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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero). Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure; however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines ; and the International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers for musical scores
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International Article Number (EAN)
The INTERNATIONAL ARTICLE NUMBER (also known as EUROPEAN ARTICLE NUMBER or EAN) is a standard describing a barcode symbology and numbering system used in global trade to identify a specific retail product type, in a specific packaging configuration, from a specific manufacturer. The standard has been subsumed in the Global Trade Item Number standard from the GS1 organization; the same numbers can be referred to as GTINs and can be encoded in other barcode symbologies defined by GS1. EAN barcodes are used worldwide for lookup at retail point of sale , but can also be used as numbers for other purposes such as wholesale ordering or accounting. The most commonly used EAN standard is the thirteen-digit EAN-13, a superset of the original 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC-A) standard developed in 1970 by George J. Laurer . An EAN-13 number includes a 3-digit GS1 prefix (indicating country of registration or special type of product). A prefix with a first digit of "0" indicates a 12-digit UPC-A code follows. A prefix with the first two digits of "45" or "49" indicates a Japanese Article Number (JAN) follows. The less commonly used 8-digit EAN-8 barcode was introduced for use on small packages, where EAN-13 would be too large. 2-digit EAN-2 and 5-digit EAN-5 are supplemental barcodes, placed on the right-hand side of EAN-13 or UPC
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Check Digit
A CHECK DIGIT is a form of redundancy check used for error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It is analogous to a binary parity bit used to check for errors in computer-generated data. It consists of one or more digits computed by an algorithm from the other digits (or letters) in the sequence input. With a check digit, one can detect simple errors in the input of a series of characters (usually digits) such as a single mistyped digit or some permutations of two successive digits. CONTENTS * 1 Design * 2 Examples * 2.1 UPC * 2.2 ISBN 10 * 2.3 ISBN 13 * 2.4 EAN (GLN, GTIN, EAN numbers administered by GS1) * 2.5 Other examples of check digits * 2.5.1 International * 2.5.2 In the USA * 2.5.3 In Central America * 2.5.4 In Eurasia * 2.5.5 In Oceania * 3 Algorithms * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DESIGN This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (April 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Check digit algorithms are generally designed to capture human transcription errors
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E-book
An ELECTRONIC BOOK (or E-BOOK) is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. Commercially produced and sold e-books are usually intended to be read on dedicated e-reader devices. However, almost any sophisticated computer device that features a controllable viewing screen can also be used to read e-books, including desktop computers , laptops , tablets and smartphones . In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet , where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems. With print books, readers are increasingly browsing through images of the covers of books on publisher or bookstore websites and selecting and ordering titles online; the paper books are then delivered to the reader by mail or another delivery service. With e-books, users can browse through titles online, and then when they select and order titles, the e-book can be sent to them online or the user can download the e-book. At the start of 2012 in the U.S., more e-books were published online than were distributed in hardcover
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Paperback
A PAPERBACK is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, and often held together with glue rather than stitches or staples . In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth. The pages on the inside are made of paper. Inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets , yellowbacks , dime novels , and airport novels . Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size. In the U.S., there are "mass-market paperbacks " and larger, more durable "trade paperbacks ." In the U.K., there are A-format, B-format , and the largest C-format sizes. Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper; glued (rather than stapled or sewn) bindings; and the lack of a hard cover may contribute to the lower cost of paperbacks. Paperbacks can be the preferred medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, and newer editions or reprintings of older books. Since hardcovers tend to have a larger profit margin , many publishers try to balance the profit to be made by selling fewer hardcovers against the potential profit to be made by selling more paperbacks with a smaller profit per unit
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Hardcover
A HARDCOVER or HARDBACK (also known as HARDBOUND, and sometimes as CASE-BOUND) book is one bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with buckram or other cloth , heavy paper , or occasionally leather ). It has a flexible, sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation _Hbk_. Detail of "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea", first English edition (1873), showing cloth pattern on cover Hardcover books are often printed on acid-free paper , and are much more durable than paperbacks , which have flexible, easily damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are frequently protected by artistic dust jackets , but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming increasingly popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. CONTENTS * 1 Marketing * 2 Prices * 3 Typical structure * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References MARKETINGIf brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is typically released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition (same format as hardcover) the next year. Some publishers publish paperback originals if slow hardback sales are anticipated
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International Organization For Standardization
The INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO) is an international standard -setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations . Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards . It is headquartered in Geneva , Switzerland, and as of March 2017 works in 162 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Language usage * 3 Name and abbreviations * 4 History * 5 Structure * 5.1 IEC joint committees * 5.1.1 ISO/IEC JTC 1 * 5.1.2 ISO/IEC JTC 2 * 6 Membership * 7 Financing * 8 International Standards and other publications * 8.1 Document copyright * 9 Standardization process * 10 Products named after ISO * 11 Criticism * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Sources * 15 External links OVERVIEWISO, the International Organization for Standardization, is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organizations of the 163 member countries
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is also assigned a LINKING ISSN (ISSN-L), typically the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium
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Magazine
A MAGAZINE is a publication , usually a periodical publication , which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine ). Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content . They are generally financed by advertising , by a purchase price , by prepaid subscriptions , or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a collection or storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles. This explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines , artillery magazines , firearms magazines , and, in French, retail stores such as department stores . CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Distribution * 2.1 Paid circulation * 2.2 Non-paid circulation * 2.3 Controlled circulation * 3 History * 3.1 Britain * 3.2 France * 3.3 United States * 3.3.1 Late 19th century * 3.3.2 Progressive Era: 1890s-1920s * 3.3.3 21st century * 4 Women\'s magazines * 4.1 Fashion * 5 See also * 5.1 Lists * 5.2 Categories * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 7.1 United States * 8 External links DEFINITION _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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International Standard Music Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD MUSIC NUMBER or ISMN (ISO 10957) is a thirteen-character alphanumeric identifier for printed music developed by ISO . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Check digit * 2.1 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEWThe original proposal for an ISMN was made by the UK Branch of IAML (International Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres) , put forward by Alan Pope (Blackwell's Music Department, Oxford), Malcolm Lewis (music librarian in Nottingham) and Malcolm Jones (music librarian in Birmingham). A draft ISMN structure and application was presented at the 1987 IAML conference in Amsterdam, then after further discussions at the 1989 IAML conference in Oxford it was decided that the UK, French and German branches should, through their respective national standards bodies (BSI, AFNOR and DIN) file ISMN as an ISO work project. After meetings in Ottawa and Paris in 1993 the draft was finalized and published by ISO. The original format comprised four elements: a distinguishing prefix M, a publisher ID, an item ID, and a check digit, typically looking like M-2306-7118-7. From 1 January 2008 the ISMN was defined as a thirteen digit identifier beginning 979-0 where the zero replaced M in the old-style number. The resulting number is identical with its EAN-13 number as encoded in the item's barcode
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Code
In communications and information processing , CODE is a system of rules to convert information —such as a letter , word , sound, image, or gesture —into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret , for communication through a channel or storage in a medium . An early example is the invention of language which enabled a person, through speech , to communicate what he or she saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing , which converted spoken language into visual symbols , extended the range of communication across space and time . The process of ENCODING converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage. DECODING is the reverse process, converting code symbols back into a form that the recipient understands. One reason for coding is to enable communication in places where ordinary plain language , spoken or written, is difficult or impossible. For example, semaphore, where the configuration of flags held by a signaller or the arms of a semaphore tower encodes parts of the message, typically individual letters and numbers. Another person standing a great distance away can interpret the flags and reproduce the words sent
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Book
A BOOK is a set of sheets of paper , parchment , or similar materials that are fastened together to hinge at one side. A single sheet within a book is a leaf , and each side of a leaf is a page . Writing or images can be printed or drawn on a book's pages. An electronic image that is formatted to resemble a book on a computer screen, smartphone or e-reader device is known as an electronic book or e-book . The term "books" may also refer to a body of works of literature , or a main division of literature (e.g., children\'s literature ) . In library and information science , a book is called a monograph , to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines , journals , or newspapers . In novels and sometimes other types of books (for example, biographies), a book may be divided into several large sections, also called books ( Book 1, Book 2, Book 3, and so on). An avid reader or collector of books or a book lover is a bibliophile or colloquially, "bookworm". A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore. Books are also sold in some department stores, drugstores and newspaper vendors. Books can also be borrowed from libraries . Google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, the sale of printed books has decreased because of the use of e-books , though sales of e-books declined in the first half of 2015
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Identifier
An IDENTIFIER is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical object (or class thereof), or physical substance (or class thereof). The abbreviation ID often refers to identity, identification (the process of identifying), or an identifier (that is, an instance of identification). An identifier may be a word, number, letter, symbol, or any combination of those. The words, numbers, letters, or symbols may follow an encoding system (wherein letters, digits, words, or symbols stand for (represent) ideas or longer names) or they may simply be arbitrary. When an identifier follows an encoding system, it is often referred to as a CODE or ID CODE. Identifiers that do not follow any encoding scheme are often said to be ARBITRARY IDS; they are arbitrarily assigned and have no greater meaning. (Sometimes identifiers are called "codes" even when they are actually arbitrary, whether because the speaker believes that they have deeper meaning or simply because he is speaking casually and imprecisely.) The unique identifier (UID) is an identifier that refers to only one instance—only one particular object in the universe
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Gordon Foster
FREDERIC GORDON FOSTER (24 February 1921 – 20 December 2010) was an Irish computational engineer, statistician, professor, and college dean who is widely known for devising, in 1965, a nine-digit code upon which the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is based. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links LIFEFoster was born in Belfast
Belfast
, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
, between 1920 enactment and 1921 implementation of the partition of Ireland
Ireland
. He studied at the Royal Belfast
Belfast
Academical Institution and began advanced study in mathematics at Queen\'s University Belfast
Belfast
. During World War II
World War II
, he was recruited from Queen's by MI6 to work as a code-breaker at Bletchley Park
Bletchley Park
. After the war he resumed studies at Magdalen College, Oxford . A lecture on feedback control by Norbert Wiener , regarded as the originator of cybernetics , proved to be a great influence on Foster's research
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Trinity College, Dublin
Coordinates : 53°20′40″N 6°15′28″W / 53.3444°N 6.2577°W / 53.3444; -6.2577 UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN TRINITY COLLEGE Coláiste na Tríonóide College
College
of the University of Dublin FULL NAMEThe College
College
of the Holy and Undivided Trinity
Trinity
of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin
Dublin
Irish : _Coláiste Thríonóid Naofa Neamhroinnte na Banríona Eilís gar do Bhaile Átha Cliath_ LATIN NAME Collegium Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Elizabethae juxta Dublin
Dublin
FOUNDER Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
and Ireland ESTABLISHED 1592 NAMED FOR The Holy Trinity
Trinity
Trinity
Trinity
College, Cambridge SISTER COLLEGES St. John\'s College, Cambridge Oriel College, Oxford PROVOST Patrick Prendergast UNDERGRADUATES 12,420 (2014) POSTGRADUATES 4,309 (2014) WEBSITE www.tcd.ie Location within central Dublin
Dublin
Trinity
Trinity
College Dublin
Dublin
TRINITY COLLEGE (Irish : _Coláiste na Tríonóide_) is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin , a research university in Ireland
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Whsmith
WHSMITH PLC (also known as WHS or colloquially as SMITH\'S, and formerly W. H. SMITH "> The W. H. Smith logo until the early 1990s, featuring the then-familiar cube of letters, revived in the mid-2010s W. H. Smith signage displaying the modern blue and white design Shop frontage In 1792, Henry Walton Smith and his wife Anna established the business as a news vendor in Little Grosvenor Street, London. After their deaths, the business — valued in 1812 at £1,280 (equivalent to £76,886 in 2015) was taken over by their youngest son William Henry Smith , and in 1846 the firm became W. H. SMITH their son inherited the business from his father and the Viscountcy from his mother. After the death of the second Viscount
Viscount
in 1928, the business was reconstituted as a limited company , in which his son, the third Viscount, owned all the ordinary shares. On the death of the third Viscount
Viscount
in 1948, the death duties were so severe that a public holding company had to be formed and shares sold to W. H. Smith staff and the public. A younger brother of the third Viscount
Viscount
remained chairman until 1972, but the Smith family's control slipped away, and the last family member left the board in 1996. ISBN
ISBN
CATALOGUE INVENTION W. H. Smith's HQ building in Swindon
Swindon
In 1966, W. H
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