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International Foot
The foot (pl. feet; abbreviation: ft; symbol: ′, the prime symbol) is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement. Since 1959, both units have been defined by international agreement as equivalent to 0.3048 meters exactly. In both systems, the foot comprises 12 inches and three feet compose a yard. Historically the "foot" was a part of many local systems of units, including the Greek, Roman, Chinese, French, and English systems. It varied in length from country to country, from city to city, and sometimes from trade to trade
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Fotmal
The fotmal (Old English: fotmael, lit. "foot-measure"; Latin: fotmal), also known as the foot (pes), formel, fontinel, and fotmell, was an English unit of variable weight particularly used in measuring production, sales, and duties of lead.[1] Under the c. 1300 Assize of Weights and Measures, it was equal to 70 Merchants' pounds and made up ​1⁄30 of a load of lead.[2] Elsewhere, it was made of 70 avoirdupois pounds and made up ​1⁄24 load.[1] According to Kiernan, in 16th-century Derbyshire, the fotmal was divided into "boles" and made up ​1⁄30 of a fother, meaning it was considered to be 84 avoirdupois pounds.[1] It continued to be used until the 16th century.[1] References[edit] Citations[edit]^ a b c d Gill (1998), p. 132. ^ Ruffhead, Owen, ed. (1763a), The Statutes at Large, Vol. I: From Magna Charta to the End of the Reign of King Henry the Sixth
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Rood (unit)
A rood (/ˈruːd/) is a historic English and international inch-pound measure of area, as well as an archaic English measure of length.Contents1 Etymology 2 Measurement of area 3 Linear measure 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] Rood is an archaic word for "pole", from Old English rōd "pole", specifically "cross", from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
*rodo, cognate to Old Saxon rōda, Old High German
Old High German
ruoda "rod";[1] the relation of rood to rod, from Old English rodd "pole", is unclear; the latter was perhaps influenced by Old Norse
Old Norse
rudda "club". Measurement of area[edit]Comparison of 1 rood (unit) with some Imperial and metric units of areaRood is an English unit
English unit
of area, equal to one quarter of an acre[2] or 10,890 square feet (1,012 m2). A rectangle that is one furlong (i.e
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Ancient Mesopotamian Units Of Measurement
Ancient Mesopotamian units of measurement
Ancient Mesopotamian units of measurement
originated in the loosely organized city-states of Early Dynastic Sumer. Each city, kingdom and trade guild had its own standards until the formation of the Akkadian Empire when Sargon of Akkad
Sargon of Akkad
issued a common standard. This standard was improved by Naram-Sin, but fell into disuse after the Akkadian Empire dissolved. The standard of Naram-Sin was readopted in the Ur III period by the Nanše Hymn
Nanše Hymn
which reduced a plethora of multiple standards to a few agreed upon common groupings. Successors to Sumerian civilization including the Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians continued to use these groupings
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Cubit
The cubit is an ancient unit of length that had several definitions according to each of the various different cultures that used the unit. These definitions ranged between 444 mm and 529.2 mm. The unit was based on the forearm length from the tip of the middle finger to the bottom of the elbow. Cubits of various lengths were employed in many parts of the world in antiquity, during the Middle Ages and as recently as Early Modern Times
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Greece
was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era.[1] Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse
Late Bronze Age collapse
of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC
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Stadion (unit Of Length)
The stadion (Greek: στάδιον;[1] Latin: stadium), formerly also anglicized as stade, was an ancient Greek unit of length, based on the length of a typical sports stadium of the time. According to Herodotus, one stadion was equal to 600 Greek feet (pous). However, the length of the foot varied in different parts of the Greek world, and the length of the stadion has been the subject of argument and hypothesis for hundreds of years.[2][3] Various hypothetical equivalent lengths have been proposed, and some have been named.[4] Among them are:Stade name Length (approximate) Description Proposed byItinerary 157 m used in measuring the distance of a journey.[5] Jean Antoine Letronne, 1816[2]Olympic 176 m 600 × 294 mm Carl Ferdinand Friedrich Lehmann-Haupt, 1929[4][6]Ptolemaic[7] or Attic 185 m 600 × 308 mm Otto Cuntz, 1923;[4][7] D.R
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Nero Claudius Drusus
Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Drusus Germanicus
Germanicus
(January 14, 38 BC[2] – summer of 9 BC[3]), born Decimus Claudius
Claudius
Drusus,[1] also called Drusus Claudius Nero,[4] Drusus, Drusus I, Nero
Nero
Drusus, or Drusus the Elder was a Roman politician and military commander. He was a patrician Claudian on his legal father's side but his maternal grandmother was from a plebeian family. He was the son of Livia
Livia
Drusilla and the legal stepson of her second husband, the Emperor Augustus
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Ounce
The ounce (abbreviated oz; apothecary symbol: ℥) is a unit of mass used in most British derived customary systems of measurement. The common avoirdupois ounce (approximately 28.3 g) is ​1⁄16 of a common avoirdupois pound; this is the United States customary and British imperial ounce
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Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(/ˈʃɑːrləmeɪn/) or Charles
Charles
the Great[a] (2 April 742[1][b] – 28 January 814), numbered Charles
Charles
I, was King of the Franks
Franks
from 768, King of the Lombards
Lombards
from 774 and Holy Roman Emperor from 800. He united much of western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. He was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
three centuries earlier.[2] The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire
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Charlieu Abbey
Charlieu
Charlieu
Abbey
Abbey
or St. Fortunatus' Abbey, Charlieu
Charlieu
(French: Abbaye de Charlieu) was a Benedictine abbey located at Charlieu, Loire, Burgundy, France
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Jacob Koebel
Jacob Köbel (1462-1533) was a printer and publisher in Oppenheim. Köbel graduated in arts and law from Heidelberg University
Heidelberg University
in 1491. He appears to have then studied mathematics at Cracow, and is said to have been a fellow student of Copernicus
Copernicus
there.[1] He learnt the publishing trade as editor and proofreader for Heinrich Knoblochtzer in Heidelberg. In 1494 he married a woman from Oppenheim
Oppenheim
and settled there as secretary to the city council. Works[edit]Geometrey, 1498 Elucidatio Fabricae Ususque Astrolabii, 1513References[edit]^ R. M
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Standard (metrology)
In metrology (the science of measurement), a standard (or etalon) is an object, system, or experiment that bears a defined relationship to a unit of measurement of a physical quantity.[1] Standards are the fundamental reference for a system of weights and measures, against which all other measuring devices are compared. Historical standards for length, volume, and mass were defined by many different authorities, which resulted in confusion and inaccuracy of measurements
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Ancient Egyptian Units Of Measurement
The ancient Egyptian units of measurement are those used by the dynasties of ancient Egypt prior to its incorporation in the Roman Empire and general adoption of Roman, Greek, and Byzantine units of measurement
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Royal Observatory, Greenwich
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich
Greenwich
(ROG;[1] known as the Old Royal Observatory
Observatory
from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich
Greenwich
to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich
Greenwich
Park, overlooking the River Thames. It played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation, and is best known as the location of the prime meridian, and thereby gave its name to Greenwich
Greenwich
Mean Time. The ROG has the IAU observatory code of 000, the first in the list.[2] ROG, the National Maritime Museum, the Queen's House
Queen's House
and Cutty Sark
Cutty Sark
are collectively designated Royal Museums Greenwich.[1] The observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the foundation stone being laid on 10 August
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