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International Civil Aviation Organization Airport Code
The ICAO (/ˌaɪˌkeɪˈoʊ/ , _eye-KAY-oh_ ) AIRPORT CODE or LOCATION INDICATOR is a four-letter code designating aerodromes around the world. These codes are defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization , and published in ICAO Document 7910: _Location Indicators_ are used by air traffic control and airline operations such as flight planning . ICAO codes are also used to identify other aviation facilities such as weather stations , International Flight Service Stations or Area Control Centers , whether or not they are located at airports. Flight information regions are also identified by a unique ICAO-code. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 ICAO codes vs
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International Air Transport Association Airport Code
An IATA AIRPORT CODE, also known as an IATA LOCATION IDENTIFIER, IATA STATION CODE or simply a LOCATION IDENTIFIER, is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). The characters prominently displayed on baggage tags attached at airport check-in desks are an example of a way these codes are used. The assignment of these codes is governed by IATA Resolution 763, and it is administered by IATA headquarters in Montreal . The codes are published biannually in the IATA Airline Coding Directory. IATA also provides codes for railway stations and for airport handling entities. A list of airports sorted by IATA code is available. A list of railway station codes , shared in agreements between airlines and rail lines such as Amtrak , SNCF French Rail , and Deutsche Bahn , is available
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Alphanumeric
ALPHANUMERIC is a combination of alphabetic and numeric characters, and is used to describe the collection of Latin letters and Arabic digits or a text constructed from this collection. Merriam-Webster observes that the term "alphanumeric" may often additionally refer to other symbols, such as punctuation and mathematical symbols. In the POSIX/C locale, there are either 36 (A-Z+0-9, case insensitive) or 62 (A-Z+a-z+0-9, case-sensitive ) alphanumeric characters. SUBSETS OF ALPHANUMERIC USED IN HUMAN INTERFACES _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (April 2014)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_When a string of mixed alphabets and numerals is presented for human interpretation, ambiguities arise. The most obvious is the similarity of the letters I, O and Q to the numbers 1 and 0
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Code
In communications and information processing , CODE is a system of rules to convert information —such as a letter , word , sound, image, or gesture —into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret , for communication through a channel or storage in a medium . An early example is the invention of language which enabled a person, through speech , to communicate what he or she saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing , which converted spoken language into visual symbols , extended the range of communication across space and time . The process of ENCODING converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage. DECODING is the reverse process, converting code symbols back into a form that the recipient understands
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Aerodromes
An AERODROME (Commonwealth English ) or AIRDROME ( American English
American English
) is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo , passengers, or neither. Aerodromes include small general aviation airfields, large commercial airports , and military airbases . The term airport may imply a certain stature (having satisfied certain certification criteria or regulatory requirements) that an aerodrome may not have achieved. This means that all airports are aerodromes, but not all aerodromes are airports. Usage of the term "aerodrome" remains more common in the UK, Ireland and Commonwealth nations, and is conversely almost unknown in American English. A water aerodrome is an area of open water used regularly by seaplanes or amphibious aircraft for landing and taking off
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International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale (in French) ICAO flag ABBREVIATION ICAO OACI ИКАО 国际民航组织 إيكاو FORMATION 4 April 1947 TYPE UN specialized agency LEGAL STATUS Active HEADQUARTERS Montreal
Montreal
, Quebec
Quebec
, Canada
Canada
HEAD Fang Liu Secretary General WEBSITE www.icao.intThe INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) (pronounced /aɪˈkeɪ.oʊ/ ; French : _Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale_, OACI), is a specialized agency of the United Nations . It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth
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Air Traffic Control
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace , and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions, organize and expedite the flow of air traffic, and provide information and other support for pilots . In some countries, ATC plays a security or defensive role, or is operated by the military. To prevent collisions, ATC enforces traffic separation rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. Many aircraft also have collision avoidance systems , which provide additional safety by warning pilots when other aircraft get too close. In many countries, ATC provides services to all private, military, and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace
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Flight Planning
FLIGHT PLANNING is the process of producing a flight plan to describe a proposed aircraft flight. It involves two safety-critical aspects: fuel calculation, to ensure that the aircraft can safely reach the destination, and compliance with air traffic control requirements, to minimise the risk of midair collision. In addition, flight planners normally wish to minimise flight cost through the appropriate choice of route, height, and speed, and by loading the minimum necessary fuel on board. ATS use the completed flight plan for separation of ACFT in ATM services, including tracking and finding lost ACFT, during search and rescue (SAR) missions. Flight planning
Flight planning
requires accurate weather forecasts so that fuel consumption calculations can account for the fuel consumption effects of head or tail winds and air temperature
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Weather Station
A WEATHER STATION is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate . The measurements taken include temperature , atmospheric pressure , humidity , wind speed , wind direction , and precipitation amounts. Wind
Wind
measurements are taken with as few other obstructions as possible, while temperature and humidity measurements are kept free from direct solar radiation, or insolation . Manual observations are taken at least once daily, while automated measurements are taken at least once an hour. Weather
Weather
conditions out at sea are taken by ships and buoys, which measure slightly different meteorological quantities such as sea surface temperature (SST), wave height, and wave period. Drifting weather buoys outnumber their moored versions by a significant amount
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Flight Service Station
A FLIGHT SERVICE STATION (FSS) is an air traffic facility that provides information and services to aircraft pilots before, during, and after flights, but unlike air traffic control (ATC), is not responsible for giving instructions or clearances or providing separation. They do, however, relay clearances from ATC for departure or approaches. The people who communicate with pilots from an FSS are referred to as flight service specialists
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Area Control Center
In air traffic control , an AREA CONTROL CENTER (ACC), also known as a CENTER (or in some cases, EN-ROUTE, as opposed to TRACON control), is a facility responsible for controlling aircraft en route in a particular volume of airspace (a Flight Information Region ) at high altitudes between airport approaches and departures. In the United States, such a Center is referred to as an AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER (ARTCC). A Center typically accepts traffic from, and ultimately passes traffic to, the control of a Terminal Control Center or of another Center. Most Centers are operated by the national governments of the countries in which they are located. The general operations of Centers worldwide, and the boundaries of the airspace each Center controls, are governed by the ICAO . In some cases, the function of an Area Control Center
Area Control Center
and a Terminal Control Center are combined in a single facility
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Flight Information Region
In aviation , a FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) is a specified region of airspace in which a flight information service and an alerting service (ALRS) are provided. It is the largest regular division of airspace in use in the world today. FIRs have existed since 1947 at least. Every portion of the atmosphere belongs to a specific FIR. Smaller countries' airspace is encompassed by a single FIR; larger countries' airspace is subdivided into a number of regional FIRs. Some FIRs encompass the territorial airspace of several countries. Oceanic airspace is divided into Oceanic Information Regions and delegated to a controlling authority bordering that region. The division among authorities is done by international agreement through the International Civil Aviation
Aviation
Organization (ICAO). There is no standard size for FIRs – it is a matter for administrative convenience of the country concerned
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United Nations
The UNITED NATIONS (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international co-operation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations , the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War IIin order to prevent another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states ; there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and experiences extraterritoriality . Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict
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Flight Information Region
In aviation , a FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) is a specified region of airspace in which a flight information service and an alerting service (ALRS) are provided. It is the largest regular division of airspace in use in the world today. FIRs have existed since 1947 at least. Every portion of the atmosphere belongs to a specific FIR. Smaller countries' airspace is encompassed by a single FIR; larger countries' airspace is subdivided into a number of regional FIRs. Some FIRs encompass the territorial airspace of several countries. Oceanic airspace is divided into Oceanic Information Regions and delegated to a controlling authority bordering that region. The division among authorities is done by international agreement through the International Civil Aviation