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International Standard Name Identifier
The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012
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Check Digit
A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It is analogous to a binary parity bit used to check for errors in computer-generated data. It consists of one or more digits computed by an algorithm from the other digits (or letters) in the sequence input. With a check digit, one can detect simple errors in the input of a series of characters (usually digits) such as a single mistyped digit or some permutations of two successive digits.Contents1 Design 2 Examples2.1 UPC 2.2 ISBN 10 2.3 ISBN 13 2.4 EAN (GLN, GTIN, EAN numbers administered by GS1) 2.5 Other examples of check digits2.5.1 International 2.5.2 In the USA 2.5.3 In Central America 2.5.4 In Eurasia 2.5.5 In Oceania3 Algorithms 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDesign[edit]This section does not cite any sources
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ProQuest
ProQuest
ProQuest
LLC is an Ann Arbor, Michigan-based global information-content and technology company[1][non-primary source needed] founded in 1938 as University Microfilms by Eugene B
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Wikidata
Wikidata
Wikidata
is a collaboratively edited knowledge base hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is intended to provide a common source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as,[4][5] and by anyone else, under a public domain license. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata
Wikidata
is powered by the software Wikibase.[6]Contents1 Concepts 2 Development history2.1 Phase 1 2.2 Phase 2 2.3 Phase 33 Reception 4 Logo 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksConcepts[edit]ScreenshotsThree statements from Wikidata's item on the planet Mars
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Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ ( listen) AL-gə-ridh-əm) is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems. Algorithms can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks. An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time[1] and in a well-defined formal language[2] for calculating a function.[3] Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty),[4] the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite[5] number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output"[6] and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.[7] The concept of algorithm has existed for centuries and the use of the concept can be ascribed to Greek mathematicians, e.g
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XML Schema
An XML schema is a description of a type of XML document, typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, above and beyond the basic syntactical constraints imposed by XML itself. These constraints are generally expressed using some combination of grammatical rules governing the order of elements, Boolean predicates that the content must satisfy, data types governing the content of elements and attributes, and more specialized rules such as uniqueness and referential integrity constraints. There are languages developed specifically to express XML schemas. The Document Type Definition (DTD) language, which is native to the XML specification, is a schema language that is of relatively limited capability, but that also has other uses in XML aside from the expression of schemas
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CAE Number
CAE may refer to:Contents1 Aviation 2 Computing 3 Education 4 Engineering 5 Management 6 Media 7 Medicine 8 Other usesAviation[edit] CAE Aviation, a Luxembourgian aviation services company CAE Inc.
CAE Inc.
a Canadian manufacturer of simulation technologies and training provider Columbia Metropolitan Airport, IATA airport code CAE, in West Columbia, South Caro
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List Of ISO Romanizations
List of ISO standards for transliterations and transcriptions (or romanizations): ISO 9 — Cyrillic ISO 233 — Arabic ISO 259 — Hebrew ISO 843 — Greek ISO 3602 — J
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Publisher
Publishing
Publishing
is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content for the same. Also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspapers
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Impression (publishing)
The bibliographical definition of an edition includes all copies of a book printed “from substantially the same setting of type,” including all minor typographical variants. The numbering of book editions is a special case of the wider field of revision control. The traditional conventions for numbering book editions evolved spontaneously for several centuries before any greater applied science of revision control became important to humanity, which did not occur until the era of widespread computing had arrived (when software and electronic publishing came into existence)
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Pseudonym
A pseudonym (/ˈsjuːdənɪm/ or /ˈsuːdənɪm/ SEW-də-nim) or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name (orthonym).[1] Pseudonyms include stage names and user names (both called screen names), ring names, pen names, nicknames, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, and regnal names of emperors, popes, and other monarchs. Historically, they have often taken the form of anagrams, Graecisms, and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym.[2] Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – usually adopted to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, and computer hackers' handles
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ISO 31
ISO 31 (Quantities and units, International Organization for Standardization, 1992) is a deprecated international standard for the use of physical quantities and units of measurement, and formulas involving them, in scientific and educational documents.[citation needed] It is superseded by ISO/IEC 80000.Contents1 Parts 2 Coined words 3 Related national standards 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksParts[edit] The standard comes in 14 parts:ISO 31-0: General principles ISO 31-1: Space
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A440 (pitch Standard)
A440 or A4 (also known as the Stuttgart pitch), which has a frequency of 440 Hz, is the musical note of A above middle C and serves as a general tuning standard for musical pitch. The International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
classifies it as ISO 16. Prior to the standardization on 440 Hz, other frequencies were standardized upon
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ISO 31-0
ISO 31-0 is the introductory part of international standard ISO 31 on quantities and units. It provides guidelines for using physical quantities, quantity and unit symbols, and coherent unit systems, especially the SI. It is intended for use in all fields of science and technology and is augmented by more specialized conventions defined in other parts of the ISO 31 standard. ISO 31-0 was withdrawn on 17 November 2009. It is superseded by ISO 80000-1. Other parts of ISO 31 have also been withdrawn and replaced by parts of ISO 80000.Contents1 Scope 2 Quantities and units 3 Typographic conventions3.1 Symbols for quantities 3.2 Names and symbols for units 3.3 Numbers 3.4 Expressions 3.5 Mathematical signs and symbols4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyScope[edit] ISO 31 covers only physical quantities used for the quantitative description of physical phenomena
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ISO 9
The ISO international standard ISO 9 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of many Slavic and non-Slavic languages.[1] The major advantage ISO 9 has over other competing systems is its univocal system of one character for one character equivalents (by the use of diacritics), which faithfully represents the original spelling and allows for reverse transliteration, even if the language is unknown. Earlier versions of the standard, ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1986, were more closely based on the international scholarly system for linguistics (scientific transliteration), but have diverged in favour of unambiguous transliteration over phonemi
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ISO 6
Film speed
Film speed
is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. A closely related ISO system is used to describe the relationship between exposure and output image lightness in digital cameras. Relatively insensitive film, with a correspondingly lower speed index, requires more exposure to light to produce the same image density as a more sensitive film, and is thus commonly termed a slow film. Highly sensitive films are correspondingly termed fast films. In both digital and film photography, the reduction of exposure corresponding to use of higher sensitivities generally leads to reduced image quality (via coarser film grain or higher image noise of other types). In short, the higher the sensitivity, the grainier the image will be
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