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International Civil Aviation Organization Airport Code
The ICAO (/ˌaɪˌkeɪˈoʊ/, eye-KAY-oh) airport code or location indicator is a four-letter code designating aerodromes around the world. These codes are defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization, and published in ICAO Document 7910: Location Indicators are used by air traffic control and airline operations such as flight planning. ICAO codes are also used to identify other aviation facilities such as weather stations, International Flight Service Stations or Area Control Centers, whether or not they are located at airports. Flight information regions are also identified by a unique ICAO-code.Contents1 History 2 ICAO codes vs
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Flight Plan
Flight plans are documents filed by a pilot or flight dispatcher with the local Civil Aviation Authority (e.g. the FAA in the United States) prior to departure which indicate the plane's planned route or flight path. Flight plan
Flight plan
format is specified in ICAO
ICAO
Doc 4444. They generally include basic information such as departure and arrival points, estimated time en route, alternate airports in case of bad weather, type of flight (whether instrument flight rules [IFR] or visual flight rules [VFR]), the pilot's information, number of people on board and information about the aircraft itself. In most countries, flight plans are required for flights under IFR, but may be optional for flying VFR unless crossing international borders. Flight plans are highly recommended, especially when flying over inhospitable areas, such as water, as they provide a way of alerting rescuers if the flight is overdue
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Iceland
Iceland
Iceland
(/ˈaɪslənd/ ( listen); Icelandic: Ísland, pronounced [ˈistlant])[7] is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 348,580 and an area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.[8] The capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík
Reykjavík
and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland
Iceland
is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains, and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland
Iceland
is warmed by the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic
Arctic
Circle
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Code
In communications and informationtter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes [[data compress or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium. An early example is the invention of language which enabled a perso, through speech, to communicate what he or she saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing, which converted spoken language into visual symbols, extended the range of communication across space and time. The process of encoding converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage
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Lock Haven, Pennsylvania
The city of Lock Haven is the county seat of Clinton County, in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Pennsylvania. Located near the confluence of the West Branch Susquehanna River and Bald Eagle Creek, it is the principal city of the Lock Haven Micropolitan Statistical Area, itself part of the Williamsport–Lock Haven combined statistical area. At the 2010 census, Lock Haven's population was 9,772. Built on a site long favored by pre-Columbian peoples, Lock Haven began in 1833 as a timber town and a haven for loggers, boatmen, and other travelers on the river or the West Branch Canal. Resource extraction and efficient transportation financed much of the city's growth through the end of the 19th century. In the 20th century, a light-aircraft factory, a college, and a paper mill, along with many smaller enterprises, drove the economy
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Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
(/ˈfɔːlklənd/; Spanish: Islas Malvinas, pronounced [ˈislas malˈβinas]) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 300 miles (483 kilometres) east of South America's southern Patagonian coast, at a latitude of about 52°S. The archipelago, with an area of 4,700 square miles (12,000 square kilometres), comprises East Falkland, West Falkland
West Falkland
and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory, the Falklands have internal self-governance, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
takes responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs. The Falkland Islands' capital is Stanley on East Falkland. Controversy exists over the Falklands' discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans
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South America
South America
South America
is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,[3][4] which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[5] It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Saint Pierre And Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
(French: Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, French pronunciation: ​[sɛ̃.pjɛʁ.e.mi.klɔ̃]), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.[3] It is the only part of New France
France
that remains under French control,[3] with an area of 242 km2 and a population of 6,080 at the January 2011 census.[1]Saint-Pierre aerial photo, 2013. Saint-Pierre Airport
Saint-Pierre Airport
is at the lower right
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Kosovo
Coordinates: 42°35′N 21°00′E / 42.583°N 21.000°E / 42.583; 21.000Republic of KosovoRepublika e Kosovës (Albanian) Република Косово Republika Kosovo (Serbian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Europe"[1]Location and extent of Kosovo
Kosovo
in Europe.StatusDisputedRecognized by 112 member states of the United Nations, and by the Republic of China
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Greenland
Greenland
Greenland
(Greenlandic: Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Nunaat, pronounced [kalaːɬit nunaːt]; Danish: Grønland, pronounced [ˈɡʁɶnˌlanˀ]) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
between the Arctic
Arctic
and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
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Commonwealth Of Independent States
The Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS; Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, tr. Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG), also called the Russian Commonwealth (to distinguish it from the English-speaking Commonwealth of Nations[4]), is a political and economic confederation of 9 member states and 2 associate members, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia
Eurasia
(primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union
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London
London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Morse Code
Morse code
Morse code
is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment. It is named for Samuel F. B. Morse, an inventor of the telegraph. The International Morse Code[1] encodes the ISO basic Latin alphabet, some extra Latin letters, the Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
and a small set of punctuation and procedural signals (prosigns) as standardized sequences of short and long signals called "dots" and "dashes",[1] or "dits" and "dahs", as in amateur radio practice. Because many non-English natural languages use more than the 26 Roman letters, extensions to the Morse alphabet exist for those languages. Each Morse code
Morse code
symbol represents either a text character (letter or numeral) or a prosign and is represented by a unique sequence of dots and dashes
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ITA2
The Baudot code, invented by Émile Baudot,[1] is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII. It was the predecessor to the International Telegraph Alphabet No. 2 (ITA2), the teleprinter code in use until the advent of ASCII. Each character in the alphabet is represented by a series of five bits, sent over a communication channel such as a telegraph wire or a radio signal. The symbol rate measurement is known as baud, and is derived from the same name.Contents1 History1.1 Baudot code 1.2 Murray code 1.3 Western Union 1.4 ITA22 Nomenclature 3 Details 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingHistory[edit] Baudot code[edit]An early version from Baudot's 1888 US patent, listing A through Z, t and ∗ (Erasure)Baudot code (Continental and UK versions)Baudot code (Continental and UK versions) Columns I, II, III, IV, and V show the code; the Let. and Fig
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Ь
The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак Russian pronunciation: [ˈmʲæxʲkʲɪj znak]) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script. In Old Church Slavonic, it represented a short (or "reduced") front vowel
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Q Code
The Q code
Q code
is a standardized collection of three-letter codes all of which start with the letter "Q". It is an operating signal initially developed for commercial radiotelegraph communication and later adopted by other radio services, especially amateur radio. To distinguish the use of "Q" codes transmitted as questions from those transmitted as statements, operators used the Morse question "INT" (dit dit dah dit dah) as a prefix to the "Q" code. Although Q codes were created when radio used Morse code
Morse code
exclusively, they continued to be employed after the introduction of voice transmissions
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