small enough that attempting to predict their behavior using classical physics – as if they were billiard balls, for example – gives noticeably incorrect predictions due to quantum effects. Through the development of physics, atomic models have incorporated quantum principles to better explain and predict the behavior. Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and typically a similar number of neutrons. Protons and neutrons are called nucleons. More than 99.94% of an atom's mass is in the nucleus
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Platinum-iridium Alloy
Platinum-iridium alloys are alloys of the platinum group precious metals platinum and iridium. Typical alloy proportions are 90:10 or 70:30 (Pt:Ir). These have the chemical stability of platinum, but increased hardness. The Vickers hardness of pure platinum is 56 HV while platinum with 50% of iridium can reach over 500 HV.[1][2] This improved hardness has also been considered as beneficial for use in platinum jewellery, particularly watch cases. Owing to their high cost, these alloys are rarely used
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Discipline (academia)
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge. It incorporates expertise, people, projects, communities, challenges, studies, inquiry, and research areas that are strongly associated with a given scholastic subject area or college department. For example, the branches of science are commonly referred to as the scientific disciplines, e.g. physics, mathematics, and biology. Individuals associated with academic disciplines are commonly referred to as experts or specialists
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Lat
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Density Of Water
Water Intoxication (see also Dihydrogen monoxide hoax)NFPA 7040 0 0Flash pointNon-flammable Related compoundsOther cationsHydrogen sulfide Hydrogen selenide Hydrogen telluride Hydrogen polonide Hydrogen peroxideRelated solventsAcetone MethanolSupplementary data pageStructure andpropertiesRefractive index (n),Dielectric constant (εr), etc.ThermodynamicdataPhase behavioursolid–liquid–gasSpectral dataUV, IR, NMR, MSExcept where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).Y verify (what is Y ?)Infobox referencesWater (H2O) is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue
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James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell FRS FRSE (/ˈmækswɛl/;[2] 13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish[3][4] scientist in the field of mathematical physics.[5] His most notable achievement was to formulate the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, bringing together for the first time electricity, magnetism, and light as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics"[6] after the first one realised by Isaac Newton. With the publication of "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" in 1865, Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space as waves moving at the speed of light
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Meridian (geography)
A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude. The position of a point along the meridian is given by its latitude indicating how many degrees north or south of the Equator the point is. Each meridian is perpendicular to all circles of latitude. Each is also the same length, being half of a great circle on the Earth's surface and therefore measuring 20,003.93 km (12,429.9 miles).Contents1 Etymology 2 Geographic 3 Magnetic 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The term "meridian" comes from the Latin meridies, meaning "midday"; the sun crosses a given meridian midway between the times of sunrise and sunset on that meridian. The same Latin stem gives rise to the terms a.m. (ante meridiem) and p.m
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Wavelength
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.[1][2] It is thus the inverse of the spatial frequency. Wavelength
Wavelength
is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns.[3][4] Wavelength
Wavelength
is commonly designated by the Greek letter
Greek letter
lambda (λ)
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Vacuum
Vacuum is space devoid of matter. The word stems from the Latin adjective vacuus for "vacant" or "void". An approximation to such vacuum is a region with a gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure.[1] Physicists often discuss ideal test results that would occur in a perfect vacuum, which they sometimes simply call "vacuum" or free space, and use the term partial vacuum to refer to an actual imperfect vacuum as one might have in a laboratory or in space. In engineering and applied physics on the other hand, vacuum refers to any space in which the pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure.[2] The Latin term in vacuo is used to describe an object that is surrounded by a vacuum. The quality of a partial vacuum refers to how closely it approaches a perfect vacuum. Other things equal, lower gas pressure means higher-quality vacuum. For example, a typical vacuum cleaner produces enough suction to reduce air pressure by around 20%.[3] Much higher-quality vacuums are possible
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Electromagnetic Radiation
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.[1] It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.[2]" Classically, electromagnetic radiation consists of electromagnetic waves, which are synchronized oscillations of electric and magnetic fields that propagate at the speed of light through a vacuum. The oscillations of the two fields are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation, forming a transverse wave. The wavefront of electromagnetic waves emitted from a point source (such as a light bulb) is a sphere. The position of an electromagnetic wave within the electromagnetic spectrum could be characterized by either its frequency of oscillation or its wavelength
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Krypton-86
There are 33 known isotopes of krypton (36Kr) with atomic mass numbers from 69 through 101.[3] Naturally occurring krypton is made of five stable isotopes and one (78Kr) which is slightly radioactive with an extremely long half-life, plus traces of radioisotopes that are produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere.Contents1 Notable isotopes1.1 Krypton-86 1.2 Krypton-81 1.3 Krypton-851.3.1 Atmospheric concentration1.4 Others2 Table of isotopes2.1 Notes3 References 4 External linksNotable isotopes[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Standard Gravity
The standard acceleration due to gravity (or standard acceleration of free fall), sometimes abbreviated as standard gravity, usually denoted by ɡ0 or ɡn, is the nominal gravitational acceleration of an object in a vacuum near the surface of the Earth. It is defined by standard as 7000980665000000000♠9.80665 m/s2 (about 7000980663520000000♠32.174 ft/s2)
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Physical Quantity
A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement.[1] A physical quantity can be expressed as the combination of a magnitude expressed by a number – usually a real number – and a unit: n u textstyle nu where n textstyle n is the magnitude and u textstyle u is the unit. For example, 6973167492749999999♠1.6749275×10−27 kg (the mass of the neutron), or 7008299792458000000♠299792458 metres per second (the speed of light). The same physical quantity x textstyle x can be represented equivalently in many unit systems, i.e
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