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International Meridian Conference
The International Meridian Conference
International Meridian Conference
was a conference held in October 1884 in Washington, D.C., in the United States, to determine a prime meridian for international use.[1] The conference was held at the request of U.S. President Chester A. Arthur. The subject to discuss was the choice of "a meridian to be employed as a common zero of longitude and standard of time reckoning throughout the world".[1] It resulted in selection of the Greenwich Meridian
Greenwich Meridian
as the international standard for zero degrees longitude.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Participants 3 Resolutions 4 Delegates 5 Outcomes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBackground[edit] By the 1870s there was pressure both to establish a prime meridian for worldwide navigation purposes and to unify local times for railway timetables
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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British Empire
The British Empire
Empire
comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England
England
between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power.[1] By 1913, the British Empire
Empire
held sway over 412 million people, 7001230000000000000♠23% of the world population at the time,[2] and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi),[3] 7001240000000000000♠24% of the Earth's total land area.[4] As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread
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Boston
Boston
Boston
(/ˈbɒstən/ ( listen) BOS-tən) is the capital city and most populous municipality[9] of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States
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Venice
Venice
Venice
(/ˈvɛnɪs/, VEN-iss; Italian: Venezia, [veˈnɛttsja] ( listen); Venetian: Venesia, [veˈnɛsja]) is a city in northeastern Italy
Italy
and the capital of the Veneto
Veneto
region. It is situated across a group of 118 small islands[1] that are separated by canals and linked by bridges, of which there are 400.[2][3] The islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice
Venice
are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, and artwork.[2] The lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site.[2] In 2014, 264,579 people resided in Comune
Comune
di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historic city of Venice
Venice
(Centro storico)
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Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
or the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary ( Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867
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Empire Of Brazil
The Empire
Empire
of Brazil
Brazil
was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil
Brazil
and Uruguay. Its government was a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II. A colony of the Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil
Brazil
became the seat of the Portuguese colonial Empire
Empire
in 1808, when the Portuguese Prince regent, later King Dom João VI, fled from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal and established himself and his government in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. João VI later returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent
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Chile
Coordinates: 30°S 71°W / 30°S 71°W / -30; -71Republic of Chile República de Chile  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: Por la razón o la fuerza (Spanish) (English: "By Right or Might") [1]Anthem:  National Anthem of ChileLocation of  Chile  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Santiagoa 33°26′S 70°40′W / 33.433°S 70.667°W / -33.433; -70.667National language SpanishEthnic groups (2012[2])64% White 30% Mestizo 5% Mapuche 0.7% Aymara 0.1% Other 0.2% UnspecifiedDemonym ChileanGovernment Unitary presidential constitutional republic• PresidentSebastián Piñera• Senate PresidentCarlos Montes Cisternas• President of the Chamber of DeputiesMaya FernándezLegislature National Congress• Upper houseSenate
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Colombia
Coordinates: 4°N 72°W / 4°N 72°W / 4; -72 Republic
Republic
of Colombia República de Colombia  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish) "Freedom and Order"Anthem: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible!  (Spanish) O unfading glory!Location of  Colombia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Bogotá 4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583°N 74.067°W / 4.583; -74.067Official languages SpanishaRecognized regional languages 68 ethnic languages and dialects
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Costa Rica
Coordinates: 10°N 84°W / 10°N 84°W / 10; -84Republic of Costa Rica República de Costa Rica  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Noble patria, tu hermosa bandera" (Spanish) "Noble motherland, your beautiful flag"Capital and largest city San José 9°56′N 84°5′W / 9.933°N 84.083°W / 9.933; -84.083Official languages SpanishRecognized regional languagesMekatelyu Bribri PatoisEthnic groups (2011[2])83.6% White/Castizo or Mestizo 6.7% Mulatto 2.4% Amerindian 1.1% Black (of African descent) 6.2% Others[1]Religion Roman CatholicismDemonymCosta Rican Tico(a)Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic• PresidentLuis Guillermo Solís• 1st Vice-PresidentHelio Fallas Venegas• 2nd Vice-PresidentAna Helena Chacón EcheverríaLegislature Legislative Assembly<
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Denmark
Denmark
Denmark
(/ˈdɛnmɑːrk/ ( listen); Danish: Danmark, pronounced [ˈdanmɑɡ] ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,[N 9] is a Nordic country and a sovereign state. The southernmost of the Scandinavian nations, it is south-west of Sweden
Sweden
and south of Norway,[N 10] and bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark
Denmark
proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands,[N 2][10] with the largest being Zealand, Funen
Funen
and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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German Empire
The German Empire
German Empire
(German: Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),[5][6][7][8] also known as Imperial Germany,[9] was the German nation state[10] that existed from the Unification of Germany
Unification of Germany
in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states joined the North German Confederation. On January 1st, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia
King of Prussia
from the Hohenzollern dynasty.[11] Berlin
Berlin
remained its capital. Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
remained Chancellor, the head of government
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British Raj
Indian languagesGovernment ColonyMonarch of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Emperor/Empressa •  1858–1901 Victoria •  1901–1910 Edward VII •  1910–1936 George V •  1936 Edward VIII •  1936–1947 George VI Viceroy
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Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University
is a private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for clergyman John Harvard (its first benefactor), its history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities.[8] Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning,[9] and the Harvard Corporation
Harvard Corporation
(formally, the President and Fellows of Harvard College) is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites.[10][11] Following the American Civil War, President Charles W
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Canada
Coordinates: 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95CanadaFlagMotto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin) (English: "From Sea to Sea")Anthem: "O Canada"Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"[1]Capital Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667Largest city TorontoOfficial languagesEnglish FrenchEthnic groupsList of ethnicities74.3% European 14.5% Asian 5.1% Indigenous 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American 2.9% African 0.2% Oceanian[2]ReligionList of religions67.2% Christianity 23.9% Non-religious 3.2% Islam 1.5% Hinduism 1.4% Sikhism 1.1% Buddhism 1.0% Judaism 0.6% Other -[3]Demonym CanadianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[4]• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor GeneralJulie Payette• Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau• Chie
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