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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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International Article Number (EAN)
The INTERNATIONAL ARTICLE NUMBER (also known as EUROPEAN ARTICLE NUMBER or EAN) is a standard describing a barcode symbology and numbering system used in global trade to identify a specific retail product type, in a specific packaging configuration, from a specific manufacturer. The standard has been subsumed in the Global Trade Item Number standard from the GS1
GS1
organization; the same numbers can be referred to as GTINs and can be encoded in other barcode symbologies defined by GS1. EAN barcodes are used worldwide for lookup at retail point of sale , but can also be used as numbers for other purposes such as wholesale ordering or accounting. The most commonly used EAN standard is the thirteen-digit EAN-13, a superset of the original 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC-A) standard developed in 1970 by George J. Laurer
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Check Digit
A CHECK DIGIT is a form of redundancy check used for error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It is analogous to a binary parity bit used to check for errors in computer-generated data. It consists of one or more digits computed by an algorithm from the other digits (or letters) in the sequence input. With a check digit, one can detect simple errors in the input of a series of characters (usually digits) such as a single mistyped digit or some permutations of two successive digits
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E-book
An ELECTRONIC BOOK (or E-BOOK) is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. Commercially produced and sold e-books are usually intended to be read on dedicated e-reader devices. However, almost any sophisticated computer device that features a controllable viewing screen can also be used to read e-books, including desktop computers , laptops , tablets and smartphones . In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet , where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems
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Paperback
A PAPERBACK is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, and often held together with glue rather than stitches or staples . In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth. The pages on the inside are made of paper. Inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets , yellowbacks , dime novels , and airport novels . Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size. In the U.S., there are "mass-market paperbacks " and larger, more durable "trade paperbacks ." In the U.K., there are A-format, B-format , and the largest C-format sizes. Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper; glued (rather than stapled or sewn) bindings; and the lack of a hard cover may contribute to the lower cost of paperbacks
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Hardcover
A HARDCOVER or HARDBACK (also known as HARDBOUND, and sometimes as CASE-BOUND) book is one bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with buckram or other cloth , heavy paper , or occasionally leather ). It has a flexible, sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation _Hbk_. Detail of "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea", first English edition (1873), showing cloth pattern on cover Hardcover books are often printed on acid-free paper , and are much more durable than paperbacks , which have flexible, easily damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture
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International Organization For Standardization
The INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO) is an international standard -setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations . Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards . It is headquartered in Geneva , Switzerland, and as of March 2017 works in 162 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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Magazine
A MAGAZINE is a publication , usually a periodical publication , which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine ). Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content . They are generally financed by advertising , by a purchase price , by prepaid subscriptions , or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a collection or storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles. This explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines , artillery magazines , firearms magazines , and, in French, retail stores such as department stores
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International Standard Music Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD MUSIC NUMBER or ISMN (ISO 10957) is a thirteen-character alphanumeric identifier for printed music developed by ISO . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Check digit * 2.1 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEWThe original proposal for an ISMN was made by the UK Branch of IAML (International Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres) , put forward by Alan Pope (Blackwell's Music Department, Oxford), Malcolm Lewis (music librarian in Nottingham) and Malcolm Jones (music librarian in Birmingham). A draft ISMN structure and application was presented at the 1987 IAML conference in Amsterdam, then after further discussions at the 1989 IAML conference in Oxford it was decided that the UK, French and German branches should, through their respective national standards bodies (BSI, AFNOR and DIN) file ISMN as an ISO work project
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Code
In communications and information processing , CODE is a system of rules to convert information —such as a letter , word , sound, image, or gesture —into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret , for communication through a channel or storage in a medium . An early example is the invention of language which enabled a person, through speech , to communicate what he or she saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing , which converted spoken language into visual symbols , extended the range of communication across space and time . The process of ENCODING converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage. DECODING is the reverse process, converting code symbols back into a form that the recipient understands
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Book
A BOOK is a set of sheets of paper , parchment , or similar materials that are fastened together to hinge at one side. A single sheet within a book is a leaf , and each side of a leaf is a page . Writing or images can be printed or drawn on a book's pages. An electronic image that is formatted to resemble a book on a computer screen, smartphone or e-reader device is known as an electronic book or e-book . The term "books" may also refer to a body of works of literature , or a main division of literature (e.g., children\'s literature ) . In library and information science , a book is called a monograph , to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines , journals , or newspapers . In novels and sometimes other types of books (for example, biographies), a book may be divided into several large sections, also called books ( Book 1, Book 2, Book 3, and so on)
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Identifier
An IDENTIFIER is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical object (or class thereof), or physical substance (or class thereof). The abbreviation ID often refers to identity, identification (the process of identifying), or an identifier (that is, an instance of identification). An identifier may be a word, number, letter, symbol, or any combination of those. The words, numbers, letters, or symbols may follow an encoding system (wherein letters, digits, words, or symbols stand for (represent) ideas or longer names) or they may simply be arbitrary. When an identifier follows an encoding system, it is often referred to as a CODE or ID CODE. Identifiers that do not follow any encoding scheme are often said to be ARBITRARY IDS; they are arbitrarily assigned and have no greater meaning
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Gordon Foster
FREDERIC GORDON FOSTER (24 February 1921 – 20 December 2010) was an Irish computational engineer, statistician, professor, and college dean who is widely known for devising, in 1965, a nine-digit code upon which the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is based. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links LIFEFoster was born in Belfast
Belfast
, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
, between 1920 enactment and 1921 implementation of the partition of Ireland
Ireland
. He studied at the Royal Belfast
Belfast
Academical Institution and began advanced study in mathematics at Queen\'s University Belfast
Belfast
. During World War II
World War II
, he was recruited from Queen's by MI6 to work as a code-breaker at Bletchley Park
Bletchley Park

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Trinity College, Dublin
Coordinates : 53°20′40″N 6°15′28″W / 53.3444°N 6.2577°W / 53.3444; -6.2577 TRINITY COLLEGE Coláiste na Tríonóide University of Dublin
University of Dublin
FULL NAMEThe College
College
o
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Whsmith
WHSMITH PLC (also known as WHS or colloquially as SMITH\'S, and formerly W. H. SMITH "> The W. H. Smith logo until the early 1990s, featuring the then-familiar cube of letters, revived in the mid-2010s W. H. Smith signage displaying the modern blue and white design Shop frontage In 1792, Henry Walton Smith and his wife Anna established the business as a news vendor in Little Grosvenor Street, London. After their deaths, the business — valued in 1812 at £1,280 (equivalent to £76,886 in 2015) was taken over by their youngest son William Henry Smith , and in 1846 the firm became W. H. SMITH their son inherited the business from his father and the Viscountcy from his mother. After the death of the second Viscount
Viscount
in 1928, the business was reconstituted as a limited company , in which his son, the third Viscount, owned all the ordinary shares
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