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International Standard Name Identifier
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NAME IDENTIFIER (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012. The ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 ( TC 46/SC 9 ) is responsible for the development of the standard. ISNI can be used to disambiguate names that might otherwise be confused, and links the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries. CONTENTS* 1 Uses of an ISNI * 1.1 ORCID * 2 ISNI governance * 3 ISNI assignment * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links USES OF AN ISNIThe ISNI allows a single identity (such as an author's pseudonym or the imprint used by a publisher ) to be identified using a unique number. This unique number can then be linked to any of the numerous other identifiers that are used across the media industries to identify names and other forms of identity
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Check Digit
A CHECK DIGIT is a form of redundancy check used for error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It is analogous to a binary parity bit used to check for errors in computer-generated data. It consists of one or more digits computed by an algorithm from the other digits (or letters) in the sequence input. With a check digit, one can detect simple errors in the input of a series of characters (usually digits) such as a single mistyped digit or some permutations of two successive digits. CONTENTS * 1 Design * 2 Examples * 2.1 UPC * 2.2 ISBN 10 * 2.3 ISBN 13 * 2.4 EAN (GLN, GTIN, EAN numbers administered by GS1) * 2.5 Other examples of check digits * 2.5.1 International * 2.5.2 In the USA * 2.5.3 In Central America * 2.5.4 In Eurasia * 2.5.5 In Oceania * 3 Algorithms * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DESIGN This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (April 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Check digit algorithms are generally designed to capture human transcription errors
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International Organization For Standardization
The INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO) is an international standard -setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations . Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards . It is headquartered in Geneva , Switzerland, and as of March 2017 works in 162 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Language usage * 3 Name and abbreviations * 4 History * 5 Structure * 5.1 IEC joint committees * 5.1.1 ISO/IEC JTC 1 * 5.1.2 ISO/IEC JTC 2 * 6 Membership * 7 Financing * 8 International Standards and other publications * 8.1 Document copyright * 9 Standardization process * 10 Products named after ISO * 11 Criticism * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Sources * 15 External links OVERVIEWISO, the International Organization for Standardization, is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organizations of the 163 member countries
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TC 46/SC 9
ISO TC 46/SC 9 is the ninth subcommittee of ISO technical committee 46, and is responsible for identification and description of information resources
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Pseudonym
A PSEUDONYM (UK : /ˈsjuːdənɪm/ _SYOO-də-nim_ and US : /ˈsuːdənɪm/ _SOO-də-nim_ ) or ALIAS is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name (orthonym ). Pseudonyms include stage names and user names (both called _screen names_), ring names , pen names , nicknames , aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, and regnal names of emperors , popes , and other monarchs . Historically, they have often taken the form of anagrams , Graecisms, and Latinisations , although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts - usually adopted to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names , graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters\' or terrorists\' _noms de guerre_, and computer hackers ' handles . Actors , musicians, and other performers sometimes use stage names , for example, to mask their ethnic backgrounds. In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes , and "cadre names" used by Communist party
Communist party
leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin
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Impression (publishing)
The bibliographical definition of an EDITION includes all copies of a book printed “from substantially the same setting of type ,” including all minor typographical variants. The numbering of book editions is a special case of the wider field of revision control . The traditional convenity, which did not occur until the era of widespread computing had arrived (when software and electronic publishing came into existence). The old and new aspects of book edition numbering (from before and since the advent of computing) are discussed below. The first lot if books that have been published. CONTENTS* 1 First edition * 1.1 Bibliographical definition * 1.2 Collectors\' definition * 1.3 Publishers\' definition * 2 Other types of editions * 2.1 Revised edition * 2.2 Revised and updated edition * 2.3 Co-edition * 2.4 e-dition * 2.5 Library edition * 2.6 Book
Book
club edition * 2.7 Cheap edition * 2.8 Colonial edition * 2.9 Cadet edition * 2.10 Large print edition * 2.11 Critical edition * 3 Print run * 4 Republication * 5 Legal status * 5.1 UK * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links FIRST EDITION "First edition" redirects here. For other uses, see First edition (other) . Title-page illustration by Hammatt Billings for Uncle Tom\'s Cabin , First Edition: Boston: John P
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Publisher
PUBLISHING is the dissemination of literature , music , or information —the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content for the same. Also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspapers . With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet , the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing , websites , blogs , video game publishers , and the like. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing , production, printing (and its electronic equivalents ), and marketing and distribution
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ORCID
ORCID
ORCID
(OPEN RESEARCHER AND CONTRIBUTOR ID) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors and contributors. This addresses the problem that a particular author's contributions to the scientific literature or publications in the humanities can be hard to recognize as most personal names are not unique, they can change (such as with marriage), have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems . It provides a persistent identity for humans, similar to that created for content-related entities on digital networks by digital object identifiers (DOIs). The ORCID
ORCID
organization offers an open and independent registry intended to be the de facto standard for contributor identification in research and academic publishing . On 16 October 2012, ORCID
ORCID
launched its registry services and started issuing user identifiers. CONTENTS * 1 Development and launch * 2 Uses * 3 Members, sponsors and registrants * 3.1 National implementations * 4 Integrations * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DEVELOPMENT AND LAUNCH ORCID
ORCID
was first organized as the "Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative"
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Confédération Internationale Des Sociétés D´Auteurs Et Compositeurs
The INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF SOCIETIES OF AUTHORS AND COMPOSERS (French : Confédération Internationale des Sociétés d'Auteurs et Compositeurs, CISAC) is an international non-governmental, not-for-profit organisation that aims to protect the rights and promote the interests of creators worldwide. It advocates for strong legal protection of copyright and authors' rights. It is the world's largest international network of authors' societies, also known as Collective Management Organisations (CMOs), copyright / royalty collection societies, collecting societies, or Performing Rights Organisations (PROs). The president of CISAC is French electronic music composer Jean Michel Jarre , who was appointed in June 2013. His predecessor was singer/songwriter Robin Gibb of the Bee Gees, who served as President until his death in 2012. Painter Hervé Di Rosa serving as President in the interim, until the appointment of Jarre. In 2013, the organisation expanded its Vice Presidency to four new positions, allowing for the representation of more territories and a broader range of creative repertoires
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Online Computer Library Center
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
ONLINE COMPUTER LIBRARY CENTER, INCORPORATED, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the OHIO COLLEGE LIBRARY CENTER. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat
WorldCat
, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC
OCLC
is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services (around $200 million annually as of 2016 ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Services * 3 Software * 4 Research * 5 Advocacy * 6 Online database: WorldCat
WorldCat
* 7 Identifiers and linked data * 8 Company acquisitions * 9 Criticism * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links HISTORY OCLC
OCLC
began in 1967, as the Ohio
Ohio
College Library Center, through a collaboration of Ohio
Ohio
university presidents, vice presidents, and library directors who wanted to create a cooperative, computerized network for Ohio
Ohio
libraries. The group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio
Ohio
State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization
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ProQuest
PROQUEST LLC is an Ann Arbor, Michigan
Michigan
-based global information-content and technology company founded in 1938 as UNIVERSITY MICROFILMS by Eugene B. Power . ProQuest
ProQuest
provides solutions, applications, and products for libraries. Its resources and tools support research and learning, publishing and dissemination, and the acquisition, management and discovery of library collections. From its founding as a producer of microfilm products and then as an electronic publisher , the company has grown through acquisitions. Today, the company provides tools for discovery and citation management and platforms that allow library users to discover, manage, use and share research gained from authoritative content. Total content, including dissertations and theses , ebooks , newspapers, periodicals, historical collections, governmental and cultural archives and other aggregated databases is estimated at over 125 billion digital pages . Content is accessed most commonly through library Internet gateways. The current chief executive officer is Kurt P. Sanford. ProQuest
ProQuest
is part of Cambridge Information Group . CONTENTS * 1 Businesses * 2 History * 3 Archived newspapers * 4 Products * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BUSINESSES ProQuest
ProQuest
was founded as a microfilm publisher
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The BIBLIOTHèQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE (BNF; French: ) is the National Library of France
France
, located in Paris
Paris
. It is the national repository of all that is published in France
France
and also holds extensive historical collections. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 New buildings * 3 Mission * 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection * 5 Digital library
Digital library
* 6 Popular culture * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. Charles had received a collection of manuscripts from his predecessor, John II , and transferred them to the Louvre
Louvre
from the Palais de la Cité . The first librarian of record was Claude Mallet, the king's valet de chambre, who made a sort of catalogue, Inventoire des Livres du Roy nostre Seigneur estans au Chastel du Louvre. Jean Blanchet made another list in 1380 and Jean de Bégue one in 1411 and another in 1424. Charles V was a patron of learning and encouraged the making and collection of books. It is known that he employed Nicholas Oresme
Nicholas Oresme
, Raoul de Presle and others to transcribe ancient texts
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British Library
Coordinates : 51°31′46″N 0°07′37″W / 51.52944°N 0.12694°W / 51.52944; -0.12694 British Library Pictured from the concourse COUNTRY United Kingdom TYPE National library ESTABLISHED 1973 (44 years ago) (1973) (1753) LOCATION Euston Road London , NW1 BRANCHES 1 ( Boston Spa , West Yorkshire) COLLECTION ITEMS COLLECTED Books, journals , newspapers, magazines, sound and music recordings , patents, databases , maps , stamps , prints , drawings and manuscripts SIZEover 150,000,000 items 13,950,000 books 824,101 serial titles 351,116 manuscripts (single and volumes) 8,266,276 philatelic items 4,347,505 cartographic items 1,607,885 music scores 6,000,000 sound recordings LEGAL DEPOSIT Yes, as enshrined in the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003 (United Kingdom) and the Copyright and Related Rights Act, 2000 (Republic of Ireland) ACCESS AND USE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS Open to anyone with a need to use the collections and services OTHER INFORMATION BUDGET £142 million DIRECTOR Roly Keating (chief executive, since 12 September 2012) WEBSITE bl.uk Play media British Library highlights film, 2014. The BRITISH LIBRARY is the national library of the United Kingdom and the second largest library in the world by number of items catalogued
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XML Schema
An XML SCHEMA is a description of a type of XML document, typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, above and beyond the basic syntactical constraints imposed by XML itself. These constraints are generally expressed using some combination of grammatical rules governing the order of elements, Boolean predicates that the content must satisfy, data types governing the content of elements and attributes, and more specialized rules such as uniqueness and referential integrity constraints. There are languages developed specifically to express XML schemas. The Document Type Definition (DTD) language, which is native to the XML specification, is a schema language that is of relatively limited capability, but that also has other uses in XML aside from the expression of schemas. Two more expressive XML schema languages in widespread use are XML Schema (with a capital S) and RELAX NG . The mechanism for associating an XML document with a schema varies according to the schema language. The association may be achieved via markup within the XML document itself, or via some external means
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Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science , an ALGORITHM (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ (_ listen ) AL-gə-ri-dhəm_ ) is a self-contained sequence of actions to be performed. Algorithms can perform calculation , data processing and automated reasoning tasks. An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function . Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty ), the instructions describe a computation that, when executed , proceeds through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output" and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic ; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms , incorporate random input. The concept of _algorithm_ has existed for centuries; however, a partial formalization of what would become the modern _algorithm_ began with attempts to solve the Entscheidungsproblem(the "decision problem") posed by David Hilbert
David Hilbert
in 1928
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Authority Control
In library science , AUTHORITY CONTROL is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for each topic. The word authority in authority control derives from the idea that the names of people, places, things, and concepts are authorized, i.e., they are established in one particular form. These one-of-a-kind headings or identifiers are applied consistently throughout catalogs which make use of the respective authority file, and are applied for other methods of organizing data such as linkages and cross references. Each controlled entry is described in an authority record in terms of its scope and usage, and this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers. Cataloguers assign each subject—such as an author, book, series or corporation—a particular unique identifier or heading term which is then used consistently, uniquely, and unambiguously for all references to that same subject, even if there are variations such as different spellings, pen names , or aliases . The unique header can guide users to all relevant information including related or collocated subjects
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