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International Standard Name Identifier
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NAME IDENTIFIER (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012. The ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 ( TC 46/SC 9 ) is responsible for the development of the standard. ISNI can be used to disambiguate names that might otherwise be confused, and links the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries
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Check Digit
A CHECK DIGIT is a form of redundancy check used for error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It is analogous to a binary parity bit used to check for errors in computer-generated data. It consists of one or more digits computed by an algorithm from the other digits (or letters) in the sequence input. With a check digit, one can detect simple errors in the input of a series of characters (usually digits) such as a single mistyped digit or some permutations of two successive digits
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International Organization For Standardization
The INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO) is an international standard -setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations . Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards . It is headquartered in Geneva , Switzerland, and as of March 2017 works in 162 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council
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TC 46/SC 9
ISO TC 46/SC 9 is the ninth subcommittee of ISO technical committee 46, and is responsible for identification and description of information resources
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Pseudonym
A PSEUDONYM (UK : /ˈsjuːdənɪm/ _SYOO-də-nim_ and US : /ˈsuːdənɪm/ _SOO-də-nim_ ) or ALIAS is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name (orthonym ). Pseudonyms include stage names and user names (both called _screen names_), ring names , pen names , nicknames , aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, and regnal names of emperors , popes , and other monarchs . Historically, they have often taken the form of anagrams , Graecisms, and Latinisations , although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name
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Impression (publishing)
The bibliographical definition of an EDITION includes all copies of a book printed “from substantially the same setting of type ,” including all minor typographical variants. The numbering of book editions is a special case of the wider field of revision control . The traditional conventions for numbering book editions evolved spontaneously for several centuries before any greater applied science of revision control became important to humanity, which did not occur until the era of widespread computing had arrived (when software and electronic publishing came into existence). The old and new aspects of book edition numbering (from before and since the advent of computing) are discussed below
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Publisher
PUBLISHING is the dissemination of literature , music , or information —the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content for the same. Also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspapers . With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet , the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing , websites , blogs , video game publishers , and the like
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ORCID
ORCID
ORCID
(OPEN RESEARCHER AND CONTRIBUTOR ID) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors and contributors. This addresses the problem that a particular author's contributions to the scientific literature or publications in the humanities can be hard to recognize as most personal names are not unique, they can change (such as with marriage), have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems . It provides a persistent identity for humans, similar to that created for content-related entities on digital networks by digital object identifiers (DOIs). The ORCID
ORCID
organization offers an open and independent registry intended to be the _de facto_ standard for contributor identification in research and academic publishing
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Confédération Internationale Des Sociétés D´Auteurs Et Compositeurs
The INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF SOCIETIES OF AUTHORS AND COMPOSERS (French : Confédération Internationale des Sociétés d'Auteurs et Compositeurs, CISAC) is an international non-governmental, not-for-profit organisation that aims to protect the rights and promote the interests of creators worldwide. It advocates for strong legal protection of copyright and authors' rights. It is the world's largest international network of authors' societies, also known as Collective Management Organisations (CMOs), copyright / royalty collection societies, collecting societies, or Performing Rights Organisations (PROs). The president of CISAC is French electronic music composer Jean Michel Jarre , who was appointed in June 2013. His predecessor was singer/songwriter Robin Gibb of the Bee Gees, who served as President until his death in 2012. Painter Hervé Di Rosa serving as President in the interim, until the appointment of Jarre
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Online Computer Library Center
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
ONLINE COMPUTER LIBRARY CENTER, INCORPORATED, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the OHIO COLLEGE LIBRARY CENTER. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat , the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC
OCLC
is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services (around $200 million annually as of 2016 )
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ProQuest
PROQUEST LLC is an Ann Arbor, Michigan
Michigan
-based global information-content and technology company founded in 1938 as UNIVERSITY MICROFILMS by Eugene B. Power . ProQuest
ProQuest
provides solutions, applications, and products for libraries. Its resources and tools support research and learning, publishing and dissemination, and the acquisition, management and discovery of library collections. From its founding as a producer of microfilm products and then as an electronic publisher , the company has grown through acquisitions. Today, the company provides tools for discovery and citation management and platforms that allow library users to discover, manage, use and share research gained from authoritative content
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The _BIBLIOTHèQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE_ (BNF; French: ) is the National Library of France
France
, located in Paris
Paris
. It is the national repository of all that is published in France. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 New buildings * 3 Mission * 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection * 5 Digital library
Digital library
* 6 Popular culture * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. Charles had received a collection of manuscripts from his predecessor, John II , and transferred them to the Louvre
Louvre
from the Palais de la Cité
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British Library
Coordinates : 51°31′46″N 0°07′37″W / 51.52944°N 0.12694°W / 51.52944; -0.12694 British Library Pictured from the concourse COUNTRY United Kingdom TYPE National library ESTABLISHED 1973 (44 years ago) (1973) (1753) LOCATION Euston Road London , NW1 BRANCHES 1 (
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XML Schema
An XML SCHEMA is a description of a type of XML document, typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, above and beyond the basic syntactical constraints imposed by XML itself. These constraints are generally expressed using some combination of grammatical rules governing the order of elements, Boolean predicatesthat the content must satisfy, data types governing the content of elements and attributes, and more specialized rules such as uniqueness and referential integrity constraints. There are languages developed specifically to express XML schemas. The Document Type Definition(DTD) language, which is native to the XML specification, is a schema language that is of relatively limited capability, but that also has other uses in XML aside from the expression of schemas. Two more expressive XML schemalanguages in widespread use are XML Schema (with a capital _S_) and RELAX NG
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Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science , an ALGORITHM (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ (_ listen ) AL-gə-ri-dhəm_ ) is a self-contained sequence of actions to be performed. Algorithms can perform calculation , data processing and automated reasoning tasks. An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function . Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty ), the instructions describe a computation that, when executed , proceeds through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output" and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic ; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms , incorporate random input
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Authority Control
In library science , AUTHORITY CONTROL is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for each topic. The word authority in authority control derives from the idea that the names of people, places, things, and concepts are authorized, i.e., they are established in one particular form. These one-of-a-kind headings or identifiers are applied consistently throughout catalogs which make use of the respective authority file, and are applied for other methods of organizing data such as linkages and cross references. Each controlled entry is described in an authority record in terms of its scope and usage, and this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers
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