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International Foot
The FOOT (pl. FEET; abbreviation: FT; symbol: ′, the prime symbol ) is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement . Since 1959, both units have been defined by international agreement as equivalent to 0.3048 meters exactly. In both systems, the foot comprises 12 inches and three feet compose a yard . Historically the "foot" was a part of many local systems of units, including the Greek , Roman , Chinese , French , and English systems. It varied in length from country to country, from city to city, and sometimes from trade to trade. Its length was usually between 250 mm and 335 mm and was generally, but not always, subdivided into 12 inches or 16 digits . The United States is the only industrialized nation that uses the international foot and the survey foot (a customary unit of length ) in preference to the meter in its commercial, engineering, and standards activities
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Charlemagne
CHARLEMAGNE (/ˈʃɑːrlᵻmeɪn/ ) or CHARLES THE GREAT (2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered CHARLES I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774 and Emperor of the Romans from 800. He united much of Europe during the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. He was the first recognised emperor in western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne
Charlemagne
founded is called the Carolingian Empire . Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was the oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon . He became king in 768 following his father's death, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I . Carloman's sudden death in 771 in unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom
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Ounce
The OUNCE (abbreviated OZ; apothecary symbol : ℥) is a unit of mass used in most British derived customary systems of measurement . It is most pervasive in the retail sale of groceries in the United States, but is also used in many other matters of domestic and international trade between imperial or customary measurement driven countries. Similar customary uses include recipes in cookbooks and sales of bulk dry goods. Whilst various definitions have been used throughout history, two remain in common use: the avoirdupois ounce equal to approximately 28.3 grams and the troy ounce of about 31.1 grams. The avoirdupois ounce is widely used as part of the United States customary and British imperial systems, but the troy ounce is now only commonly used for the mass of precious metals such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium, rhodium, etc.
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Charlieu Abbey
CHARLIEU ABBEY or ST. FORTUNATUS\' ABBEY, CHARLIEU (French : Abbaye de Charlieu) was a Benedictine abbey located at Charlieu , Loire , Burgundy , France
France
. It was later a Cluniac priory. HISTORYThe monastery, dedicated to Saint Fortunatus , was founded in 872, in this region of southern Burgundy known as the Forez
Forez
. Its patrons were Ratbertus, bishop of Valence , and his brother Edward, in a place they called Carus Locus ("dear place"), and dedicated to Saint Stephen and Saint Fortunatus, patron of Valence, with his co-martyrs Felix and Achilles. The abbey was placed under the direct control of the Holy See
Holy See

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Rood (unit)
A ROOD /ˈruːd/ is an historic English and international inch-pound measure of area , as well as an archaic English measure of length . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Measurement of area * 3 Linear measure * 4 See also * 5 References ETYMOLOGYRood is an archaic word for "pole", from Old English rōd "pole", specifically "cross ", from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
*rodo, cognate to Old Saxon rōda, Old High German
Old High German
ruoda "rod"; the relation of rood to rod , from Old English rodd "pole", is unclear; the latter was perhaps influenced by Old Norse
Old Norse
rudda "club". MEASUREMENT OF AREAROOD is an English unit of area, equal to one quarter of an acre or 10,890 square feet (1,012 m2). A rectangle that is one furlong (i.e. 10 chains , or 40 rods) in length and one rod in width is one rood in area, as is any space comprising 40 perches (a perch being one square rod)
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Standard (metrology)
In metrology (the science of measurement), a STANDARD (or ETALON) is an object , system, or experiment that bears a defined relationship to a unit of measurement of a physical quantity. Standards are the fundamental reference for a system of weights and measures, against which all other measuring devices are compared. Historical standards for length, volume, and mass were defined by many different authorities, which resulted in confusion and inaccuracy of measurements. Modern measurements are defined in relationship to internationally standardized reference objects, which are used under carefully controlled laboratory conditions to define the units of length, mass, electrical potential, and other physical quantities
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Nero Claudius Drusus
NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS GERMANICUS (January 14, 38 BC – summer of 9 BC ), born DECIMUS CLAUDIUS DRUSUS, also called DRUSUS CLAUDIUS NERO, DRUSUS, DRUSUS I, NERO DRUSUS, or DRUSUS THE ELDER was a Roman politician and military commander. He was a patrician Claudian on his legal father's side but his maternal grandmother was from a plebeian family. He was the son of Livia Drusilla and the legal stepson of her second husband, the Emperor Augustus
Augustus
. He was also brother of the Emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
, father to both the Emperor Claudius
Claudius
and general Germanicus
Germanicus
, paternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula
Caligula
, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero
Nero

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Stadion (unit Of Length)
The STADION (Greek : στάδιον; Latin : stadium), formerly also anglicized as STADE, was an ancient Greek unit of length , based on the length of a typical sports stadium of the time. According to Herodotus
Herodotus
, one stadion was equal to 600 Greek feet (pous). However, the length of the foot varied in different parts of the Greek world, and the length of the stadion has been the subject of argument and hypothesis for hundreds of years. Various hypothetical equivalent lengths have been proposed, and some have been named. Among them are: STADE NAME LENGTH (APPROXIMATE) DESCRIPTION PROPOSED BY Itinerary 157 m used in measuring the distance of a journey. Jean Antoine Letronne , 1816 Olympic 176 m 600 × 294 mm Carl Ferdinand Friedrich Lehmann-Haupt , 1929 Ptolemaic or Attic 185 m 600 × 308 mm Otto Cuntz , 1923; D.R
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Ancient Mesopotamian Units Of Measurement
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIAN UNITS OF MEASUREMENT originated in the loosely organized city-states of Early Dynastic Sumer
Sumer
. Each city , kingdom and trade guild had its own standards until the formation of the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
when Sargon of Akkad
Sargon of Akkad
issued a common standard. This standard was improved by Naram-Sin , but fell into disuse after the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
dissolved. The standard of Naram-Sin was readopted in the Ur III period by the Nanše Hymn which reduced a plethora of multiple standards to a few agreed upon common groupings. Successors to Sumerian civilization including the Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians continued to use these groupings
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Cubit
The CUBIT is an ancient unit based on the forearm length from the tip of the middle finger to the bottom of the elbow . Cubits of various lengths were employed in many parts of the world in antiquity , during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and as recently as Early Modern Times . The term is still used in hedge laying , the length of the forearm being frequently used to determine the interval between stakes placed within the hedge. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Ancient Egyptian royal cubit * 3 Sumerian or Nippur cubit * 4 Biblical cubit * 5 Ancient Greece * 6 Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
* 7 Other systems * 8 Cubit
Cubit
arm in heraldry * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 External links ETYMOLOGYThe English word "cubit" comes from the Latin noun cubitus "elbow", from the verb cubo, cubare, cubui, cubitum "to lie down", from which also comes the adjective "recumbent"
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Ancient Rome
ANCIENT ROME was originally an Italic settlement dating from the 8th century BC that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world , though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire . Through conquest and assimilation , it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe , Asia Minor
Asia Minor
, North Africa , and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe
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Ancient Greece
ANCIENT GREECE was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece , Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin . This was followed by the period of Classical Greece , an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars , lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia , Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization
flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea
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Royal Observatory, Greenwich
The ROYAL OBSERVATORY, GREENWICH (ROG; known as the OLD ROYAL OBSERVATORY from 1957 to 1998, when the working ROYAL GREENWICH OBSERVATORY, RGO, moved from Greenwich
Greenwich
to Herstmonceux ) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich
Greenwich
Park , overlooking the River Thames
River Thames
. It played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation , and is best known as the location of the prime meridian , and thereby gave its name to Greenwich
Greenwich
Mean Time . The ROG has the IAU observatory code of 000, the first in the list. ROG, the National Maritime Museum , the Queen\'s House and Cutty Sark
Cutty Sark
are collectively designated Royal Museums Greenwich
Greenwich
. The observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II , with the foundation stone being laid on 10 August
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Greenwich, England
GREENWICH (/ˈɡrɛnɪtʃ/ ( listen ), /ˈɡrɪnɪdʒ/ , /ˈɡrɪnɪtʃ/ or /ˈɡrɛnɪdʒ/ ) is an area of south east London
London
, England, located 5.5 miles (8.9 km) east-southeast of Charing Cross . It is located within the Royal Borough of Greenwich
Royal Borough of Greenwich
, to which it lends its name. Greenwich
Greenwich
is notable for its maritime history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Meridian
Greenwich Meridian
(0° longitude) and Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
. The town became the site of a royal palace, the Palace of Placentia from the 15th century, and was the birthplace of many Tudors , including Henry VIII and Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I

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Roman Units
The ANCIENT ROMAN UNITS OF MEASUREMENT were largely built on the Hellenic system , which in turn was built upon Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences. The Roman units were comparatively consistent and well documented
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Anglo-Saxons
The ANGLO-SAXONS were a people who inhabited Great Britain
Great Britain
from the 5th century . They comprise people from Germanic tribes who migrated to the island from continental Europe
Europe
, their descendants, and indigenous British groups who adopted some aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and